Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language; the government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong and the Republic of China. While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups retain their use of simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name colloquially; the latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms.
On the other hand, the official name refers to the modern systematically simplified character set, which includes not only structural simplification but substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters. Simplified character forms were created by reducing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of Chinese characters; some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms. Some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character the simplest amongst all variants in form. Many characters were left untouched by simplification, are thus identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies; some simplified characters are dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters in those where a component is replaced by a simple symbol.
This has led some opponents of simplification to complain that the'overall process' of character simplification is arbitrary. Proponents counter that the system of simplification is internally consistent. Proponents have emphasized a some particular simplified characters as innovative and useful improvements, although many of these have existed for centuries as longstanding and widespread variants. A second round of simplifications was promulgated in 1977, but was retracted in 1986 for a variety of reasons due to the confusion caused and the unpopularity of the second round simplifications. However, the Chinese government never dropped its goal of further simplification in the future. In August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters; the new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was implemented for use by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on June 5, 2013. Although most of the simplified Chinese characters in use today are the result of the works moderated by the government of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s and 60s, character simplification predates the PRC's formation in 1949.
Cursive written text always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print are attested as early as the Qin dynasty. One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lufei Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China. Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and therefore proposed that a reform be initiated, it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or abolished. Lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, "If Chinese characters are not destroyed China will die". Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the economic problems in China during that time. In the 1930s and 1940s, discussions on character simplification took place within the Kuomintang government, a large number of Chinese intellectuals and writers maintained that character simplification would help boost literacy in China.
In 1935, 324 simplified characters collected by Qian Xuantong were introduced as the table of first batch of simplified characters, but they were suspended in 1936. The PRC issued its first round of official character simplifications in two documents, the first in 1956 and the second in 1964. Within the PRC, further character simplification became associated with the leftists of the Cultural Revolution, culminating with the second-round simplified characters, which were promulgated in 1977. In part due to the shock and unease felt in the wake of the Cultural Revolution and Mao's death, the second-round of simplifications was poorly received. In 1986 the authorities retracted the second round completely. In the same year, the authorities promulgated a final list of simplifications, identical to the 1964 list except for six changes (including the restoration of three characters, simplified in the First Round: 叠, 覆, 像.
Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of 13 states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore and Indonesia. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital and largest city while Putrajaya is the seat of federal government. With a population of over 30 million, Malaysia is the world's 44th most populous country; the southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia. In the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries, with large numbers of endemic species. Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms which, from the 18th century, became subject to the British Empire, along with the British Straits Settlements protectorate.
Peninsular Malaysia was unified as the Malayan Union in 1946. Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948, achieved independence on 31 August 1957. Malaya united with North Borneo and Singapore on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia. In 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation; the country is multi-cultural, which plays a large role in its politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with large minorities of Malaysian Chinese, Malaysian Indians, indigenous peoples. While recognising Islam as the country's established religion, the constitution grants freedom of religion to non-Muslims; the government system is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on common law. The head of state is the king, known as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, he is an elected monarch chosen from the hereditary rulers of the nine Malay states every five years. The head of government is the Prime Minister; the country's official language is a standard form of the Malay language.
English remains an active second language. Since independence, Malaysian GDP has grown at an average of 6.5% per annum for 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its natural resources, but is expanding in the sectors of science, tourism and medical tourism. Today, Malaysia has a newly industrialised market economy, ranked fourth largest in Southeast Asia and 38th largest in the world, it is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the East Asia Summit and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, a member of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement. The name "Malaysia" is a combination of the word "Malay" and the Latin-Greek suffix "-sia"/-σία; the word "melayu" in Malay may derive from the Tamil words "malai" and "ur" meaning "mountain" and "city, land", respectively. "Malayadvipa" was the word used by ancient Indian traders. Whether or not it originated from these roots, the word "melayu" or "mlayu" may have been used in early Malay/Javanese to mean to accelerate or run.
This term was applied to describe the strong current of the river Melayu in Sumatra. The name was adopted by the Melayu Kingdom that existed in the seventh century on Sumatra. Before the onset of European colonisation, the Malay Peninsula was known natively as "Tanah Melayu". Under a racial classification created by a German scholar Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, the natives of maritime Southeast Asia were grouped into a single category, the Malay race. Following the expedition of French navigator Jules Dumont d'Urville to Oceania in 1826, he proposed the terms of "Malaysia", "Micronesia" and "Melanesia" to the Société de Géographie in 1831, distinguishing these Pacific cultures and island groups from the existing term "Polynesia". Dumont d'Urville described Malaysia as "an area known as the East Indies". In 1850, the English ethnologist George Samuel Windsor Earl, writing in the Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, proposed naming the islands of Southeast Asia as "Melayunesia" or "Indunesia", favouring the former.
