Inglewood is a city in southwestern Los Angeles County, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the city had a population of 109,673, it was incorporated on February 14, 1908. The city is in the South Bay region of Los Angeles County. Los Angeles Stadium at Hollywood Park is under construction in the city and, when completed around 2020, will be the new home of both the National Football League's Los Angeles Rams and Los Angeles Chargers; the city is close to Los Angeles International Airport. The earliest residents of what is now Inglewood were Native Americans who used the natural springs in today's Edward Vincent Jr. Park. Local historian Gladys Waddingham wrote that these springs took the name Centinela from the hills that rose around them and which allowed ranchers to watch over their herds "". Waddingham traced the written history of Inglewood back to the original settlers of Los Angeles in 1781, one of whom was the Spanish soldier Jose Manuel Orchado Machado, "a 23-year-old muleteer from Los Alamos in Sinaloa".
These settlers, she wrote, were ordered by the officials of the San Gabriel Mission "to graze their animals on the ocean side of Los Angeles in order not to infringe on Mission lands." As a result, the settlers, or pobladores, drove some of their cattle to the "lush pasture lands near Centinela Springs," and the first construction there was done by one Ygnacio Avila, who received a permit in 1822 to build a "corral and hut for his herders." Avila constructed a three-room adobe on a slight rise overlooking the creek that ran from Centinela Springs all the way to the ocean. According to the LAOkay web site, this adobe was built where the present baseball field is in the park, it no longer exists. In 1834, Ygnacio Machado, one of the sons of Jose Machado, built the Centinela Adobe, which sits on a rise above the present 405 San Diego Freeway and is used as the headquarters of the Centinela Valley Historical Society. Two years Waddingham writes, Ygnacio was granted the 2,220-acre Rancho Aguaje de la Centinela though this land had been claimed by Avila.
Inglewood Park Cemetery, a used cemetery for the entire region, was founded in 1905. The city has been home to the Hollywood Park Racetrack from 1938 to 2013, one of the premier horse racing venues in the United States. Fosters Freeze, the first soft serve ice cream chain in California, was founded by George Foster in 1946 in Inglewood. Inglewood was named an All-America City by the National Civic League in 1989 and yet again in 2009 for its visible progress. On January 12, 2016, Inglewood was selected to be the home of the Los Angeles Rams of the National Football League. Ku Klux Klan activities in Inglewood during the 20th century were highlighted by the 1922 arrest and trial of 37 men, most of them masked, for a night-time raid on a suspected bootlegger and his family; the raid led to the shooting death of one of an Inglewood police officer. A jury returned a "not guilty" verdict for all defendants, it was this scandal, according to the Los Angeles Times, that led to the outlawing of the Klan in California.
The Klan had a chapter in Inglewood as late as October 1931. "No blacks had lived in Inglewood," Gladys Waddingham wrote, but by 1960, "they lived in great numbers along its eastern borders. This came to the great displeasure of the predominantly white residents residing in Inglewood. In 1960, the census counted only 29'Negroes' among Inglewood's 63,390 residents. Not a single black child attended the city's schools. Real estate agents refused to show homes to blacks. A rumored curfew kept blacks off the streets at night. Inglewood was a prime target because of its history of restrictions." "Fair housing and school busing were the main problems of 1964. The schools were not prepared to handle racial incidents though any that occurred were minor. Adults held many heated community meetings, since the Blacks objected to busing as much as did the Whites." In 1969, an organization called "Morningside Neighbors" changed its name to "Inglewood Neighbors" "in the hope of promoting more integration."On February 3, 1969, Harold P. Moret became Inglewood's first black police officer.
A full year Jimmy Lee Worsham became the second. He was followed by Barbara Harris, the first black female officer Otis Hendricks, Melvin Lovelace and Eugene Lindsey; the 7th black officer in the history of the City of Inglewood was Jr.. He became Inglewood's first black Motorcycle Traffic Enforcement Officer, 1st Black Lieutenant and only black Deputy Chief in the history of the Department. Butts left Inglewood in September 1991 at the age of 38 to become the first person of color to command the Santa Monica Police Department as Chief of Police, the youngest to do so. Twenty years on February 1, 2011 Butts returned to Inglewood by being elected as its fourth black mayor. On July 22, 1970, Los Angeles Superior Court Judge Max F. Deutz ordered Inglewood schools to desegregate in response to a suit filed by 19 parents. At least since 1965, said Deutz, the Inglewood school board had been aware of a growing influx of black families into its eastern areas but had done nothing about the polarization of its pupils into an eastern black area and a western white one.
