Gunnar Halle is a Norwegian football manager and former player. He is the assistant coach of Strømmen; as a player, Halle played as a right back, he played for many years professionally in England and for the Norwegian national team. In total he was capped 64 times and scored five international goals, including a memorable hat-trick against San Marino, was included in the squads for the 1994 FIFA World Cup and 1998 FIFA World Cup, he is best known for his playing spells at Oldham Athletic and Leeds United, followed by his brief managerial spell at Lyn Oslo. Born in Larvik, Halle started his youth career in local club Nesjar. Halle started his Norwegian Premier League career in Lillestrøm in 1985 when he joined from Larvik Turn, he became a team regular, helped win the league titles in 1986 and 1989. In the spring of 1991 he was sold to Oldham Athletic for £280,000, where he played over 200 matches and is regarded as one of the club's finest players during their Premiership days, he remains Oldham's most capped player, playing 25 times for Norway in his time there.
Halle joined Leeds United for £500,000 in the winter of 1996, where he competed with Gary Kelly for the clubs regular Right Back spot, Halle had a successful time at Leeds under the management of George Graham and latterly David O'Leary, He spent three seasons at the club, in his final season, Halle helped Leeds finish fourth in the Premier League during the 1998–99 season and qualify for the UEFA Cup competition. However, in the summer of 1999, Leeds signed future England right back Danny Mills and Halle joined newly promoted local rivals Bradford City for £200k, he spent a further three seasons at Bradford City, scoring twice against Darlington in the League Cup and Portsmouth in the league. A brief spell with Wolverhampton Wanderers concluded his stay in England, he returned to Norway with Lillestrøm in the summer of 2002. Halle played one and a half seasons for Lillestrøm. In 1987 Halle made his debut for the Norwegian national team, he represented Norway in both 1998 FIFA World Cup's. In total he was capped 64 times for Norway and scored five international goals, including a memorable hat-trick against San Marino.
Halle rounding off his playing career and began his coaching career as player-coach for Norwegian Third Division side Aurskog/Finstadbru in the 2004 season. In the 2005 and 2006 seasons Halle worked as the Lillestrøm assistant coach, but was sacked on 13 November 2006 along with head coach Uwe Rösler; the pair were soon hired to coach Viking. In December 2008, he moved to Lyn as assistant manager. In August 2009 he stepped up to manager following the termination of Kent Bergersen's contract; the club was relegated to First Division after the 2009 season and changed its name to FK Lyn before the 2010 season. On 30 June 2010 the club declared bankruptcy after several years of financial difficulty, forcing them to forfeit from the league. On 30 August 2010, he was named the new assistant coach of Molde FK, again under Rösler; the duo coached Molde throughout the season. In February 2012, Halle was named as the new assistant coach of the Norway women's national football team under Eli Landsem. In 2013, he changed to the club Strømmen IF.
Lillestrøm SKNorwegian Premier League Championship: 1986, 1989 Norwegian Football Cup: 1985Oldham Athletic A. F. C. English Second Division Championship: 1990-91 Gunnar Halle at Soccerbase Gunnar Halle at National-Football-Teams.com
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling-type techniques such as clinch fighting and takedowns, joint locks and other grappling holds. The sport can either be genuinely competitive. A wrestling bout is a physical competition, between two competitors or sparring partners, who attempt to gain and maintain a superior position. There are a wide range of styles with varying rules with both traditional historic and modern styles. Wrestling techniques have been incorporated into other martial arts as well as military hand-to-hand combat systems; the term wrestling is attested as wræstlunge. Wrestling represents one of the oldest forms of combat; the origins of wrestling go back 15,000 years through cave drawings. Babylonian and Egyptian reliefs show wrestlers using most of the holds known in the present-day sport. Literary references to it occur as early as the ancient Indian Vedas. In the Book of Genesis, the Patriarch Jacob is said to have wrestled with an angel; the Iliad, in which Homer recounts the Trojan War of the 13th or 12th century BC contains mentions of wrestling.
Indian epics Mahabharata contain references to martial arts including wrestling. In ancient Greece wrestling occupied a prominent place in literature; the ancient Romans borrowed from Greek wrestling, but eliminated much of its brutality. During the Middle Ages wrestling remained popular and enjoyed the patronage of many royal families, including those of France and England. Early British settlers in America brought a strong wrestling tradition with them; the settlers found wrestling to be popular among Native Americans. Amateur wrestling flourished throughout the early years of the North American colonies and served as a popular activity at country fairs, holiday celebrations, in military exercises; the first organized national wrestling tournament took place in New York City in 1888. Wrestling has been an event at every modern Olympic Games since the 1904 games in St. Louis, Missouri; the international governing body for the sport, United World Wrestling, was established in 1912 in Antwerp, Belgium as the International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles.