In modern terminology, "Malay" remains the name of an ethnoreligious group of Austronesian people predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula and portions of the adjacent islands of Southeast Asia, including the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Borneo, smaller islands that lie between these areas. The state that gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1957 took the name the "Federation of Malaya", chosen in preference to other potential names such as "Langkasuka", after the historic kingdom located at the upper section of the Malay Peninsula in the first millennium CE; the name "Malaysia" was adopted in 1963 when the existing states of the Federation of Malaya, plus Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak formed a new federation. One theory posits the name was chosen so that "si" represented the inclusion of Singapore, North Borneo, Sarawak to Malaya in 1963. Politicians in the Philippines contemplated renaming their state "Malaysia" before the modern country took the name. Evidence of modern human habitation in Malaysia dates back 40,000 years.
In the Malay Peninsula, the first inhabitants are thought to be Negritos. Traders and settlers from India and China arrived as early as the first century AD, establishing trading ports and coastal towns in the second and third centuries, their presence resulted in strong Indian and Chinese influences on the local cultures, the people of the Malay Peninsula adopted the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism. Sanskrit inscriptions appear as early as the fifth century; the Kingdom of
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, historical, or scientific importance. Many public museums make these items available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary; the largest museums are located in major cities throughout the world, while thousands of local museums exist in smaller cities and rural areas. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public; the goal of serving researchers is shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, children's museums. Amongst the world's largest and most visited museums are the Louvre in Paris, the National Museum of China in Beijing, the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. the British Museum and National Gallery in London, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and Vatican Museums in Vatican City.
According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries. The English "museum" comes from the Latin word, is pluralized as "museums", it is from the Ancient Greek Μουσεῖον, which denotes a place or temple dedicated to the Muses, hence a building set apart for study and the arts the Musaeum for philosophy and research at Alexandria by Ptolemy I Soter about 280 BC. The purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public. From a visitor or community perspective, the purpose can depend on one's point of view. A trip to a local history museum or large city art museum can be an entertaining and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the economic health of a city, a way to increase the sophistication of its inhabitants. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museum's mission, such as civil rights or environmentalism.
Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithson's bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge."Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of each classification of a field of knowledge for research and for display was the purpose; as American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students. By the last quarter of the 19th century, the scientific research in the universities was shifting toward biological research on a cellular level, cutting edge research moved from museums to university laboratories. While many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums. While there is an ongoing debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museum's collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect and preserve artifacts for future generations.
Much care and expense is invested in preservation efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artifacts and buildings. All museums display objects; as historian Steven Conn writes, "To see the thing itself, with one's own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting."Museum purposes vary from institution to institution. Some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects, they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a historic printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia; some seek to reach a wide audience, such as a national or state museum, while some museums have specific audiences, like the LDS Church History Museum or local history organizations. Speaking, museums collect objects of significance that comply with their mission statement for conservation and display.
Although most museums do not allow physical contact with the associated artifacts, there are some that are interactive and encourage a more hands-on approach. In 2009, Hampton Court Palace, palace of Henry VIII, opened the council room to the general public to create an interactive environment for visitors. Rather than allowing visitors to handle 500-year-old objects, the museum created replicas, as well as replica costumes; the daily activities, historic clothing, temperature changes immerse the visitor in a slice of what Tudor life may have been. This section lists the 20 most visited museums in 2015 as compiled by AECOM and the Themed Entertainment Association's annual report on the world's most visited attractions. For 2016 figures see List of most visited museums; the cities of London and Washington, D. C. contain more of the 20 most visited museums in the world than any others, with six museums and four museums, respectively. Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts.
