Basque Country (autonomous community)
The Basque Country is an autonomous community of northern Spain. It includes the Basque provinces of Álava and Gipuzkoa, the Basque Country or Basque Autonomous Community was granted the status of nationality within Spain, attributed by the Spanish Constitution of 1978. The term Basque Country may refer to the cultural region, the home of the Basque people. The territory has three areas, which are defined by the two parallel ranges of the Basque Mountains. The main range of forms the watershed between the Atlantic and Mediterranean basins. The highest point of the range is in the Aizkorri massif, the three areas are, Formed by many valleys with short rivers that flow from the mountains to the Bay of Biscay, like the Nervión, Urola or Oria. The coast is rough, with cliffs and small inlets. The main features of the coast are the Bilbao Abra Bay and the Estuary of Bilbao, the Urdaibai estuary, between the two mountain ranges, the area is occupied mainly by a high plateau called Llanada Alavesa, where the capital Gasteiz is located.
The rivers flow south from the mountains to the Ebro River, the main rivers are the Zadorra River and Bayas River. From the southern mountains to the Ebro is the so-called Rioja Alavesa, some of Spains production of Rioja wine takes place here. Precipitation average is about 1200 mm, the middle section is more influence by the continental climate, but with a varying degree of the northern oceanic climate. This gives warm, dry summers and cold, snowy winters, the Ebro valley has a pure continental climate, winters are cold and dry and summers very warm and dry, with precipitation peaking in spring and autumn. Precipitation is scarce and irregular, as low as 300 mm, almost half of the 2,155,546 inhabitants of the Basque Autonomous Community live in Greater Bilbao, Bilbaos metropolitan area. Of the ten most populous cities, six form part of Bilbaos conurbation, with 28. 2% of the Basque population born outside this region, immigration is crucial to Basque demographics. Over the 20th century most of this came from other parts of Spain, typically from Galicia or Castile.
Over recent years, sizeable numbers of population have returned to their birthplaces and most immigration to the Basque country now comes from abroad. Roman Catholicism is, by far, the largest religion in Basque Country, bilbao-Bilbo Vitoria-Gasteiz San Sebastián-Donostia Barakaldo Getxo Irun Portugalete Santurtzi Basauri Errenteria Spanish and Basque are co-official in all territories of the autonomous community. The Basque-speaking areas in the autonomous community are set against the wider context of the Basque language, spoken to the east in Navarre
Factory tours, industrial heritage, creative art and crafts workshops are the object of cultural niches like industrial tourism and creative tourism. Many tourist attractions are landmarks, tourist attractions are created to capitalise on legends such as a supposed UFO crash site near Roswell, New Mexico and the alleged Loch Ness monster sightings in Scotland. Ghost sightings make tourist attractions, ethnic communities may become tourist attractions, such as Chinatowns in the United States and the black British neighbourhood of Brixton in London, England. In the US, owners and marketers of attractions advertise tourist attractions on billboards along the side of highways and roadways, tourist attractions often provide free promotional brochures and flyers in information centres, fast food restaurants and motel rooms or lobbies, and rest area. Such places are known as tourist traps. Within cities such transport tourist attractions as rides by boats and buses are very popular, novelty attractions are not limited to the American Midwest, but are part of Midwestern culture.
It may contain one or more tourist attractions and possibly some tourist traps, siem Reap town for example is a popular tourist destination in Cambodia, mainly owed to its proximity to Angkor temples. A tropical island resort is an island or archipelago that depends on tourism as its source of revenue, according to the World Tourism Organization, •698 million people travelled to a foreign country in 2000, spending more US$478 billion. Lists of tourist attractions Attractions at DMOZ
Rapid transit, known as heavy rail, subway, tube, or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas. The stations typically have high platforms, without steps inside the trains and they are typically integrated with other public transport and often operated by the same public transport authorities. However, some transit systems have at-grade intersections between a rapid transit line and a road or between two rapid transit lines. It is unchallenged in its ability to transport large numbers of people quickly over short distances with little use of land, variations of rapid transit include people movers, small-scale light metro, and the commuter rail hybrid S-Bahn. The worlds first rapid-transit system was the partially underground Metropolitan Railway which opened as a railway in 1863. In 1868, New York opened the elevated West Side and Yonkers Patent Railway, china has the largest number of rapid transit systems in the world. The worlds longest single-operator rapid transit system by length is the Shanghai Metro.