On August 31, he rejected an appeal by four parents who said the school board was not responsible for the segregation but that the blacks "selected their places of residence by voluntary choice."The first black principal among the 18 Inglewood schools was Peter Butler at La Tijera Elementary, in 1971, Waddingham wrote, "Stormy r
Long Beach, California
Long Beach is a city on the Pacific Coast of the United States, within the Los Angeles metropolitan area of Southern California. As of 2010, its population was 462,257, it is the 7th most populous in California. Long Beach is the second-largest city in the Los Angeles metropolitan area and the third largest in Southern California behind Los Angeles and San Diego. Long Beach is a charter city; the Port of Long Beach is the second busiest container port in the United States and is among the world's largest shipping ports. The city maintains a progressively declining oil industry with minor wells located both directly beneath the city as well as offshore. Manufacturing sectors include those in aircraft, automotive parts, electronic equipment, audiovisual equipment, precision metals and home furnishings. Long Beach lies in the southeastern corner of borders Orange County. Downtown Long Beach is 22 miles south of downtown Los Angeles, though the two cities share an official border for several miles.
Indigenous people have lived in coastal Southern California for over 10,000 years, several successive cultures have inhabited the present-day area of Long Beach. By the 16th-century arrival of Spanish explorers, the dominant group was the Tongva people, they had at least three major settlements within the present-day city. Tevaaxa'anga was an inland settlement near the Los Angeles River, while Ahwaanga and Povuu'nga were coastal villages. Along with other Tongva villages, they were forced to relocate in the mid-19th century due to missionization, political change, a drastic drop in population from exposure to European diseases. In 1784 the Spanish Empire's King Carlos III granted Rancho Los Nietos to Spanish soldier Manuel Nieto; the Rancho Los Cerritos and Rancho Los Alamitos were divided from this territory. The boundary between the two ranchos ran through the center of Signal Hill on a southwest to northeast diagonal. A portion of western Long Beach was part of the Rancho San Pedro, its boundaries were in dispute for years, due to flooding changing the Los Angeles River boundary, between the ranchos of Juan Jose Dominguez and Manuel Nieto.
In 1843 Jonathan Temple bought Rancho Los Cerritos, having arrived in California in 1827 from New England. He built what is now known as the "Los Cerritos Ranch House", a still-standing adobe, a National Historic Landmark. Temple created a thriving cattle ranch and prospered, becoming the wealthiest man in Los Angeles County. Both Temple and his ranch house played important local roles in the Mexican–American War. On an island in the San Pedro Bay, Mormon pioneers made an abortive attempt to establish a colony. In 1866 Temple sold Rancho Los Cerritos for $20,000 to the Northern California sheep-raising firm of Flint, Bixby & Co, which consisted of brothers Thomas and Benjamin Flint and their cousin Lewellyn Bixby. Two years previous Flint, Bixby & Co had purchased along with Northern California associate James Irvine, three ranchos which would become the city that bears Irvine's name. To manage Rancho Los Cerritos, the company selected Lewellyn's brother Jotham Bixby, the "Father of Long Beach".
Three years Bixby bought into the property and would form the Bixby Land Company. In the 1870s as many as 30,000 sheep were kept at the ranch and sheared twice yearly to provide wool for trade. In 1880, Bixby sold 4,000 acres of the Rancho Los Cerritos to William E. Willmore, who subdivided it in hopes of creating a farm community, Willmore City, he failed and was bought out by a Los Angeles syndicate that called itself the "Long Beach Land and Water Company." They changed the name of the community at that time. The City of Long Beach was incorporated in 1897. Another Bixby cousin, John W. Bixby, was influential in the city. After first working for his cousins at Los Cerritos, J. W. Bixby leased land at Rancho Los Alamitos, he put together a group: banker I. W. Hellman and Jotham Bixby, him, to purchase the rancho. In addition to bringing innovative farming methods to the Alamitos, J. W. Bixby began the development of the oceanfront property near the city's picturesque bluffs. Under the name Alamitos Land Company, J.
