A whaler or whaling ship is a specialized ship, designed, or adapted, for whaling: the catching or processing of whales. The former includes the whale catcher – a steam or diesel-driven vessel with a harpoon gun mounted at its bow; the latter includes such vessels as the sail or steam-driven whaleship of the 16th to early 20th centuries and the floating factory or factory ship of the modern era. There have been vessels which combined the two activities, such as the bottlenose whalers of the late 19th and early 20th century, catcher/factory ships of the modern era. Whaleships had two or more whaleboats, open rowing boats used in the capture of whales. Whaleboats brought the captured whales to the whaleships to cut up. Here the blubber was rendered into oil using two or three try-pots set in a brick furnace called the tryworks. At first, whale catchers either brought the whales they killed to a whaling station, or factory ship anchored in a sheltered bay or inlet. With the development of the slipway at the ship's stern, whale catchers were able to transfer their catch to factory ships operating in the open sea.
The World War II Flower-class corvettes were based on the design of the whale catcher Southern Pride. The crews of whaling vessels fought small skirmishes for the control of the Spitsbergen whale fishery between 1613 and 1638. In the late 18th and early 19th century, the owners of whalers armed their vessels with cannons to enable the vessels to protect themselves against pirates, in wartime, privateers. Weapons were carried on vessels visiting Pacific islands for food and wood in order to defend themselves from the sometimes hostile natives. At the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars in 1793, British privateers captured several French whalers, among them Necker and Deux Amis, Anne. Dutch privateers captured Penn.. At the time, many French whalers transferred to the American flag, the United States being neutral in the Anglo-French war; some whaleships carried letters of marque that authorized them to take enemy vessels should the opportunity arise. In July 1793 the British armed whaleship Liverpool, of 20 guns, captured the French whaleship Chardon.
However, Chardon's crew succeeded in retaking their vessel. In 1793, an armed British whaleship captured the French whaleship Hébé in Walvis Bay. During the War of 1812, the U. S. Navy captured two British whaleships and Seringapatam, used them as warships. During World War II, the Norwegian and British Royal Navies requisitioned a number of whalers for use in a variety of functions such as minesweeping and rescue, anti-submarine warfare. Ten Allied vessels categorized as whalers were lost in the war. Since the 1982 moratorium on commercial whaling, few countries still operate whalers, with Norway and Japan among those still operating them. Of those, the Nisshin Maru of Japan's Institute of Cetacean Research is the only whaling factory ship in operation; as compared to whaling before and during the 19th century, executed with handheld harpoons thrown from oar-powered whaleboats, whaling since the 1900s is quite different. Whale oil, which fossil-fuel based alternatives has supplanted, is no longer the primary commercial product of whaling.
Whaling is now done for whale meat for the small culinary market. Harpoon cannons, fired from harpoon ships with displacement in the hundreds of tons, are now universally used for commercial whaling operations; these motorized ships are able to keep up with the sleeker and fast-swimming rorquals such as the fin whale, that would have been impossible for the muscle-powered rowboats to chase, allow whaling to be done more safely for the crews. The use of grenade-tipped harpoons has improved the effectiveness of whaling, allowing whales to be killed instantaneously as compared to the previous method in which whales bled to death, which took a long time and left the whale to thrash around in its death throes; these harpoons inject air into the carcass to keep the heavier rorqual whales hunted today from sinking. However, the harpoon-cannon is still criticized for its cruelty as not all whales are killed instantly. Japan is the only country that engages in whaling in the Antarctic, now under the protection of the International Whaling Commission as the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary.