The 1st NCAA Wrestling Championships were held in 1912, in Ames, Iowa. USA Wrestling, located in Colorado Springs, became the national governing body of U. S. amateur wrestling in 1983. Some of the earliest references to wrestling can be found in wrestling mythology; the Epic of Gilgamesh: Gilgamesh established his credibility as a leader, after wrestling Enkidu. Greek mythology celebrates the rise of Zeus as ruler of the earth after a wrestling match with his father, Cronus. Both Heracles and Theseus were famous for their wrestling against beast; the Mahabharata describes a malla-dwandwa between the accomplished wrestlers Jarasandha. Rustam of the Shahnameh is regarded by Iranian pahlevans as the greatest wrestler. In Pharaonic Egypt, wrestling has been evidenced by documentation on Egyptian artwork. Greek wrestling was a popular form of martial art, at least in Ancient Greece. Oil wrestling is the national sport of Turkey and it can be traced back to Central Asia. After the Roman conquest of the Greeks, Greek wrestling was absorbed by the Roman culture and became Roman wrestling during the period of the Roman Empire.
Shuai jiao, a wrestling style originating in China, which according to legend, has a reported history of over 4,000 years. Arabic literature depicted Muhammad as a skilled wrestler, defeating a skeptic in a match at one point; the Byzantine emperor Basil I, according to court historians, won in wrestling against a boastful wrestler from Bulgaria in the eighth century. In 1520 at the Field of the Cloth of Gold pageant, Francis I of France threw fellow king Henry VIII of England in a wrestling match; the Lancashire style of folk wrestling may have formed the basis for Catch wrestling known as "catch as catch can." The Scots formed a variant of this style, the Irish developed the "collar-and-elbow" style which found its way into the United States. A Frenchman "is credited with reorganizing European loose wrestling into a professional sport", Greco-Roman wrestling; this style, finalized by the 19th century and by wrestling was featured in many fairs and festivals in Europe. Greco-Roman wrestling and contemporary freestyle wrestling were soon regulated in formal competitions, in part resulting from the rise of gymnasiums and athletic clubs.
On continental Europe, prize money was offered in large sums to the winners of Greco-Roman tournaments, freestyle wrestling spread in the United Kingdom and in the United States after the American Civil War. Wrestling professionals soon increased the popularity of Greco-Roman and freestyle wrestling, worldwide. Greco-Roman wrestling became an event at the first modern Olympic games, in Athens in 1896. Since 1908, the event has been in every Summer Olympics. Freestyle wrestling became an Olympic event, in 1904. Women's freestyle wrestling was added to the Summer Olympics in 2004. Since 1921, United World Wrestling has regulated amateur wrestling as an athletic discipline, while professional wrestling has become infused with theatrics but still requires athletic ability. Today, various countries send national wrestling teams to the Olympics, including Russi
Gymnastics is a sport that includes exercises requiring balance, flexibility, agility and endurance. The movements involved in gymnastics contribute to the development of the arms, shoulders, back and abdominal muscle groups. Alertness, daring, self-confidence and self-discipline are mental traits that can be developed through gymnastics. Gymnastics evolved from exercises used by the ancient Greeks that included skills for mounting and dismounting a horse, from circus performance skills The most common form of competitive gymnastics is artistic gymnastics which consists of floor, vault and uneven bars. For boys they have floor, rings, parallel bars and horizontal bar. Other FIG disciplines include rhythmic gymnastics and tumbling, acrobatic gymnastics, aerobic gymnastics and parkour. Disciplines not recognized by FIG include wheel gymnastics, aesthetic group gymnastics, men's rhythmic gymnastics, TeamGym and mallakhamba. Participants can include children as young as 1 years old doing kindergym and children's gymnastics, recreational gymnasts of ages 2 and up, competitive gymnasts at varying levels of skill, world-class athletes.