W. Bixby laid out the parks of his new city; this area would include Belmont Shore and Naples. J. W. Bixby died in 1888 of apparent appendicitis; the Rancho Los Alamitos property was split up, with Hellman getting the southern third and Lewellyn, the northern third, J. W. Bixby's widow and heirs keeping the central third; the Alamitos townsite was kept as a separate entity, but at first, it was run by Lewellyn and Jotham Bixby, although I. W, Hellman had a significant veto power, an influence made stronger as the J. W. Bixby heirs began to side with Hellman more; when Jotham Bixby died in 1916, the remaining 3,500 acres of Rancho Los Cerritos was subdivided into the neighborhoods of Bixby Knolls, California Heights, North Long Beach and part of the city of Signal Hill. The town grew as a seaside resort with light agricultural uses; the Pike was the most famous beachside amusement zone on the West Coast from 1902 until 1969. The oil industry, Navy shipyard and facilities and port became the mainstays of the city.
In the 1950s it was referred to as "Iowa
Commerce is a city located in southeast Los Angeles County, United States. The population was 12,823 at the 2010 census, up from 12,568 at the 2000 census, it is bordered by Vernon on the west, Los Angeles on the northwest, East Los Angeles on the north, Montebello on the east and Bell Gardens on the south, Maywood on the southwest. The Los Angeles River forms part of its southwestern boundary, the Rio Hondo separates it from Downey. Commerce is served by the Long Beach and Santa Ana freeways, as well as the Metrolink commuter rail service at the Commerce station, it is referred to as the "City of Commerce" to distinguish it from the common noun. In the 19th century, the area was part of Antonio Maria Lugo's Rancho San Antonio, its conversion to an industrial area began in 1887, when the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway built its main line through the area. The ranch remained intact until Arcadia Bandini de Stearns Baker, reputedly once the wealthiest woman in Los Angeles, sold some of it around the turn of the 20th century.
The Atchison and Santa Fe Railway and Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad both were built through what would become the community, as was the Pacific Electric Railway's Whittier Line. By the 1920s, factories had arrived. In the late 1940s, industrial leaders banded together with residents in the communities of Bandini and Laguna to encourage commerce, they changed the name to match that goal. The city was incorporated in 1960 to prevent neighboring cities such as Vernon and Los Angeles from annexing industrial land for tax revenue and elected its first city mayor, Maurice Quigley. In the 1970s and 1980s, Commerce negotiated the turbulent period of deindustrialization that hammered nearby cities such as South Gate and Norwalk, maintaining much of its manufacturing and goods-distribution base and converting former industrial land to lucrative commercial uses; the most notable example of this phenomenon is the Citadel outlet mall, which occupies the site of a former tire factory. The owner of the Citadel, Steve Craig, hosts an annual Clean Up Commerce Day and enlists other businesses to work with the city and volunteers in beautifying a specific area of the city.
With a major rail yard within its borders, Commerce has benefited from the huge expansion in international trade traffic through the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, albeit at the expense of severe air pollution caused by truck congestion on the Long Beach Freeway. Chrysler had an assembly plant in Commerce from 1930 through July 1971 located at 5800 S. Eastern Avenue and Slauson Avenue, called Los Angeles Assembly, it was closed at the end of the 1971 model year, as Chrysler decided to triple-stack its transport trains for the 1972 model year. Commerce boasts a large aquatic center, Commerce Aquatics that has trained a number of successful water polo players, including four-time Olympic medallist Brenda Villa. Commerce is the site of Williams Ranch, on, the swimming hole that the Sleepy Lagoon Murder of Jose Diaz took place in 1942; the Sleepy Lagoon swimming hole was located near Slauson and Eastern Ave. Commerce is located at 34°0′2″N 118°9′17″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.5 square miles, over 99% of it land.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Commerce had a population of 12,823. The population density was 1,961.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Commerce was 6,930 White, 96 African American, 161 Native American, 140 Asian, 9 Pacific Islander, 4,886 from other races, 601 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12,114 persons; the Census reported that 12,753 people lived in households, 2 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 68 were institutionalized. There were 3,382 households, out of which 1,751 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,693 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 708 had a female householder with no husband present, 308 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 248 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 23 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 559 households were made up of individuals and 326 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.77. There were 2,709 families.