The area saw large scale commercial whaling operations by numerous countries before the moratorium. The three Japanese harpoon ships of the ICR serve a factory ship that processes the catch on board and preserves it on site in refrigerators, allowing the long endurance whaling missions; these whaling operations, which are claimed by Japan to be for research purposes, sell the meat from these operations on the market, allowed under the current moratorium to defer research costs. They are controversial, are challenged by anti-whaling parties as being a disguise for commercial whaling; the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society has clashed with the Japanese whalers in the Antarctic in confrontations that have led to international media attention and diplomatic incidents. History of whaling Moby-Dick Whaleboat WhalingSpecific ships Jason Southern Actor Hvalur 9 RE399
Lars Christensen was a Norwegian shipowner and whaling magnate. He was a philanthropist with a keen interest in the exploration of Antarctica. Lars Christensen was born at Sandar in Norway. Born into a wealthy family, Christensen inherited his whaling fleet from his father, Christen Christensen. After completing middle school in 1899, he received training in Germany and at Newcastle followed by trade college in Kristiania, he started his career as a ship owner in 1906. He ventured into the whaling industry in 1909, directed several companies, including Framnæs Mekaniske Værksted, AS Thor Dahl, AS Odd, AS Ørnen, AS Thorsholm and Bryde og Dahls Hvalfangstselskap. Christensen was Danish consul in Sandefjord from 1909. In 1910 Lars Christensen had married Ingrid Dahl, daughter of wholesale merchant and ship owner Thor Dahl, he would assume control of large part of his father's and his father-in-law's extensive businesses following their deaths during the 1920s. Endurance, the ship that became famous after Sir Ernest Shackleton's failed Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1914, was built for Christensen, who intended to use her for Arctic cruises for tourists to hunt polar bears.
When this did not happen, Christensen sold the ship to Shackleton. Christensen had a deep interest in its animal life, he was interested in making geographical discoveries, gave his captains wide latitude to do so. He financed several expeditions devoted to the exploration of the Antarctic continent and its waters, participated in some of these himself bringing his wife Ingrid with him in the 1936–1937 expedition, he was among the first to use aerial surveying with seaplanes to map the coast of East Antarctica, which he completed from the Weddell Sea to the Shackleton Ice Shelf, concentrating on Bouvetøya and the region from Enderby Land to Coats Land. From the seaplane brought on the 1936–1937 expedition, members took 2,200 oblique aerial photographs, covering 6,250 square miles. Mrs Christensen became the first woman to fly over the continent. On 1 December 1927, as the leader of one of his financed expeditions, Christensen landed on and claimed the Bouvet Island for Norway. On the expeditions he financed between 1927 and 1937, Christensen's men discovered and surveyed substantial new land on the Dronning Maud Land and MacRobertson Land coasts.
Places in Antarctica named after Christensen include the Lars Christensen Peak, the Lars Christensen Coast as well as Lars Christensen Land known as MacRobertson Land, where the Russian Soyuz station operated. In addition, Ingrid Christensen Coast was named after Christensen's wife, one of the first women to visit Antarctica. During World War II, Christensen was Counsellor of Finance at The Royal Norwegian Embassy in Washington, DC and a member of the Nortraship Council. After the War, the Thor Dahl Group, under the leadership of Christensen, regained its position as one of the leaders in the industry; the business gained an increasing number of other shipping companies, both tankers and liner shipping. Together with Otto Sverdrup and Oscar Wisting, Christensen initiated an expedition to recover another famous ship, the Fram. In 1935 the Fram was installed in the museum. Sandefjord Whaling Museum ) was donated to Sandefjord in 1917; this was one of the first dedicated museum buildings in Norway.
In his travels, Christensen collected a considerable volume of literature, including much on the subject of whaling. This material was donated to the library of Sandefjord Museum in the 1930s. Christensen provided funds for the further expansion of the Whaling Museum's library, overseen by shipping broker and consultant Bjarne Aagaard, whose extensive book collection formed a major addition to the library. Whaling Monument was first unveiled in 1960; the rotating bronze memorial statue is situated by the harbor at the end of Jernbanealleen in Sandefjord. The monument was created by Norwegian sculptor Knut Steen; the costs associated with the design and construction of the sculpture were donated to the city by Lars Christensen. In 1962, Christensen funded the cost of the construction of Olav Chapel in Sandefjord. Outside the building is a relief of Saint Olav by sculptor Ragnhild Butenschøn; the frame around the front door shows Bible motifs designed by Finn Henrik Bodvin. The altar image was painted by Hugo Lous Mohr.