The word "gymnastics" derives from the common Greek adjective γυμνός, by way of the related verb γυμνάζω, whose meaning is to "train naked", "train in gymnastic exercise" "to train, to exercise". The verb had this meaning, because athletes in ancient times exercised and competed without clothing, it came into use in the 1570s, from Latin gymnasticus, from Greek gymnastikos "fond of or skilled in bodily exercise," from gymnazein "to exercise or train". Gymnastics developed in ancient Greece, in Sparta and Athens, was used as a method to prepare men for warfare. In Sparta, among the activities introduced into the training program was the Agoge or exhibition gymnastics made up of gymnastic elements in the form of the Pyrrhic-a dance in a military style-performed for state dignitaries in the final year of a student's training; the maneuvers were performed naked except for the tools of war. Athens combined this more physical training with the education of the mind. At the Palestra, a physical education training center, the discipline of educating the body and educating the mind were combined allowing for a form of gymnastics, more aesthetic and individual and which left behind the form that focused on strictness, the emphasis on defeating records, focus on strength.
Don Francisco Amorós y Ondeano, was born on February 19, 1770, in Valencia and died on August 8, 1848, in Paris. He was a Spanish colonel, the first person to introduce educative gymnastic in France. John promoted the use of parallel bars and high bars in international competition; the Federation of International Gymnastics was founded in Liege in 1881. By the end of the nineteenth century, men's gymnastics competition was popular enough to be included in the first "modern" Olympic Games in 1896. From on until the early 1950s, both national and international competitions involved a changing variety of exercises gathered under the rubric, that included, for example, synchronized team floor calisthenics, rope climbing, high jumping and horizontal ladder. During the 1920s, women participated in gymnastics events; the first women's Olympic competition was limited, only involving synchronized calisthenics and track and field. These games were held in Amsterdam. By 1954, Olympic Games apparatus and events for both men and women had been standardized in modern format, uniform grading structures had been agreed upon.
At this time, Soviet gymnasts astounded the world with disciplined and difficult performances, setting a precedent that continues. Television has helped initiate a modern age of gymnastics. Both men's and women's gymnastics now attract considerable international interest, excellent gymnasts can be found on every continent. In 2006, a new points system for Artistic gymnastics was put into play. With an A Score being the difficulty score, which as of 2009 is based on the top 8 high scoring elements in a routine; the B Score, is the score for execution, is given for how well the skills are performed. The following disciplines are governed by FIG. Artistic Gymnastics is divided into Men's and Women's Gymnastics. Men compete on six events: Floor Exercise, Pommel Horse, Still Rings, Parallel Bars, Horizontal Bar, while women compete on four: Vault, Uneven Bars, Balance Beam, Floor Exercise. In some countries, women at one time competed on the rings, high bar, parallel bars. In 2006, FIG introduced a new points system for Artistic gymnastics in which scores are no longer limited to 10 points.
The system is used in the US for elite level competition. Unlike the old code of points, there are two separate scores, an execution score and a difficulty score. In the previous system, the "execution score" was the only score, it was and still is out except for short exercises. During the gymnast's performance, the judges deduct this score only. A fall, on or off the event, is a 1.00 deduction, in elite level gymnastics. The introduction of the difficulty score is a significant change; the gymnast's difficulty score is based on what elements they perform and is subject to change if they do not perform or complete all the skills, or they do not connect a skill meant to be connected to another. Connection bonuses are where deviation happens most common between the intended and actual difficulty scores, as it can be difficult to connect multiple flight elements, it is ha
Skeid Fotball is a Norwegian football club from Oslo that plays in 1. Divisjon, the second tier of the Norwegian football league system, its current home field is Nordre Åsen, after the club stopped playing at Bislett after the 2012 season. In past decades it has gained a reputation as a talent factory for the larger clubs in Norwegian football, it has produced several players for the national team such as Daniel Braaten, Daniel Fredheim Holm, Omar Elabdellaoui and Mohammed Abdellaoue. Other notable players include Paul Miller. Skeid played in 1. Divisjon in 2009 after a short stint in the 2. Divisjon, they finished champions of the Second Group of 2. Divisjon in 2008. However, Skeid relegated again to 2. Divisjon at end of 2009 season in 16th and last position despite a good start. In 2018, Skeid won 2. Divisjon group 1 and was promoted to the 1. Divisjon, they played in the Norwegian top flight between 1938-1970, 1972-1975, 1978-1980, 1996-1997. Their recent season in the top division was in the 1999 Tippeligaen.