The worlds largest single rapid transit service provider by both length of revenue track (665 miles and number of stations is the New York City Subway. The busiest rapid transit systems in the world by annual ridership are the Tokyo subway system, the Seoul Metropolitan Subway, the Moscow Metro, the Beijing Subway, Metro is the most common term for underground rapid transit systems used by non-native English speakers. One of these terms may apply to a system, even if a large part of the network runs at ground level. In Scotland, the Glasgow Subway underground rapid transit system is known as the Subway, in the US, underground mass transit systems are primarily known as subways, whereas the term metro is a shortened reference to a metropolitan area. In that vein, Chicagos commuter rail system, serving the area, is called Metra. Exceptions in naming rapid transit systems are Washington DCs subway system the Washington Metro, Los Angeles Metro Rail, and the Miami Metrorail, the opening of Londons steam-hauled Metropolitan Railway in 1863 marked the beginning of rapid transit.
Initial experiences with steam engines, despite ventilation, were unpleasant, experiments with pneumatic railways failed in their extended adoption by cities. Electric traction was more efficient and cleaner than steam, in 1890 the City & South London Railway was the first electric-traction rapid transit railway, which was fully underground. Both railways were merged into London Underground. The 1893 Liverpool Overhead Railway was designed to use electric traction from the outset, budapest in Hungary and Glasgow and New York all converted or purpose-designed and built electric rail services. Advancements in technology have allowed new automated services, hybrid solutions have evolved, such as tram-train and premetro, which incorporate some of the features of rapid transit systems
Getxo is a town located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of the Basque Country, in the north of Spain. It is part of Greater Bilbao, and has about 80,000 inhabitants, Getxo is mostly an affluent residential area, as well as being the third largest municipality of Biscay. Getxo was a parish, originally an area, including a large beach at the mouth of the Estuary of Bilbao. The parish council met at the church of Getxoko Andra Mari or Santa María de Getxo, the towns coat of arms has an oak with two cauldrons chained to its branches and the motto Kaltea Dagianak Bizarra Lepoan. With industrialisation in the 19th century, some parts of Getxo evolved into residential areas for the bourgeois class. A residential area called Neguri came into being, near Areeta / Las Arenas, on the other side of the road to Bilbao, there grew a working-class district called Erromo, similar to the one that grew near Neguri, Neguri Langile. Finally, in the 20th century, urban development reached the areas of Getxoko Andra Mari.
Getxo, as well as the area known as Uribe-Kosta. While in the early 80s the town had only 50,000 inhabitants, the surrounding towns of Leioa and Sopelana have seen multiplied their population in the same period. Getxo was hit by the Basque Conflict several times, with the town being the location of many ETA attacks, the deadliest of these was an ambush in October 1978 when three civil guards were killed and the most recent the car bomb attack on May 19,2008. Many activists of the organisation have been born in Getxo, such as Arkaitz Goikoetxea and it is located 14 km north of Bilbao, in the province and historical Territory of Biscay, in the community of the Basque Country, in the north of Spain. It has a surface of 11.64 km² and it borders in the north with Sopelana, in the east with Berango and Lejona, in the south with Portugalete and in the west with the Bay of the Cove. The municipality officially encompasses the neighborhoods of Las Arenas, Romo, but for the inhabitants of Getxo there is a more thorough division, Las Arenas, Las Mercedes, Santa Ana, Zugazarte y Antiguo Golf.