He was decorated as a commander of the Order of Vasa. In 1917 he was appointed Commander of the Order of Dannebrog, he was appointed to knight of the Order of St. Olav in 1931 and in 1944 he received the Commander's Cross with the Star of Order of St. Olav. Christensen was awarded a honorary doctorate at St. Olaf College. Christensen was a fellow of the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters and received its Gunnerus Medal, an honorary fellow of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, he was a honorary member of the Norwegian Geographic Society and in the Royal Norwegian Science Society in Trondheim and was awarded of the American Geographical Society David Livingstone Centenary Medal in 1935. Lars Christensen My Last Expedition to the Antarctic 1936-1937 Hans S I Bogen 70 år. Lars Christensen og hans samtid
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,200,000 square kilometres, it is the fifth-largest continent. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctica, on average, is the coldest and windiest continent, has the highest average elevation of all the continents. Most of Antarctica is a polar desert, with annual precipitation of only 200 mm along the coast and far less inland; the temperature in Antarctica has reached −89.2 °C, though the average for the third quarter is −63 °C. Anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside throughout the year at research stations scattered across the continent. Organisms native to Antarctica include many types of algae, fungi, plants and certain animals, such as mites, penguins and tardigrades.
Vegetation, where it occurs, is tundra. Antarctica is noted as the last region on Earth in recorded history to be discovered, unseen until 1820 when the Russian expedition of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on Vostok and Mirny sighted the Fimbul ice shelf; the continent, remained neglected for the rest of the 19th century because of its hostile environment, lack of accessible resources, isolation. In 1895, the first confirmed. Antarctica is a de facto condominium, governed by parties to the Antarctic Treaty System that have consulting status. Twelve countries signed the Antarctic Treaty in 1959, thirty-eight have signed it since then; the treaty prohibits military activities and mineral mining, prohibits nuclear explosions and nuclear waste disposal, supports scientific research, protects the continent's ecozone. Ongoing experiments are conducted by more than 4,000 scientists from many nations; the name Antarctica is the romanised version of the Greek compound word ἀνταρκτική, feminine of ἀνταρκτικός, meaning "opposite to the Arctic", "opposite to the north".
Aristotle wrote in his book Meteorology about an Antarctic region in c. 350 BC Marinus of Tyre used the name in his unpreserved world map from the 2nd century CE. The Roman authors Hyginus and Apuleius used for the South Pole the romanised Greek name polus antarcticus, from which derived the Old French pole antartike attested in 1270, from there the Middle English pol antartik in a 1391 technical treatise by Geoffrey Chaucer. Before acquiring its present geographical connotations, the term was used for other locations that could be defined as "opposite to the north". For example, the short-lived French colony established in Brazil in the 16th century was called "France Antarctique"; the first formal use of the name "Antarctica" as a continental name in the 1890s is attributed to the Scottish cartographer John George Bartholomew. The long-imagined south polar continent was called Terra Australis, sometimes shortened to'Australia' as seen in a woodcut illustration titled Sphere of the winds, contained in an astrological textbook published in Frankfurt in 1545.
Although the longer Latin phrase was better known, the shortened name Australia was used in Europe's scholarly circles. In the nineteenth century, the colonial authorities in Sydney removed the Dutch name from New Holland. Instead of inventing a new name to replace it, they took the name Australia from the south polar continent, leaving it nameless for some eighty years. During that period, geographers had to make do with clumsy phrases such as "the Antarctic Continent", they searched for a more poetic replacement, suggesting various names such as Antipodea. Antarctica was adopted in the 1890s. Antarctica has no indigenous population, there is no evidence that it was seen by humans until the 19th century. However, in February 1775, during his second voyage, Captain Cook called the existence of such a polar continent "probable" and in another copy of his journal he wrote:" believe it and it's more than probable that we have seen a part of it". However, belief in the existence of a Terra Australis—a vast continent in the far south of the globe to "balance" the northern lands of Europe and North Africa—had prevailed since the times of Ptolemy in the 1st century AD.
In the late 17th century, after explorers had found that South America and Australia were not part of the fabled "Antarctica", geographers believed that the continent was much larger than its actual size. Integral to the story of the origin of Antarctica's name is that it was not named Terra Australis—this name was given to Australia instead, because of the misconception that no significant landmass could exist further south. Explorer Matthew Flinders, in particular, has been credited with popularising the transfer of the name Terra Australis to Australia, he justified the titling of his book A Voyage to Terra Australis by writing in the introduction: There is no probability, that any other detached body of land, of nearly equal extent, will be found in a more southern latitude.
