Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder is a German politician, served as Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005, during which his most important political project was the Agenda 2010. As a member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, he led a coalition government of the SPD and the Greens. Before becoming a full-time politician, he was a lawyer, before becoming Chancellor he served as Prime Minister of Lower Saxony. Following the 2005 federal election, which his party lost, after three weeks of negotiations he stood down as Chancellor in favour of Angela Merkel of the rival Christian Democratic Union, he is the chairman of the board of Nord Stream AG and of Rosneft, after having been hired as a global manager by investment bank Rothschild, the chairman of the board of football club Hannover 96. Schröder was born in Mossenberg, German Reich, his father, Fritz Schröder, a lance corporal in the Wehrmacht, was killed in action in World War II in Romania on 4 October 1944 six months after Gerhard's birth.
His mother, worked as an agricultural laborer so that she could support herself and her two sons. Schröder completed an apprenticeship in retail sales in a Lemgo hardware shop from 1958 to 1961 and subsequently worked in a Lage retail shop and after that as an unskilled construction worker and a sales clerk in Göttingen while studying at night school for a general qualification for university entrance, he did not have to do military service. In 1966, Schröder secured entrance to a university, passing the Abitur exam at Westfalen-Kolleg, Bielefeld. From 1966–71 he studied law at the University of Göttingen. From 1972 onwards, Schröder served as a scientific assistant at the university. In 1976, he passed his second law examination, he subsequently worked as a lawyer until 1990. Among his more controversial cases, Schröder helped Horst Mahler, a founding member of the Baader-Meinhof terrorist group, to secure both an early release from prison and permission to practice law again in Germany. Schröder joined the Social Democratic Party in 1963.
In 1978 he became the federal chairman of the Young Socialists, the youth organisation of the SPD. He spoke for the dissident Rudolf Bahro, as did President Jimmy Carter, Herbert Marcuse, Wolf Biermann. In 1980, Schröder was elected to the German Bundestag, where he wore a sweater instead of the traditional suit. Under the leadership of successive chairmen Herbert Wehner and Hans-Jochen Vogel, he served in the SPD parliamentary group, he became chairman of the SPD Hanover district. In a frequently-cited and undenied newspaper story, a drunken Schröder is reported to have stood in 1982 outside the forbidding modernist chancellery building in Bonn, clutching the black iron railings and yelling: "I want to get in." That same year, he wrote an article on the idea of a red/green coalition for a book at Olle & Wolter, Berlin. Chancellor Willy Brandt, the SPD and SI chairman, who reviewed Olle & Wolter at that time, had just asked for more books on the subject. In 1985, Schröder met the GDR leader Erich Honecker during a visit to East Berlin.
In 1986, Schröder became leader of the SPD group. After the SPD won the state elections in June 1990, Schröder became Minister-President of Lower Saxony as head of an SPD-Greens coalition, he was subsequently appointed to the supervisory board of Volkswagen, the largest company in Lower Saxony and of which the state of Lower Saxony is a major stockholder. Following his election as Minister-President in 1990, Schröder became a member of the board of the federal SPD. In 1997 and 1998, he served as President of the Bundesrat. During Schröder’s time in office, first in coalition with the environmentalist Green Party with a clear majority, Lower Saxony became one of the most deficit-ridden of Germany's 16 federal states and unemployment rose higher than the national average of 12 percent. Ahead of the 1994 elections, SPD chairman Rudolf Scharping included Schröder in his shadow cabinet for the party’s campaign to unseat incumbent Helmut Kohl as Chancellor. During the campaign, Schröder served as shadow minister of economic affairs and transport.
In 1996, Schröder caused controversy by taking a free ride on the Volkswagen corporate jet to attend the Vienna Opera Ball, along with Volkswagen CEO Ferdinand Piëch. The following year, he nationalized a big steel mill in Lower Saxony to preserve jobs. In the 1998 state elections, Schöder’s Social Democrats increased their share of the vote by about four percentage points over the 44.3 percent they recorded in the previous elections in 1994 – a postwar record for the party in Lower Saxony that reversed a string of Social Democrat reversals in state elections elsewhere. First term, 1998–2002 Following the 1998 national elections, Schröder became Chancellor as head of an SPD-Green coalition. Throughout his campaign for Chancellor, he portrayed himself as a pragmatic new Social Democrat who would promote economic growth while strengthening Germany's generous social welfare system. After the resignation of Oskar Lafontaine as SPD Chairman in March 1999, in protest at Schröder's adoption of a number of what Lafontaine considered "neo-liberal" policies, Schröder took over his rival's office as well.