These were displayed in so-called wonder rooms or cabinets of curiosities. One of the oldest museums known is Ennigaldi-Nanna's museum, built by Princess Ennigaldi at the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire; the site dates from c. 530 BCE, contained artifacts from earlier M
Taiping is a town located in Larut and Selama District, Malaysia. It is located 48 km northwest of Ipoh, the capital of Perak, 78 km southeast of George Town, Penang. With a population of 245,182, it is the second largest town in Perak after the state capital. Taiping took over Kuala Kangsar's role as the state capital from 1876 to 1937, but was replaced by Ipoh, its growth slowed down after that, but in recent years the town has been developing again. Perak State Museum is located in the town. Taiping receives some limelight for being the wettest town in Peninsular Malaysia; the average annual rainfall is about 4,000mm in Taiping while the peninsula's average is 2,000mm – 2,500mm. Its unusual rainfall has led to a fertile collection of flora and century-old rain trees in the Taiping Lake Gardens. Taiping is ranked Top 3 Sustainable Cities in the world; the area developed in the 19th century when tin was discovered. The mines attracted large numbers of settlers Chinese. Feuds began between the different groups of Chinese immigrants and became so bitter that in the early 1870s, the British intervened and assumed control of the town.
Taiping was the capital for the districts of Larut and Selama in Perak. Before 1937, Taiping was the capital of the state of Perak and the centre of a long and drawn out war resulting in a change of rulership for the state. Taiping used to be known as Klian Pauh – Klian meaning mine while Pauh is a type of small mango. Long Jaafar has been credited with the discovery of tin in Larut in 1848. According to legend, Long Jaafar had an elephant named Larut and he used to take this elephant with him when journeying between Bukit Gantang and Lubok Merbau. One day the elephant went missing and when the elephant was found three days Long Jaafar noticed tin ore embedded in the mud, on the elephant's legs, it is said. In 1850, Larut district was bestowed upon Long Jaafar by Raja Muda Ngah Ali and the Chiefs of Perak: the Temenggong, Panglima Bukit Gantang, Panglima Kinta and Seri Adika Raja; some time the Sultan of Perak, Sultan Abdullah, died in 1857 and a series of succession disputes ensued. Unhappy with the abuse and favouritism of various royalties, rival Malay camps took sides with one or the other of the two great Chinese secret societies present in there at the time.
Long Jaafar established and developed his administrative centre at Bukit Gantang and made Kuala Sungai Limau at Trong the principal harbour of the Larut Settlement. In 1857 Long Jaafar was succeeded by his son Ngah Ibrahim. Sultan Jaffar Muazzam Shah presented an acknowledgement letter to Ngah Ibrahim on 24 May 1858; this letter was signed by Raja Muda Ngah Ali and the Raja Bendahara of Perak. In the time of Ngah Ibrahim the Chinese increased in number and by early 1860 two large groups were formed by the Chinese, the "Five Associations" whose members worked in the mines of Klian Pauh and the "Four Associations" whose members worked in the mines of Klian Baharu. Mining rights were given to the Hakka "Five Associations" or Go-Kuan and the Cantonese "Four Associations" or Si-Kuan. Chung Keng Quee was leader of the Hakka Go-Kuan and the Hai San society that they belonged to, began to operate his tin mines in Larut in 1860. Larut was destined to be plagued by four major wars between members of both the Cantonese Go-Kuan Ghee Hin Society and the Hakka Hai San society.
Many Hakka had fled China when the Taiping Rebellion broke out there and found work in the mines of Chung Keng Quee establishing his position over the mining area in Larut as leader of the Hai San from 1860 to 1884. The capital of Perak was moved from Bandar Baru to Taiping after Datok Maharaja Lela assassinated the first British Resident of Perak Mr. James Wheeler Woodford Birch at Pasir Salak in 1875. In 1937, the capital of Perak was moved from Taiping to Ipoh; the town's mining industry continued to thrive. The first train in Malaysia took its schedule on 1 June 1885. By 1900, an English language school, a newspaper, the Perak Museum had been established. Although Taiping's economy declined with the dwindling tin deposits, tin mining still remains an important industry in the area as rubber and rice. Taiping is situated on a plain to the west of the Bintang Mountains. Perak's capital city, Ipoh, is 48 km southeast of the town, while George Town, the capital city of the neighbouring state of Penang, lies 78 km away to the northwest.