Peter I Island
Peter I Island is an uninhabited volcanic island in the Bellingshausen Sea, 450 kilometres from continental Antarctica. It is claimed as a dependency of Norway, along with Bouvet Island and Queen Maud Land comprises one of the three Norwegian dependent territories in the Antarctic and Subantarctic. Peter I Island is 11 by 19 kilometres long and 156 square kilometres larger than Staten Island as an example; the tallest peak is 1,640-meter tall Lars Christensen Peak. Nearly all of the island is covered by a glacier and it is surrounded most of the year by pack ice, making it inaccessible during these times. There is little vertebrate animal life on the island apart from some seals; the island was first sighted by Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen on 21 January 1821 and was named for Peter I of Russia. Not until 2 February 1929 did anyone set foot on the island, when Nils Larsen and Ola Olstad's Second Norvegia Expedition, financed by Lars Christensen, was successful, they claimed it for Norway, who annexed it in 1931 and made it a dependency in 1933.
The next landing occurred in 1948 and the island has been subject to some scientific research and a limited amount of tourism. The island became subject to the Antarctic Treaty in 1961. Since 1987, there has been an automated meteorological station on the island. Three amateur radio DX-peditions have visited the island and there are sporadic landings by tourists; the first sighting of Peter I Island was made on 21 October 1821 by Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen's expedition, who commanded the ships Vostok and Mirny under the Russian flag. He named the island for Tsar Peter I the Great of Russia. Drift ice made it impossible for Bellinghausen to come nearer than 25 kilometers from the island, it was the first land to have been spotted south of the Antarctic Circle, was thus the southernmost sighted land at the time of its discovery. In January 1910, the French expedition led by Jean-Baptiste Charcot and his ship Pourquoi-Pas confirmed Bellingshausen's discovery, but they did not land, being stopped 5 kilometers from the island by pack ice.
In 1926 and 1927, Norwegian Eyvind Tofte circumnavigated and surveyed the island from Odd I. However, he was prevented from landing; the Norwegian whale-ship owner Lars Christensen financed several expeditions to the Antarctic, in part for research and in part to claim land for Norway. The latter was motivated by the British taxation of whaling stations in the Antarctic, Christensen hoped to be able to establish stations on Norwegian territory to gain better privileges and so at least the taxes went to his home country; the first expedition to land on the island was the Christensen-financed second Norvegia expedition, led by Nils Larsen and Ola Olstad. They claimed the island for Norway. Larsen was hindered by pack ice. On 6 March 1931, a Norwegian royal proclamation declared the island under Norwegian sovereignty and on 23 March 1933 the island was declared a dependency; the next landing occurred on 10 February 1948 by Larsen's ship Brategg. Biological and hydrographic surveys underwent for three days, before the pack ice forced the expedition to leave.
The expedition placed a copy of the document of occupation from 1929 inside. On 23 June 1961, Peter I Island became subject to the Antarctic Treaty, after Norway's signing of the treaty in 1959. Since there have been several landings on the island by various nations for scientific investigations, as well as a limited number of ships that have landed tourists on the island. In 1987, the Norwegian Polar Institute sent five scientists to spend eleven days on the island; the main focuses were aerial photography and topographical measurements to allow an accurate map of the island to be produced. The second important area was marine biological investigations, although geological and other surveys were conducted; the team built an automatic weather station. Three DX-peditions have been sent to the island, in 1987, 1994 and 2006. Peter I Island is a volcanic island located 450 kilometres off the coast of Ellsworth Land of continental Antarctica, about 1,400 km to the south-west of Smith Island, the nearest of the South Shetland Islands.