In a move meant to signal a deepening alliance between Schröder and Prime Minister Tony Blair of the United Kingdom, the two leaders issued an eighteen-page manifesto for economic reform in June 1999. Titled Europe: The Third Way, or Die Neue Mitte in German, it called on Europe's cen
The ARIA Charts are the main Australian music sales charts, issued weekly by the Australian Recording Industry Association. The charts are a record of the highest selling albums in various genres in Australia. ARIA became the official Australian music chart in June 1988, succeeding the Kent Music Report, Australia's national charts since 1974; the Go-Set charts were Australia's first national singles and albums charts published from 5 October 1966 until 24 August 1974. Succeeding Go-Set, the Kent Music Report began issuing the national top 100 charts in Australia from May 1974; the compiler, David Kent published Australia's national charts from 1940–1974 in a retrospective fashion using state based data. In mid 1983, the Australian Recording Industry Association commenced licensing the Kent Music Report chart; the first printed national top 50 chart available in record stores, branded the Countdown chart, was dated the week ending 10 July 1983. ARIA began compiling its own charts in-house from the chart survey dated 13 June 1988, corresponding with the printed top 50 chart dated week ending 26 June 1988.
Various artists compilation albums were included in the albums chart, as they had been on the Kent Report chart, until 2 July 1989, when a separate Compilations chart was created. The ARIA Report, detailing the top 100 singles and albums charts, was first available via subscription in January 1990; the printed top 50 chart ceased publication in June 1998, but resumed publication in the year. The printed top 50 chart again ceased publication at the end of 2000; the ARIA charts are based on data collected from digital retailers in Australia. Data of physical sales come from retailers such as Sanity and JB Hi-Fi, while data of digital sales come from online retailers such as iTunes. Since 17 February 1997, all physical sales data contributing towards the chart has been recorded electronically at point of sale. In March 1991, "Do the Bartman" by The Simpsons was the first single to reach #1 in Australia, not available on 7 inch vinyl, but cassingle only. Starting from 8 October 2006, due to low physical single sales at the time, the ARIA singles chart included online data as well as physical sales.
In 2006, it was announced that the Brazin retailing group, comprising major retailers HMV, Sanity and Virgin music/DVD stores would no longer contribute sales data to the ARIA charts. However, after a five-month absence, Brazin re-commenced contributing sales figures to the ARIA Charts on 26 November 2006; the ARIA website publishes the top 50 singles and albums charts, top 40 digital tracks chart, top 20 dance singles chart. The ARIA Report is available via paid e-mail subscription each week; these reports are uploaded to the Pandora Archive periodically. On 5 February 2006, the ARIA Chart Show was a radio program launched on the Nova network and broadcast throughout Australia, playing the official ARIA top 50 singles; the live music program was hosted by Jabba each Sunday afternoon at 3:00pm. From 1 June 2013 to 3 September 2016, the Take 40 Australia radio program broadcast the official ARIA top 40 singles on Saturday afternoons from 2:00 pm to 6:00 pm, on each state's Hit Network-owned radio station.