Taiping receives some limelight for being the wettest town in Peninsular Malaysia. The average annual rainfall is about 3,000mm in Taiping while the peninsula's average is 2,000mm – 2,500mm, its unusual rainfall has led to a fertile collection of flora and century-old rain trees in the Taiping Lake Gardens. The Taiping Municipal Council is the municipal council; this council was established after the township on 1930. Their jurisdiction covers an area of 186.46 square kilometres. Due to electoral division by Election Commission of Malaysia, there are two parliamentary and six state constituencies dividing the township. There are Taiping parliamentary seat, Pokok Assam and Kamunting state seat meanwhile for Bukit Gantang parliamentary seat, Kuala Sepetang and Changkat Jering state seat. Primary and secondary education in Taiping are provide
Bumiputera or Bumiputra is a controversial Malaysian term to describe Malays and other indigenous peoples of Southeast Asia, i.e. the Malay world, used as in Indonesia and Brunei. The term comes from the Sanskrit and absorbed into the classical Malay word bhumiputra, which can be translated as "son of the land" or "son of the soil". In the 1970s, the Malaysian government implemented policies which The Economist called "racially discriminatory" designed to favour bumiputras to create opportunities, to defuse interethnic tensions following the extended violence against Malaysian Chinese in the 13 May Incident in 1969; these policies have succeeded in creating a significant urban Malay and Native Bornean middle class as well. They have been less effective in eradicating poverty among rural communities; some analysts have noted a backlash of resentment from excluded groups, in particular the sizeable Chinese and Indian Malaysian minorities. The concept of a bumiputra ethnic group in Malaysia was coined by Abdul Razak Hussein.
It recognised the "special position" of the Malays provided in the Constitution of Malaysia, in particular Article 153. However, the constitution does not use the term bumiputra. Definitions of bumiputra in public use vary among different institutions and government departments and agencies. In the book Buku Panduan Kemasukan ke Institusi Pengajian Tinggi Awam, Program Pengajian Lepasan SPM/Setaraf Sesi Akademik 2007/2008, the Malaysian Higher Education Ministry defined bumiputra as follows, depending on the region of origin of the individual applicant: Peninsular Malaysia "If one of the parents is Muslim Malay/Orang Asli as stated in Article 160 Federal Constitution of Malaysia. Most of these encompass communities that were established in southeast Asia prior to the arrival of the British colonialists who forever altered the demographics of Malaysia. Others favour a definition encompassing all children of Bumiputra. At the time of Malaya's independence from the British in 1957, the population included many first or second-generation immigrants who had come to fill colonial manpower needs as indentured labourers.
Chinese legal immigrants, who settled in urban areas, played a significant role in the commercial sector after the Indians left the country to return to India, many of the commercial sectors were sold to the Chinese immigrants. The Communities Liaison Committee, comprising leading politicians from different racial backgrounds, supported the promotion of economic equality for the Malays, conditional on political equality for the non-Malays. CLC member E. E. C. Thuraisingham said, "I and others believed that the backward Malays should be given a better deal. Malays should be assisted to attain parity with non-Malays to forge a united Malayan Nation of equals."Article 153 of the Constitution states that, It shall be the responsibility of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong to safeguard the special position of the Malays and natives of any of the States of Sabah and Sarawak and the legitimate interests of other communities in accordance with the provisions of this Article. Article 160 defines a Malay as being one who "professes the religion of Islam, habitually speaks the Malay language, conforms to Malay customs and is the child of at least one parent, born within the Federation of Malaysia before independence of Malaya on 31 August 1957, or the issue of such a person."
Article 8 of the Constitution, states that all Malaysian citizens shall be equal under the law, "Except as expressly authorised by this Constitution, there shall be no discrimination against citizens on the ground only of religion, descent or place of birth in any law or in the appointment to any office or employment under a public authority or in the administration of any law relating to the acquisition, holding or disposition of property or the establishing or carrying on of any trade, profession, vocation or employment." Article 153. The term of the Bumiputras' special position has been disputed; the Reid Commission, which drafted the Constitution proposed that Article 153 expire after 15 years unless renewed by Parliament. This qualification was struck from the final draft. After the 13 May Incid
Kedah known by its honorific Darul Aman or "Abode of Peace", is a state of Malaysia, located in the northwestern part of Peninsular Malaysia. The state covers a total area of over 9,000 km², it consists of the mainland and the Langkawi islands; the mainland has a flat terrain, used to grow rice, while Langkawi is an archipelago, most of which are uninhabited islands. Kedah was known as Kadaram by the ancient and medieval Tamil people, Kataha or Kalahbar by the Arabs, Syburi by the Siamese when it was under their influence. To the north, Kedah borders the state of Perlis and shares an international boundary with the Songkhla and Yala provinces of Thailand, it borders the states of Perak to Penang to the southwest. The state's capital is the royal seat is in Anak Bukit. Other major towns include Sungai Petani, Kulim on the mainland, Kuah on Langkawi. Archaeological evidence found in Bujang Valley reveals that a Hindu–Buddhist kingdom ruled ancient Kedah as early as 110 A. D; the discovery of temples, jetty remains, iron smelting sites, clay brick monuments dating back to 110 A.