The population was spread out with 3,824 people under the age of 18, 1,458 people aged 18 to 24, 3,581 people aged 25 to 44, 2,590 people aged 45 to 64, 1,370 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.7 males. There were 3,470 housing units at an average density of 530.8 per square mile, of which 1,619 were owner-occupied, 1,763 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.0%. 6,631 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 6,122 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, Commerce had a median household income of $48,729, with 16.5% of the population living below the federal poverty line. As of the census of 2000, there were 12,568 people, 3,284 households, 2,686 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,913.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,377 housing units a
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Arcadia is a city in Los Angeles County, United States located about 13 miles northeast of downtown Los Angeles in the San Gabriel Valley and at the base of the San Gabriel Mountains. It is the site of the Santa Anita Park racetrack and home to the Los Angeles County Arboretum and Botanic Garden; the city had a population of 56,364 at the 2010 census, up from 53,248 at the 2000 census. The city is named after Greece. In 2016, Arcadia was ranked the 5th most expensive housing market in the United States by Business Insider, with an average list of $1,748,680 for a four-bedroom home. In 2012, Arcadia was ranked 7th in the nation on CNN Money magazine's list of towns with highest median home costs. Arcadia's Upper Rancho neighborhood was ranked the 23rd richest neighborhood in Southern California by Business Insider in 2014, with a mean household income of $310,779. In 2010, Bloomberg Businessweek named Arcadia as one of the "Best Places to Raise Your Kids" for the second year in a row. Located northeast of downtown Los Angeles, Arcadia is bordered by six other communities: Pasadena, Sierra Madre, El Monte, San Marino and Temple City.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.1 square miles. 10.9 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. The 2010 United States Census reported that Arcadia had a population of 56,364; the population density was 5,062.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Arcadia was 33,353 Asian, 18,191 White, 681 African American, 186 Native American, 16 Pacific Islander, 2,352 from other races, 1,585 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6,799 persons; the Census reported that 55,502 people lived in households, 639 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 223 were institutionalized. There were 19,592 households, out of which 7,336 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 11,703 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 2,437 had a female householder with no husband present, 865 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 469 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 92 same-sex married couples or partnerships.
3,855 households were made up of individuals and 1,926 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.83. There were 15,005 families; the population was spread out with 12,290 people under the age of 18, 4,102 people aged 18 to 24, 13,409 people aged 25 to 44, 17,349 people aged 45 to 64, 9,214 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.7 males. There were 20,686 housing units at an average density of 1,858.0 per square mile, of which 12,371 were owner-occupied, 7,221 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.1%. 37,000 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 18,502 people lived in rental housing units. These were the ten neighborhoods in Los Angeles County with the largest percentage of Asian residents, according to the 2000 census: For over 8,000 years the site of Arcadia was part of the homeland of the Tongva people, a Californian Native American tribe whose territory spanned the greater Los Angeles Basin, the San Gabriel and San Fernando Valleys.
Their fluid borders stretched between: the Santa Susana Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, San Gabriel Mountains in the north. A Tongva settlement site within present-day Arcadia was known as Alyeupkigna; the town's site became part of the Spanish Mission San Gabriel Arcángel lands in 1771. After Indian Reductions to become Mission Indians, the Tongva were known as the Gabrieliños after the Mission's name, and under whose control these people worked during the mission period in California. There are 1,700 people self-identifying as members of the Tongva or Gabrieliño tribe; the Mexican land grant for Rancho Santa Anita was issued to Perfecto Hugo Reid and his Tongva wife, Victoria Bartolomea Comicrabit, in 1845. It was named after Anita Cota, on his wife's side. Reid documented the Gabrieliño Native Americans in a series of letters written in 1852, served as a delegate to the 1849 California Constitutional Convention. In 1847, Reid sold Rancho Santa Anita to Henry Dalton; the rancho changed owners several times before being acquired by Gold Rush immigrant and major regional land owner Elias Jackson "Lucky" Baldwin in 1875.
Baldwin purchased 8,000 acres of Rancho Santa Anita for $200,000. Upon seeing the area, he gasped “By Gads! This is paradise!” Upon buying the land, Baldwin chose to make the area his home and started erecting buildings and cultivating the land for farming and ranches. Baldwin built the Queen Anne Cottage for his fourth wife and himself in 1885-1886, now preserved within the Arboretum. In 1885, the main line of the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Valley Railroad, in which Baldwin was a stockholder, was opened through the ranch, making subdivision of part of the land into a town site practical; this rail line became a Santa Fe Railroad line. In 1889, on a site just north of
Culver City, California
Culver City is a city in Los Angeles County, California. The city was named after Harry Culver; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 38,883. It is surrounded by the city of Los Angeles, but shares a border with unincorporated areas of Los Angeles County. Over the years, it has annexed more than 40 pieces of adjoining land and now comprises about five square miles. Since the 1920s, Culver City has been a center for motion picture and television production, best known as the home of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios. From 1932 to 1986, it was the headquarters for the Hughes Aircraft Company. National Public Radio West and Sony Pictures Entertainment have headquarters in the city; the NFL Network studio is based in Culver City. Archaeological evidence suggests a human presence in the area of present-day Culver City since at least 8,000 BC; the region was the homeland of the Tongva-Gabrieliño Native Americans. The city was founded on the lands of the former Rancho La Ballona, Rancho Rincon de los Bueyes, Rancho La Cienega o Paso de la Tijera.