The show was aired before the top 50 chart, dated for the following Monday, is published on the ARIA website at 6:00 pm. The charts were published online at 6:00 pm each Sunday. ARIA Top 100 Singles Chart ARIA Top 100 Albums Chart ARIA Top 100 Physical Albums Chart ARIA Top 50 Digital Tracks Chart ARIA Top 50 Digital Albums Chart ARIA Top 50 Streaming Tracks Chart ARIA Top 50 Club Tracks Chart ARIA Top 50 Catalogue Albums Chart ARIA Top 40 Urban Singles Chart ARIA Top 40 Urban Albums Chart ARIA Top 40 Country Albums Chart ARIA Top 40 Music DVDs Chart ARIA Top 25 Dance Singles Chart ARIA Top 25 Dance Albums Chart ARIA Top 20 Australian Artist Singles Chart ARIA Top 20 Australian Artist Albums Chart ARIA Top 20 Compilation Albums Chart ARIA Top 20 Jazz & Blues Albums Chart ARIA Top 20 Classical/Crossover Albums Chart ARIA Top 10 Core Classical Albums Chart ARIA Top 20 Hitseekers Singles Chart ARIA Top 20 Hitseekers Albums Chart Yearly Top 100 End of Year charts profiling the year in music End of Decade Top 100 charts profiling the decade in music Pre-2000: 2000 to present: 2006 to present: Pre-2000: 2000 to present: 2016 to present: Music of Australia List of Australian chart achievements and milestones Official website Top 50 chart archives from June 1988 at australian-charts.com Top 100 chart archives from January 2001 at Pandora Archive
Australian Recording Industry Association
The Australian Recording Industry Association is a trade group representing the Australian recording industry, established in 1983 by six major record companies, EMI, Festival, CBS, RCA, WEA and Universal replacing the Association of Australian Record Manufacturers, formed in 1956. It oversees the collection and distribution of music licenses and royalties; the association has more than 100 members, including small labels run by one to five people, medium size organisations and large companies with international affiliates. ARIA is administered by a Board of Directors comprising senior executives from record companies, both large and small; as of October 2010, the directors were Denis Handlin, George Ash, Mark Poston, Sebastian Chase, David Vodica and Tony Harlow. In 1956, the Association of Australian Record Manufacturers was formed by Australia's major record companies, it was replaced in 1983 by the Australian Recording Industry Association, established by the six major record companies operating in Australia, EMI, Festival Records, CBS, RCA, WEA and Polygram.
It included smaller record companies representing independent acts/labels and has over 100 members. By 1997, the six major labels provided 90% of all recordings made in Australia. ARIA is administered by a Board of Directors comprising senior executives from record companies, both large and small; as of October 2010, the directors were Denis Handlin, George Ash, Mark Poston, Sebastian Chase, David Vodica and Tony Harlow. Australian TV pop music show Countdown presented its own annual awards ceremony, Countdown Music and Video Awards, co-produced by Carolyn James during 1981–1984 in collaboration with ARIA. ARIA provided peer voting for some awards, while Countdown provided coupons in the related Countdown Magazine for viewers to vote for populist awards. At the 1985 Countdown awards ceremony, held on 14 April 1986, fans of INXS and Uncanny X-Men scuffled during the broadcast and as a result ARIA decided to hold their own awards. Since 2 March 1987, ARIA administered its own peer-voted ARIA Music Awards, to "recognise excellence and innovation in all genres of Australian music" with an annual ceremony.
Included in the same awards ceremonies, it established the ARIA Hall of Fame in 1988 and has held separate annual ceremonies since 2005. The ARIA Hall of Fame "honours Australian musicians' achievements have had a significant impact in Australia or around the world". In February 2004, the Australian Record Industry Association announced its own legal action against Kazaa, alleging massive copyright breaches; the trial began on 29 November 2004. On 6 February 2005, the homes of two Sharman Networks executives and the offices of Sharman Networks in Australia were raided under a court order by ARIA to gather evidence for the trial. In 2006, ARIA formed sponsorship deals with Motorola and Nova and changed the appearance and conduct of the charting. Motorola took naming-rights sponsorship seeing the charts referred to in the media as the Motorola ARIA Charts. ARIA, have commented that as part of the same marketing printed charts would be reintroduced into media retailing shops and their website would be redesigned.
As part of the deal Nova began broadcasting the charted singles in reverse order on a Sunday afternoon show before it was released on the ARIA charts website. The ARIA Charts is the main Australian music sales charts, issued weekly by the Australian Recording Industry Association; the charts are a record of albums in various genres. All charts are compiled from data of both digital sales from retailers in Australia. A music single or album qualifies for a platinum certification if it exceeds 70,000 copies shipped to retailers and a gold certification for 35,000 copies shipped; the diamond certification was created for albums in November 2015 to mark 500,000 sales/shipments. For music DVDs, a gold accreditation represented 7,500 copies shipped, with a platinum accreditation representing 15,000 units shipped. Prior to ARIA taking on the role of certification authority in 1983, the music industry used the following certification levels: The ARIA No. 1 Chart Awards were established in 2002 to recognise Australian recording artists, who reached number one on the ARIA albums and music DVDs charts.