D shows that a maritime trading route with south Indian Tamil kingdoms was established since that time. The discoveries in Bujang Valley made the ancient Kedah as the oldest civilisation of Southeast Asia. Reference to ancient Kedah was first mentioned in a Tamil poem Paṭṭiṉappālai written at the end of the 2nd century A. D, it described. Other than Kadaram, Kedah was known with different names at varying times in Indian literature. In the middle eastern literature, ancient Kedah was referred as Qilah by Ibn Khordadbeh in Kitāb al Masālik w'al Mamālik, Kalah-Bar by Soleiman Siraf & Abu Zaid al Hassan in Silsilat-al-Tawarikh, Kalah by Abu-Dulaf Misa'r Ibn Muhalhil in Al-Risalah al-thaniyah; the famous Tang dynasty Buddhist monk, Yi Jing who visited Malay archipelago between 688–695 mentioned about a kingdom known as Ka-Cha in the northern part of Malay peninsular, which according to him was 30 days sail from Bogha, the capital of Sribogha. In the 7th and 8th centuries, Kedah was under the loose control of Srivijaya.
Indian and Arab sources consider Kedah to be one of the two important sites during the Srivijaya period calling the king of the straits "the ruler of Srivijaya and Kataha". In 1025, Rajendra Chola, the Chola king from Coromandel in South India, captured Kedah in his invasion of Srivijaya and occupied it for some time. A second invasion was led by Virarajendra Chola of the Chola dynasty who conquered Kedah in the late 11th century. During the reign of Kulothunga Chola I Chola overlordship was established over the Sri Vijaya province Kedah in the late 11th century. According to Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa or the Kedah Annals, Kedah was founded by a Hindu king named Merong Mahawangsa. According to the text further, the Sultanate of Kedah started in year 1136 when King Phra Ong Mahawangsa converted to Islam and adopted the name Sultan Mudzafar Shah. However, an Acehnese account gave a date of 1474 for the year of conversion to Islam by the ruler of Kedah; this date accords with an account in the Malay Annals where a raja of Kedah visited Malacca during the reign of its last sultan seeking the honour of the royal band that marks the sovereignty of a Muslim ruler.
It was under Siam, until it was conquered by the Malay sultanate of Malacca in the 15th century. In the 17th century, Kedah was attacked by the Portuguese after their conquest of Malacca, by Aceh. In the hope that Great Britain would protect what remained of Kedah from Siam, the sultan handed over Penang and Province Wellesley to the British at the end of the 18th century; the Siamese invaded Kedah in 1821, it remained under Siamese control under the name of Syburi. In 1896, Kedah along with Perlis and Setul was combined into the Siamese province of Monthon Syburi which lasted until transferred to the British by the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909. In World War II, Kedah was the first part of Malaya to be invaded by Japan; the Japanese returned Kedah to their Thai allies who had it renamed Syburi, but it returned to British rule after the end of the war. Kedah was a reluctant addition to the Federation of Malaya in 1948. Since 1958, the hereditary Sultan of Kedah has been Tuanku Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah.
The Kedah Sultanate began when the 9th Kedah Maharaja Derbar Raja or Phra Ong Mahawangsa, converted to Islam and changed his name to Sultan Mudzafar Shah I. Since there have been 27 Sultans who ruled Kedah. Kedah is the 8th largest state by land area and 8th most populated state in Malaysia, with a total land area of 9,500 km2, a population of 1,890,098; the Pedu Lake is the largest man-made lake in the state. Kedah has a heterogeneous populace constituted by three major ethnic groups. Prior to the formation of the Federation of Malaya, there was an ethnic group known as the Sam Sam people, they speak Siamese language. Most of these communities are extinct due to assimilation with the Malays. In some places in Kedah, the Sam Sam people still retain their Siamese language as their mother tongue; these communities can be found in Pendang District, Kuala Nera
Federated Malay States
The Federated Malay States was a federation of four protected states in the Malay Peninsula—Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang—established by the British government in 1895, which lasted until 1946, when they, together with two of the former Straits Settlements and the Unfederated Malay States, formed the Malayan Union. Two years the Union became the Federation of Malaya and Malaysia in 1963 with the inclusion of North Borneo and Singapore; the United Kingdom was responsible for foreign affairs and defence of the federation, whilst the states continued to be responsible for their domestic policies. So, the British Resident General would give advice on domestic issues, the states were bound by treaty to follow that advice; the federation had Kuala Lumpur, part of Selangor, as its capital. The first FMS Resident General was Frank Swettenham; the federation, along with the other Malay states and British possessions of the peninsula, was overrun and occupied by the Japanese during World War II.