It has an area of 154 square kilometres. The island is entirely covered by glacier, with about 95% of the surface covered by ice. Surrounding the island is a 40-meter tall ice front and vertical cliffs; the long stretches of ice caps are supplemented with rock outcrops. Landing is only possible at three points, only during the short period of the year in which the island is not surrounded by pack ice; these landings take place on the west side at Kapp Ingrid Christensen, a peninsula which divides the bays Norvegiabukta and Sandefjordbukta. On the cape are some narrow strips of beach, which are suitable for landing; the beach in Norvegiabukta is entered via the natural arch Tsarporten. On the west side is a plateau, while the north and south coasts feature ice shelves; the eastern side features two rock columns with flat tops in the sea. The island is a shield volcano, although it is not known if it is still active, it has been categorized as either Holocene or historic, based on date samples ranging from 0.1 to 0.35 million years ago.
The summit, Lars Christensen Peak, is a 100-metre wide circular crater. An ultra prominent peak at 1,640 metres elevation, it is named for Lars Christensen, it is not known whether this volcano is extinct or not, because the upper part is unmodified by glaciation—indicating an eru
An ultra-prominent peak, or Ultra for short, is a mountain summit with a topographic prominence of 1,500 metres or more. There are 1,524 such peaks on Earth; some peaks, such as the Matterhorn and Eiger, are not Ultras because they are connected to higher mountains by high cols and therefore do not achieve enough topographic prominence. The term "Ultra" originated with earth scientist Stephen Fry, from his studies of the prominence of peaks in Washington in the 1980s, his original term was "ultra major mountain", referring to peaks with at least 1,500 metres of prominence. 1,515 Ultras have been identified above sea level: 637 in Asia, 353 in North America, 209 in South America, 119 in Europe, 84 in Africa, 69 in Australasia and 39 in Antarctica. Many of the world's largest mountains are Ultras, including Mount Everest, K2, Mont Blanc, Mount Olympus. On the other hand, others such as the Eiger and the Matterhorn are not Ultras because they do not have sufficient prominence. Many Ultras lie in visited and inhospitable parts of the world, including 39 in Greenland, the high points of the Arctic islands of Novaya Zemlya, Jan Mayen and Spitsbergen, many of the peaks of the Greater ranges of Asia.
In British Columbia, some of the mountains listed do not have recognized names. Thirteen of the fourteen 8,000m summits are Ultras, there are a further 64 Ultras over 7,000 metres in height. There are 90 Ultras with a prominence of over 3,000 metres, but only 22 with more than 4,000 metres prominence. A number of Ultras have yet to be climbed, with Sauyr Zhotasy, Mount Siple, Gangkar Puensum being the most candidates for the most prominent unclimbed mountain in the world. All of the Seven Summits are Ultras by virtue of the fact that they are the high points of large landmasses; each has its key col at or near sea level, resulting in a prominence value equal to its elevation. List of peaks by prominence gives the 125 most prominent peaks worldwide. List of islands by highest point gives the 75 highest island highpoints, all of which are Ultras List of Alpine peaks by prominence List of non-Alpine European Ultras, including Atlantic islands and the Caucasus List of Ultras in West Asia List of Ultras in Central Asia List of Ultras of the Karakoram and Hindu Kush List of Ultras of the Himalayas, including Sino-Nepal Provinces List of Ultras of Tibet, East Asia and neighbouring areas, including India List of Ultras in Northeast Asia List of Ultras in Japan List of Ultras in Southeast Asia List of Ultras in the Philippines List of Ultras of Malay Archipelago List of African Ultras List of Ultras in Oceania, including the Southern Indian Ocean List of ultra-prominent summits of Australia List of ultra-prominent summits of Indonesian New Guinea List of ultra-prominent summits of New Zealand List of ultra-prominent summits of Papua New Guinea List of ultra-prominent summits of the Hawaiian Islands List of ultra-prominent summits of the Pacific Islands List of ultra-prominent summits of the Southern Indian Ocean List of Ultras in Antarctica, including South Atlantic islands List of Ultras in North America List of Ultras in Canada List of Ultras in the United States List of Ultras in Alaska List of Ultras in Greenland List of Ultras in Mexico List of Ultras in Central America List of Ultras in the Caribbean List of Ultras in South America List of mountain lists List of peaks by prominence Prominence
A shield volcano is a type of volcano composed entirely of fluid lava flows. It is named for its low profile; this is caused by the fluid lava erupted, which travels farther than lava erupted from a stratovolcano, results in the steady accumulation of broad sheets of lava, building up the shield volcano's distinctive form. Shield volcanoes are built by effusive eruptions, which flow out in all directions to create a shield like that of a warrior; the word "shield" has a long history, is derived from the Old English scield or scild, in turn taken from the Proto-Germanic *skelduz, related to the Gothic skildus, meaning "to divide, split, or separate". Shield volcano. Shield volcanoes are distinguished from the three other major volcanic archetypes—stratovolcanoes, lava domes, cinder cones—by their structural form, a consequence of their unique magmatic composition. Of these four forms shield volcanoes erupt the least viscous lavas: whereas stratovolcanoes and lava domes are the product of immotile flows and cinder cones are constructed by explosively eruptive tephra, shield volcanoes are the product of gentle effusive eruptions of fluid lavas that produce, over time, a broad sloped eponymous "shield".