The ARIA Music Awards is an annual series of awards nights celebrating the Australian music industry. The event has been held annually since 1987. Like most recording industry associations, ARIA has been criticised for fighting copyright infringement matters aggressively, although in Australia this has taken the form of aggressive advertising campaigns in cinemas directly preceding movies; this criticism is stauncher in Australia due to the absence of an equivalent Digital Millennium Copyright Act or state crimes acts which establish copyright infringement as a crime. In February 2004, the Australian Record Industry Association took legal action against Kazaa, alleging massive copyright breaches; the trial began on 29 November 2004. On 6 Febr
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
HitQuarters is an international music industry publication and contact database founded in 1999. It is noted for its in-depth interviews with industry figures, as well as its A&R and manager contact directory, free artist promo pages and song sale facility, demo reviews and A&R chart, is the sister site to the songwriting tip sheet SongQuarters; the site has been sporadically active since May 2017, no posts have been made on its Twitter and Facebook accounts since March and May 2015 respectively. The website haa a strong focus on offering unsigned and independent artists and producers in tools to help develop their music careers, whether through attracting the attentions of record label A&R and management, pitching songs and tracks and marketing music independently, or just learning more about how the music industry works. To this aim the website features an extensive contact database known as HitTracker, where users can find contact information for A&R, managers and songwriters based on their track records, a news bulletin service, free artist promo pages, demo review feature judged by A&Rs, producers and managers, an archive of several hundred interviews with industry figures that are geared towards offering constructive career advice and industry know-how.
Members of HitQuarters that have gone on to find success include Christelle, The Knife, Dominique Young Unique, Bobby Creekwater, Lesley Roy and State of Shock. One of HitQuarters' most prominent features is its weekly in-depth interviews with major industry figures such as A&Rs, managers, songwriters and publishers. Interviewees include pop impresario and entertainment mogul Simon Cowell, industry executives and A&R Martin Kierszenbaum, Mike Caren, Jason Flom, Peter Edge, Chris Hicks, Richard Russell, Miles Leonard and Ron Fair, managers Jonathan Dickins, Louis Walsh and Eric Härle, songwriters Diane Warren, Wayne Hector, Rami Yacoub and Andreas Carlsson, producers RedOne, Chris Braide, Steve Mac, JR Rotem, Richard X and Phil Ek, songwriter, producer and A&R Linda Perry; the website runs a regular demo review feature where a changing panel of industry experts review songs uploaded to the site by unsigned artists, assessing their hit potential and offering advice on how the tracks can be improved.
Judges included Visible Noise CEO Julie Weir, producers Colin Richardson and Eddie Galan and producer and publisher Steve "Blast" Wills. HitQuarters founded the world's first A&R chart that measured the success of individual A&R representatives based on points accumulated from their respective artists' chart success. Most notably, 2004 saw Wind-Up Records' Diana Meltzer become the first woman to top HitQuarters' World Top 100 A&R Chart, a considerable achievement in what is traditionally a male dominated field. Previous number 1s included Clive Davis, Tommy Mottola, Dr. Dre, Mark Williams. HitQuarters is a companion site to SongQuarters, an online tip sheet for "songwriting leads to major and developing artists", it shares the same contact directory as HitQuarters and its members automatically had access to the HitQuarters site. It was a subscription-based service with 7-day trials available for those wanting to try it out first; the songwriting leads are split into three categories according to the level of the artist they relate to:'Top 500','Newly Signed and Developing' and'Unsigned and Up-and-coming'.
Official HitQuarters Facebook page, no posts since 2015 Official Twitter, no posts since 2015
2002 Gibraltar sovereignty referendum
The Gibraltar sovereignty referendum of 2002 was a referendum, called by the Government of Gibraltar and was held on 7 November 2002 within the British overseas territory on a proposal by the UK Government to share sovereignty of the territory between Spain and the United Kingdom. The result was a rejection of the proposal by a landslide majority, with only just over one per cent of the electorate in favour. Although Gibraltar was ceded to the British Crown under Article X of the Treaty of Utrecht, Spain has wished to recover the territory, first by force and by restrictions and diplomacy. Recovering sovereignty remains a stated objective of successive Spanish Governments. In July 2001, Foreign Secretary Jack Straw began discussing the future of Gibraltar with Spain, a year in July 2002, following secret talks with Spain announced that "the UK was willing to share sovereignty of Gibraltar with Spain" and that "the final decision would rest with the people of Gibraltar in a referendum."HM Government of Gibraltar decided to hold its own referendum on 7 November 2002 regarding the proposal of shared sovereignty with Spain, which it opposed.