After the liberation of Malaya following the Japanese surrender, the federation was not restored, but the federal form of government was retained as the principal model for consolidating the separate States as an independent Federation of Malaya and the Federation's evolution into Malaysia. Although the Resident General was the real administrator of the federation, each of the four constituent states of the federation retained their respective hereditary rulers. At the formation of the Federated Malay States, the reigning sultans were: Sultan Alaiddin Sulaiman Shah of Selangor Sultan Idris Murshidul ‘Adzam Shah I of Perak Yamtuan Tuanku Muhammad Shah of Negeri Sembilan Sultan Ahmad Mu’adzam Shah of PahangIn 1897 the first Durbar was convened in the royal town of Kuala Kangsar, Perak as the platform for discussions for the four Rulers; this formed the basis for the Conference of Rulers, created on under Article 38 of the Malaysian Constitution on 27 August 1957. The Federated Malay States had a flag of its own until its dissolution in 1946.
The flag consisted of four different-coloured stripes, from top to bottom: white, red and black. Different combinations of these colours represent the four states that formed the FMS — red and yellow are for Negeri Sembilan; the same design concept is used in Malaysian national emblem. In the middle is an oblong circle with a Malayan tiger in it; the National History Museum located near the Dataran Merdeka in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia has a replica of the federation's flag. The coat of arms of the Federated Malay States featured a shield guarded by two tigers. On the top of the shield is the crown, symbolising the federation of monarchies under the protection of the United Kingdom. A banner with the phrase "Dipelihara Allah" written in Jawi is located underneath the shield; the combinations of the four colours of the shield represents the colours of the flags of the states of the FMS in the same way the stripes of the FMS flag do. Red and yellow for Selangor Black and yellow for Perak Red and yellow for Negeri Sembilan Black and white for PahangThis design forms the basis of the Federation of Malaya's national emblem along with the guardian tigers and a quartered shield of the same, symbolic four colours mentioned above.
The phrase "Dipelihara Allah" was adopted as the current state motto for the state of Selangor. In addition to a state flag, the Federated Malay States had a naval jack or ensign for use on government ships; the ensign, with the four colours of the FMS, was flown by HMS Malaya, commanded by Captain Boyle under the 5th Battle Squadron of the British Grand Fleet) during the Battle of Jutland in the North Sea. This was the largest and the only full-scale clash of battleships during World War I; the protectorate of the Federated Malay States was established after the four Rulers of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang agreed to a federation and centralised administration in 1895 and in which the Treaty of Federation was drawn up and signed on 1 July 1896. By this treaty and the previous acceptance of the British Residents System in Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang, the FMS were turned into a nominally independent protectorate of Great Britain, not to be confused with nearby British possessions like the territories of the Straits Settlements and Unfederated Malay States.
With the Treaty of Federation, the Malay rulers gave up their political power in their states, having to act after consulting and only with the due consent of their respective Residents. However, the United Kingdom pledged not to interfere in matters relating to native Malay traditions and Islamic affairs. A well-ordered system of public administration was established, public services were extended, large-scale rubber and tin production was developed; this control was interrupted by the Japanese invasion and occupation from 1941 to 1945 during World War II. The British established the Federal Council in 1898 to administer the FMS, it was headed by the High Commissioner, assisted by the Resident-General, the Sultans, the four state Residents and four nominated unofficial members. This structure remained until the Japanese invaded Malaya on 8 December 1941. From 1896 to 1936, real power lay in the hands of the Resident-General known as Chief Secretary of the Federation. After 1936 the Federal Secretaries were no more than co-ordinating officers, under the authority of the High Commissioners, which are always the Governors of