Norwegian top flight: Champions: 1966 Runners-up: 1938–39, 1952–53, 1953–54, 1957–58 1967 Third: 1963 Norwegian Cup: Winners: 1947, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1958, 1963, 1965, 1974 Runners-up: 1939, 1940, 1949Other honours Oslo Championships Winners: 1940, 1945Norwegian junior championships Winners: 1962, 1969, 1998, 19991929: Won the regional championships after beating Vålerenga 2-1. The red and blue colors are used for the first time; as of 13 May 2016. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Skeid.no Official club website
Norwegian Football Cup
The Norwegian Football Cup is the main knockout cup competition in Norwegian football. It is run by the Football Association of Norway and has been contested since 1902, making it the oldest football tournament in the country; the tournament is known as Cupen or NM, an acronym formed from Norgesmesterskap. These terms are used to describe women's competitions; the equivalent competition for women's teams is the Norwegian Women's Football Cup. The Norwegian Football Cup is a national championship, meaning that while the Eliteserien may be the most prestigious competition to win, it is the winners of the Cup who are awarded the title "Norwegian football champions"; this differs from, for example, English football, where the winners of the FA Premier League are the ones who become English champions. Winners receive the King's trophy. Winners qualify for the Europa League second qualifying round and a place in the Mesterfinalen, the Norwegian super cup match; the current Norwegian champions and holders of the cup are Rosenborg, who defeated Strømsgodset 4–1 in the 2018 final.
Odd and Rosenborg are the most successful clubs with 12 titles each. The first cup was played in 1902, Oscar II presented the King's Cup to the inaugural tournament; this was an invitation tournament organised by Kristiania IF and the Norwegian Football Association, given official status. Five teams joined the competition, Odd reached the final without playing a match. Grane won the first Norwegian Cup after they defeated Odd 2 -- 0 at Kristiania; the first tournament who had official status at the time of the events was the 1904 Norwegian Cup and was won by Odd. In the beginning, the cup was open for county champions only; this continued until 1933. Due to the outbreak of World War II, the competition was not played between the 1940 and 1945 editions; the competition was not nationwide until 1963. 1963 was the first year clubs from Northern Norway were allowed to participate, this was due to a poor communication system in the northern parts of Norway and to the belief that the clubs in the three northern counties could not compete on the same level as the southern clubs.
Until 1963, teams from Northern Norway their own Northern Norwegian Championships. Before the 2004 cup final, NRK awarded the 1986 final between Tromsø and Lillestrøm with the title Tidenes Cupfinale, ex-Rosenborg striker Gøran Sørloth with Tidenes Cuphelt; the final has been played at Ullevaal Stadion since the 1948 cup final. Before the proper rounds take place, two qualifying rounds are played in April. 176 clubs from tier 4 and 5 enter the first qualifying round and 44 of these advance to the first round where they are joined by 84 teams from tiers 1, 2 and 3. The first round of the cup are played in April, around the same time as the Eliteserien season starts; the first two rounds are set up by the Norwegian Football Association, the top flight teams are pitted against weak amateur teams in rural areas, on the amateur team's home pitch. Early upsets, where an amateur team knocks a professional team out of the tournament do happen occasionally. For example, in 2012 the Eliteserien teams Sandnes Ulf and Sogndal were knocked out in the first round by the third division teams Staal Jørpeland IL and Florø SK respectively.
If the amateur team loses, squaring off against a professional team may well be the highlight of their season. From the third round to the semi-final, matchups are drawn at random, the teams face off once, the winner goes on to the next round; the final match is played at Ullevaal Stadium in November or December, takes place near the end of the Norwegian football season. The cup is popular in Norway, tickets for the final match are hard to get hold of, as the game sells out quickly; the supporters of the two teams playing in the final match are seated at the two short-ends of the pitch, while the more neutral supporters are seated by the long-ends. The match is televised on national television. Most entrants from level 4 and all entrants from level 5 have to play to qualifying rounds to join the competition proper. Reserve teams of Eliteserien clubs, who are eligible to play in 2. Divisjon can not enter. Depending of the number of reserve teams, the first round proper will be filled with the best clubs from level 4 until the number of teams from levels 1–4 is 84.
Clubs from higher levels are added in the first round, as per the table below. The months in which rounds are played are traditional, with exact dates subject to each year's calendar. In all rounds, if a fixture result in a draw after normal time, the winner is settled by a period of extra time, if still necessary, a penalty shootout. Earlier, fixtures resulting in a draw would go to a replay, played at the venue of the away team; the first Cup Final to go to a replay was the 1945 final, between Fredrikstad. The initial tie finished 1–1 and the first replay finished 1–1. Lyn won the second replay 4–0; the only other time the final has taken three matches to settle was the 1965 final between Oslo rivals Skeid and Frigg. The last replayed final was the 1995 Cup Final, when Brann fought a 1 -- 1 draw; the replay saw Rosenborg win the Cup, with the score 3–1. The first final to be decided by a penalty shootout was the 2009 final between Aalesund; the score ended 1 -- 1 after 2 -- 2 after extra time. Aalesund w