Although the term is ascribed to basaltic shields it has at times been appended to rarer scutiform volcanoes of differing magmatic composition—principally pyroclastic shields, formed by the accumulation of fragmental material from powerful explosive eruptions, rarer felsic lava shields formed by unusually fluid felsic magmas. Examples of pyroclastic shields include Billy Mitchell volcano in Papua New Guinea and the Purico complex in Chile. Shield volcanoes are related in origination to vast lava plateaus and flood basalts present in various parts of the world, generalized eruptive features which occur along linear fissure vents and are distinguished from shield volcanoes proper by the lack of an identifiable primary eruptive center. Active shield volcanoes experience near-continuous eruptive activity over long periods of time, resulting in the gradual build-up of edifices that can reach large dimensions. With the exclusion of flood basalts, mature shields are the largest volcanic features on Earth: the summit of the largest subaerial volcano in the world, Mauna Loa, lies 4,169 m above sea level, the volcano, over 60 mi wide at its base, is estimated to contain about 80,000 km3 of basalt.
The mass of the volcano is so great. Mount Everest, by comparison, is 8,848 m in height. In September 2013 a team led by the University of Houston's William Sager announced the singular origination of Tamu Massif, an enormous extinct submarine shield volcano of unknown origin which 450 by 650 km in area, dwarfs all known volcanoes on the planet; the research has not yet been confirmed. Shield volcanoes feature a gentle slope that steepens with elevation before flattening near the summit, forming an overall upwardly convex shape. In height they are about one twentieth their width. Although the general form of a "typical" shield volcano varies little worldwide regional differences exist in their size and morphological characteristics. Typical shield volcanoes present in California and Oregon measure 3 to 4 mi in diameter and 1,500 to 2,000 ft in height. Rift zones are a prevalent feature on shield volcanoes, rare on other volcanic types; the large, decentralized shape of Hawaiian volcanoes as compared to their smaller, symmetrical Icelandic cousins can be attributed to rift eruptions.
Fissure venting is common in Hawaiʻi. This accounts for their asymmetrical shape, whereas Icelandic volcanoes follow a pattern of central eruptions dominated by summit calderas, causing the lava to be more evenly distributed or symmetrical. Most of what is known about shield volcanic eruptive character has been gleaned from studies done on the volcanoes of Hawaiʻi island, by far the most intensively studied of all shields due to their scientific accessibility; these eruptions, the calmest of volcanic events, are characterized by the effusive emission of fluid basaltic lavas with low gaseous content. These lavas travel a far greater distance than those of other eruptive types before solidifying, forming wide but thin magmatic sheets less than 1 m thick. Low volumes of such lavas layered over long periods of time are what constructs the characteristically low, broad profile of a mature shield volcano. Unlike other eruptive types, Hawaiian eruptions occur at decentralized fissure vents, beginning with large "curtains of fire" that die down and concentrate at specific locations on the volcano's r
The Southern Ocean known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica. As such, it is regarded as the fourth largest of the five principal oceanic divisions: smaller than the Pacific and Indian Oceans but larger than the Arctic Ocean; this ocean zone is where cold, northward flowing waters from the Antarctic mix with warmer subantarctic waters. By way of his voyages in the 1770s, Captain James Cook proved that waters encompassed the southern latitudes of the globe. Since geographers have disagreed on the Southern Ocean's northern boundary or existence, considering the waters as various parts of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, instead. However, according to Commodore John Leech of the International Hydrographic Organization, recent oceanographic research has discovered the importance of Southern Circulation, the term Southern Ocean has been used to define the body of water which lies south of the northern limit of that circulation.