Algorta, Algorta centre, María Cristina, Arrigunaga, Villamonte, La Humedad, Fadura, Usategui, Portu Zaharra / Puerto Viejo and Bidezábal. Aiboa Santa María de Guecho / Getxoko Andra Mari, Malakate, Punta Galea, Avenida del Ángel, Las Arenas and Neguri arose in the late nineteenth century as residential areas for the Basque industrial bourgeoisie. Neguri neighborhood is characterized by the palaces in which lived the elite of the bourgeoisie, the name of Neguri was coined by Resurrección María de Azkue, since previously it was called Aretxetaurre. Neguri comes from the merger of two Basque words and uri, Neguko hiri, the city designed, as has been noted. The neighborhood of Algorta is the district of largest population of Getxo, the greatest expansion was in the 70s when middle-class families decided to find a more comfortable place to live rather than in the neighborhoods of the left bank of the Nervion
Metro Bilbao is a rapid transit system serving the city of Bilbao and the region of Greater Bilbao. Its lines have a Y shape, with two lines that both banks of the Nervión river and combine to form one line that ends in the south of Bilbao. The network of Metro Bilbao is connected with Euskotren Tranbia, Bilboko Aldiriak, Euskotren Trena, Feve, as of 2013, the Metro operates on 43.28 kilometers of route, with 42 stations with 80 accesses. It is the third largest Metro company in Spain by number of passengers carried behind the Madrid, on February 21,2007, the Basque Government announced a project for the construction of a third metro line, which in the future will be expanded to Bilbao Airport. Construction of the new line began in July 2008, on January 25,2008, the preliminary layout of lines four and five was published. At the same time, the University of the Basque Country requested the construction of Line 6 in order to connect Leioa and Getxo with Asua Valley going through the university campus.
The section between the stations of San Inazio and Etxebarri is the same for Lines 2 and 1 with 10.39 kilometres, Bolueta Station Euskotren Trena, L1, L1d and L3 Bizkaibus, Lines A2610, A3613, A3621, A3622, A3918, A3928 and A3929. At the same time, Urbinaga Station was built with the intention of connecting lines C1 and C2 of Cercanías, these connection projects have not been finished as of 2011. Eventually the Urbinaga project was restarted in 2009 and that future intermodal station will take advantage of the future Leioa-Urbinaga Tram. Its construction was expected to start at the end of 2009, the idea of building a metro system in the city of Bilbao is an old one. In the 1920s the citys council prepared a project to build a system in the neighbourhoods of Abando. Soon after, the crises and the Spanish Civil War put a definitive end to the project. In 1971 the government of Biscay, the Bilbao City Council, in 1976, five years later, the Biscay Transport Consortium was created. In that same year two proposals were created to start a service in 1985, the first of them is almost identical to the current network. A year a project was created to build the metro, however lots of objections were raised against it, in 1985 the construction plans were altered and a new project was created.
Finally in 1987 the Basque Government approved the plan to build, a metro system was deemed to be the best way to improve congestion problems in the evolving and regenerating city. The contract for the metro system in Bilbao was awarded to the architects Sir Norman Foster. The same year the first underground station was opened in Erandio, in 1989 construction began in the city centre, where the main Moyúa square was closed to pedestrians until 1997
A ferry is a merchant vessel used to carry passengers, and sometimes vehicles and cargo as well, across a body of water. Most ferries operate regular return services, a passenger ferry with many stops, such as in Venice, Italy, is sometimes called a water bus or water taxi. Ferries form a part of the transport systems of many waterside cities and islands. However, ship connections of much larger distances may be called ferry services, the profession of the ferryman is embodied in Greek mythology in Charon, the boatman who transported souls across the River Styx to the Underworld. Speculation that a pair of oxen propelled a ship having a wheel can be found in 4th century Roman literature Anonymus De Rebus Bellicis. Though impractical, there is no reason why it could not work and such a ferry, see When Horses Walked on Water, Horse-Powered Ferries in Nineteenth-Century America. The Marine Services Company of Tanzania offers passenger and cargo services in three of the African Great Lakes viz, Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika and Lake Nyasa.