This pre-empted any referendum planned to be held after the negotiations between Britain and Spain had concluded. Jack Straw described the Gibraltar referendum as "eccentric", Britain's Foreign Office announced it would not recognise its results. Although Straw had felt confident enough to announce that there had been talks on joint sovereignty, a number of issues still remained to be resolved. Firstly, Spain was insisting on a time element for a full transfer of sovereignty to Spain. Secondly, Spain would not agree to give Gibraltar a referendum on either joint sovereignty or self-determination. Spain wanted a greater role than joint use of Gibraltar as a military base. Researcher Peter Gold argued in a 2009 paper that these disagreements made the possibility of an agreement being finalised remote; the Gibraltar Referendum 2002 asked the voters of Gibraltar their opinion in the following words: On 12 July 2002 the Foreign Secretary, Jack Straw, in a formal statement in the House of Commons, said that after twelve months of negotiation the British Government and Spain are in broad agreement on many of the principles that should underpin a lasting settlement of Spain's sovereignty claim, which included the principle that Britain and Spain should share sovereignty over Gibraltar.
Do you approve of the principle that Britain and Spain should share sovereignty over Gibraltar? Permitting a simple YES / NO answer. Peter Caruana, the Chief Minister of Gibraltar, said of the result: "We say to the British Government: Take stock of this referendum result, it's the will of the people of Gibraltar", that the planned path to joint sovereignty was a "dead end road for everyone"; the Government of Gibraltar invited a panel of observers headed by Gerald Kaufman MP. Their report stated that "The observers were impressed with the organisation of the referendum and welcome that the role of the observers was integral to the process, as distinct from the more passive role of observers in other elections; the meticulous way in which votes were counted exceeded requirements and went beyond requirements adopted for UK elections". Reaction in Spain was negative, with El País calling the referendum a "dishonest consultation", while Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs Ana Palacio described it as "illegal" and "against all the UN resolutions".
However, El País said that "no Spanish Government, neither this one or its predecessors, has done enough to make joint sovereignty or integration with Spain an attractive prospect". In London, Jack Straw was criticised by the Commons foreign affairs committee, whose report stated that he was wrong to agree to joint sovereignty with Spain, when this was unacceptable to the people of Gibraltar; the report emphasised the importance of the referendum, which represented the views of Gibraltarians. The Telegraph said "the people of Gibraltar today overwhelmingly rejected the principle of Britain sharing sovereignty of the Rock with Spain". Prior to the referendum the British Government stated that it would not recognise the outcome. After the referendum Gibraltar's Government felt it could demand a say in its future in any talks with Spain. Under an initiative started in 1999, the Government of Gibraltar together with opposition parties negotiated a new constitution for Gibraltar; the major sticking point in negotiations was the desire by Gibraltar politicians for a preamble whereby the "British Government ought to commit itself to the question of self-determination in unequivocal terms."
The British Government sought to avoid doing so but when there was a cabinet reshuffle and a new foreign secretary, the new incumbent was more willing to listen to the views of Gibraltar officials. There was a shift in the British Government policy on Gibraltar that recognised the preamble to the 1969 constitution was sacrosanct, that any discussions on sovereignty would involve Gibraltar and future discussions on sovereignty with Spain would require an improved relationship between Spain and Gibraltar; the British Government compromised recognising its commitment in the 1969 constitution that it would not negotiate with Spain without the consent of people of Gibraltar. The compromise lead to the Gibraltar Constitution Order 2006 in which the powers of the Governor were reduced and transferred to local officials and a bill of "fundamental rights and freedoms" enshrined in the constitution. Although this had cross-party support in Gibraltar, when submitted to a referendum on adoption a significant no vote emerged.