This remains the current official policy of the IHO, since a 2000 revision of its definitions including the Southern Ocean as the waters south of the 60th parallel has not yet been adopted. Others regard the seasonally-fluctuating Antarctic Convergence as the natural boundary; the maximum depth of the Southern Ocean, using the definition that it lies south of 60th parallel, was surveyed by the Five Deeps Expedition in early February 2019. The expedition's multibeam sonar team identified the deepest point at 60° 28' 46"S, 025° 32' 32"W, with a depth of 7,434 meters; the expedition leader and chief submersible pilot Victor Vescovo, has proposed naming this deepest point in the Southern Ocean the "Factorian Deep," based on the name of the manned submersible DSV Limiting Factor, in which he visited the bottom for the first time on February 3, 2019. Borders and names for oceans and seas were internationally agreed when the International Hydrographic Bureau, the precursor to the IHO, convened the First International Conference on 24 July 1919.
The IHO published these in its Limits of Oceans and Seas, the first edition being 1928. Since the first edition, the limits of the Southern Ocean have moved progressively southwards; the IHO included the ocean and its definition as the waters south of 60°S in its year 2000 revisions, but this has not been formally adopted, due to continuing impasses over other areas of the text, such as the naming dispute over the Sea of Japan. The 2000 IHO definition, was circulated in a draft edition in 2002 and is used by some within the IHO and by some other organizations such as the US Central Intelligence Agency and Merriam-Webster. Australian authorities regard the Southern Ocean as lying south of Australia; the National Geographic Society does not recognize the ocean, depicting it in a typeface different from the other world oceans. Map publishers using the term Southern Ocean on their maps include Hema GeoNova. "Southern Ocean" is an obsolete name for the Pacific Ocean or South Pacific, coined by Vasco Núñez de Balboa, the first European to discover it, who approached it from the north.
The "South Seas" is a less archaic synonym. A 1745 British Act of Parliament established a prize for discovering a Northwest Passage to "the Western and Southern Ocean of America". Authors using "Southern Ocean" to name the waters encircling the unknown southern polar regions used varying limits. James Cook's account of his second voyage implies. Peacock's 1795 Geographical Dictionary said it lay "to the southward of America and Africa"; the Family Magazine in 1835 divided the "Great Southern Ocean" into the "Southern Ocean" and the "Antarctick Ocean" along the Antarctic Circle, with the northern limit of the Southern Ocean being lines joining Cape Horn, the Cape of Good Hope, Van Diemen's Land and the south of New Zealand. The United Kingdom's South Australia Act 1834 described the waters forming the southern limit of the new colony of South Australia as "the Southern Ocean"; the Colony of Victoria's Legislative Council Act of 1881 delimited part of the division of Bairnsdale as "along the New South Wales boundary to the Southern ocean".
In the 1928 first edition of Limits of Oceans and Seas, the Southern Ocean was delineated by land-based limits: Antarctica to the south, South America, Africa and Broughton Island, New Zealand to the north. The detailed land-limits used were from Cape Horn in Chile eastwards to Cape Agulhas in Africa further eastwards to the southern coast of mainland Australia to Cape Leeuwin, Western Australia. From Cape Leeuwin, the limit followed eastwards along the coast of mainland Australia to Cape Otway, Victoria southwards across Bass Strait to Cape Wickham, King Island, along the west coast of King Island the remainder of the way south across Bass Strait to Cape Grim, Tasmania; the limit followed the west coast of Tasmania southwards to the South East Cape and went eastwards to Broughton Island, New Zealand, before returning to Cape Horn. The northern limits of the Southern Ocean were moved southwards in the IHO's 1937 second edition of the Limits of Oceans and Seas. From this edition, much of the ocean's northern limit ceased to abut land masses.
In the second edition, the Southern Ocean extended from Antarctica northwards to latitude 40°S between Cape Agulhas