It operates one of the oldest ferries in the region, Ferries from Great Britain sail to Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway and Ireland. Some ferries carry mainly tourist traffic, but most carry freight, in Britain, car-carrying ferries are sometimes referred to as RORO for the ease by which vehicles can board and leave. The busiest single ferry route is across the part of Øresund. Before the Øresund bridge was opened in July 2000, car and car & train ferries departed up to seven times every hour, in 2013, this has been reduced, but a car ferry still departs from each harbor every 15 minutes during daytime. The route is around 2.2 nautical miles and the crossing takes 22 minutes, all ferries on this route are constructed so that they do not need to turn around in the harbors. This means that the ferries lack natural stems and sterns, due to the same circumstances and port-side are dynamic and depending of in what direction the ferry sails. Despite the short crossing, the ferries are equipped with restaurants, kiosks, large cruiseferries sail in the Baltic Sea between Finland, Åland, Estonia and Saint Petersburg and from Italy to Sardinia, Corsica and Greece.
In many ways, these ferries are like cruise ships, many smaller ferries operate on domestic routes in Finland and Estonia. The south-west and southern parts of the Baltic Sea has several routes mainly for heavy traffic, on the longer of these routes, simple cabins are available. In Istanbul, ferries connect the European and Asian shores of Bosphorus, as well as Princes Islands, in 2014 İDO transported 47 million passengers, the largest ferry system in the world. Due to the numbers of freshwater lakes and length of shoreline in Canada
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
Estuary of Bilbao
The Estuary of Bilbao lies at the common mouth of the rivers Nervion and Cadagua, that drain most of Biscay and part of Alava in the Basque Country, Spain. In this instance, the Spanish word estuario is used to describe what in English would normally be called part estuary, the estuary becomes a tidal river which extends 16 km into the city of Bilbao, starting from the Bilbao Abra bay. It hosts the port of Bilbao throughout its length, although the Port Authority has recently restored most of the upper reaches to Bilbao, the port is now being transferred to the seaboard on the coast at Santurtzi and Zierbena. Downstream from Bilbao the river divides its metropolitan area in its left bank (Barakaldo, Sestao and Santurtzi, the estuary and tidal river of Bilbao have always been a significant part of the city. Bilbao was born 700 years ago on the banks of the river Nervión as a trading village and it gradually expanded downstream until arriving at the sea. Unfortunately, the river reached high levels of contamination because of the activities during the past century
Biscay is a province of Spain located just south of the Bay of Biscay. The name refers to a territory of the Basque Country. It is one of the most prosperous and important provinces of Spain as a result of the massive industrialization in the last years of the 19th century, since the deep deindustrialization of the 1970s, the economy has come to rely more on the services sector. It is accepted in linguistics that Bizkaia is a cognate of bizkar, “Bizkaia” is the Basque denomination recommended by the Royal Academy of the Basque language, and it is commonly used on official documents on that language. It is used on documents in Spanish, and it is the most used denomination by the media in Spanish in the Basque Country. It is the used in the Basque version of the Spanish constitution. Bizkaia is the official denomination approved for the historical territory by the Juntas Generales of the province. “Vizcaya” is the denomination in Spanish, recommended by the Royal Spanish Academy and it is used in non-official documents and, in general, by Spanish speakers.
It is the Spanish denomination used in the Spanish version of the Constitution, Biscay has been inhabited since the Middle Paleolithic, as attested by the archaeological remains and cave paintings found in its many caves. The Roman presence had little impact in the region, and the Basque language, Biscay was identified in records of the Middle Ages, as a dependency of the Kingdom of Pamplona that became autonomous and finally a part of the Crown of Castile. The first mention of the name Biscay was recorded in an act to the monastery of Bickaga. According to Anton Erkoreka, the Vikings had a base there from which they were expelled by 825. The ria of Mundaka is the easiest route to the river Ebro and at the end of it, in the modern age, the province became a major commercial and industrial area. Its prime harbour of Bilbao soon became the main Castilian gateway to Europe, later, in the 19th and 20th centuries, the abundance of prime quality iron ore and the lack of feudal castes favored rapid industrialization.
The first evidence of dwellings in Biscay happens in this period of prehistory. Mousterian artifacts have been found in three sites in Biscay, Benta Laperra and Murua, chatelperronian culture can be found in Santimamiñe cave. The Benta Laperra cave has the oldest paintings, maybe from the Aurignacian or Solutrean period and bear are the animals depicted, together with abstract signs. The murals of Arenaza and Santimamiñe were created in periods, in Arenaza female deer are the dominant motif, Santimamiñe features bison, horses and deer