Although reasons were diverse, there wer
British Phonographic Industry
The BPI Limited known as the British Phonographic Industry or BPI, is the British recorded music industry's trade association. Its membership comprises hundreds of music companies including all three "major" record companies in the UK, hundreds of independent music labels and small to medium-sized music businesses, it has represented the interests of British record companies since being formally incorporated in 1973 when the principal aim was to promote British music and fight copyright infringement. In 2007, the association's legal name was changed from British Phonographic Industry Limited, it founded the annual BRIT Awards for the British music industry in 1977, The Classic BRIT Awards. The organizing company, BRIT Awards Limited, is a owned subsidiary of the BPI. Proceeds from both shows go to the BRIT Trust, the charitable arm of the BPI that has donated £15m to charitable causes nationwide since its foundation in 1989. In September 2013, the BPI presented the first BRITs Icon Award to Sir Elton John.
The BPI endorsed the launch of the Mercury Prize for the Album of the Year in 1992. The recorded music industry's Certified Awards program, which attributes Platinum and Silver status to singles and music videos based on their sales performance, has been administered by the BPI since its inception in 1973. In September 2008, the BPI became one of the founding members of UK Music, an umbrella organisation representing the interests of all parts of the industry; the charitable arm of the BPI, the trust was conceived in 1989 by a collection of leading music industry individuals with a mission to give young people a chance to express their musical creativity regardless of race, sex or ability. The BRIT Trust is the only music charity supporting all types of education across the entire spectrum of music. Through the projects it supports, which include Nordoff-Robbins Music Therapy and the BRIT School, the Trust offers young people the opportunity to enhance their lives through music. Proceeds from the BRIT Awards and the Classic BRITs shows go to the BRIT Trust, which has donated £15m to charitable causes nationwide since its foundation.
Opened in September 1991, the BRIT School is a joint venture between The BRIT Trust and the Department for Education and Skills. Based at Selhurst in Croydon, the school is the only non fee-paying performing arts school in the UK, it teaches up to 1,100 students each year aged from 14–19 years in music, drama, musical theatre, production and art & design. Students are from diverse backgrounds and are not required to stick to their own discipline. Nor do students have to work/perform in the evening to pay for the tuition; the BPI administers the BRIT Certified Platinum, Gold and Bronze awards scheme for music releases in the United Kingdom. The level of the award varies depending on the format of the release and the level of sales achieved. Although the awards program was for many years based on the level of shipments by record labels to retailers, since July 2013, certifications have been automatically allocated by the BPI upon the relevant sales thresholds being achieved. Member companies do, still have the option to certify titles based on shipment levels if they choose to.
Since July 2014, audio streaming has been included for singles at a ratio of 100 streams equivalent to 1 unit. From June 2015, audio streams were added to album certifications. According to BPI, they would take the 12 most-streamed tracks from the standard version of an album, with the top two songs down-weighted in line with the average of the rest; the total of these streams will be divided by 1,000 and added to the physical and digital sales of the album. On 6 April 2018, the BPI announced changes to its certifications. A new Bronze certification was introduced, which will be awarded to an artist's first album to reach 30,000 units. Additionally, the program was re-branded as BRIT Certified, with public promotion of the programme being assumed by the BRIT Awards' social media outlets and digital properties. Chief executive Geoff Taylor justified the change by stating that it was part of an effort to cross-promote the certifications with "the UK's biggest platform for artistic achievement".
Adam Barker – Universal Music UK Mike Batt LVO – Deputy chairman, BPI - Dramatico Entertainment John Craig OBE – First Night Records Jonathan Cross – Warner Music UK Nick Gatfield – Sony Music Entertainment Nick Hartley – PIAS David Joseph – Universal Music UK Max Lousada – Warner Music UK Korda Marshall – Infectious Music Iain McNay – Cherry Red Records Emma Pike – Sony Music Entertainment Peter Stack – Union Square Music Geoff Taylor – Chief executive officer, BPI and BRIT Awards Limited Tony Wadsworth CBE – Chairman, BPI and BRIT Awards Limited Kiaron Whitehead – General counsel, BPISource: BPI The BPI have developed bespoke software and automated crawling tools created in-house by the BPI search for members repertoire across more than 400 known infringing sites and generate URLs which are sent to Google as a DMCA Notice for removal within hours of receipt. Additionally, personnel are seconded to the City of London Police Intellectual Property Crime Unit to support anti-"piracy" operations.
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