In 1861, during the American Civil War, Camp Latham was established by the 1st California Infantry under Col. James H. Carleton and the 1st California Cavalry under Lt. Col. Benjamin F. Davis. Named for California Senator Milton S. Latham, the camp was the first staging area for the training of Union troops and their operations in Southern California, it was located on land of the Rancho La Ballona, on the South side of Ballona Creek, near what is now the intersection of Jefferson and Overland Boulevards. The post was moved to Camp Drum, which became the Drum Barracks. Harry Culver first attempted to establish Culver City in 1913; the first film studio in Culver City was built by Thomas Ince in 1918. Silent film comedy producer Hal Roach built his studios there in 1919, Metro Goldwyn Mayer in the'20s. During Prohibition and nightclubs such as the Cotton Club lined Washington Boulevard. Culver Center, one of Southern California's first shopping malls, was completed in 1950 on Venice Boulevard near the Overland Avenue intersection.
Many other retail stores, including a Rite Aid and several banks and restaurants, have occupied the center since then. Hughes Aircraft opened its Culver City plant in July 1941. There the company built the H-4 Hercules transport. Hughes was an active subcontractor in World War II, it developed and patented a flexible feed chute for faster loading of machine guns on B-17 bombers, manufactured electric booster drives for machine guns. Hughes produced more ammunition belts than any other American manufacturer, built 5,576 wings and 6,370 rear fuselage sections for Vultee BT-13 trainers. Hughes grew after the war, in 1953 Howard Hughes donated all his stock in the company to the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. After he died in 1976, the institute sold the company, which made it the second-best-endowed medical research foundation in the world; the Hal Roach Studios were demolished in 1963. In the late 1960s, much of the MGM backlot acreage, the nearby 28.5-acre of the RKO Forty Acres, once owned by RKO Pictures and Desilu Productions, were sold by their owners.
In 1976 the sets were razed to make way for redevelopment. Today the RKO site is the southern expansion of the Hayden Industrial Tract, while the MGM property has been converted to a subdivision and a shopping center known as Raintree Plaza. In the 1990s, Culver City launched a successful revitalization program in which it renovated its downtown as well as several shopping centers in the Sepulveda Boulevard corridor near Westfield Culver City. Around the same time, Sony's motion picture subsidiary, Columbia Pictures, moved into the old MGM lot; the influx of many art galleries and restaurants to the eastern part of the city, formally designated the Culver City Art District, prompted The New York Times in 2007 to praise the new art scene and call Culver City a "nascent Chelsea."In 2012 Roger Vincent of the Los Angeles Times said that, according to local observers, the city's "reputation as a pedestrian-friendly destination with upscale restaurants, gastropubs and a thriving art scene is less than a decade old."
Hundreds of movies have been produced on the lots of Culver City's studios: Sony Pictures Studios, Culver Studios, the former Hal Roach Studios. These include The Wizard of Oz, The Thin Man, Gone with the Wind, the Tarzan series, the original King Kong. More recent films made in Culver City include Grease, Raging Bull, E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial, City Slickers, Air Force One, Wag the Dog and Contact. Television series made on Culver City sets have included Las Vegas, Cougar Town, Mad About You, Hogan's Heroes, The Green Hornet, Arrested Development, The Andy Griffith Show, Gomer Pyle, U. S. M. C. Jeopardy!, The Nanny, Hell's Kitchen, MasterChef, the syndicated version of Wheel of Fortune and Tosh. O; the television series The Green Hornet featured Bruce Lee as Kato. John Travolta's "Stranded at the Drive-In" sequence in Grease was filmed at the Studio Drive-In on the corner of Jefferson and Sepulveda, it served as a set including Pee-wee's Big Adventure. The theatre was closed in 1993 and demolished in 1998.
Culver City's streets have been featured in television series. Since much of the
Monrovia is a city located in the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains in the San Gabriel Valley of Los Angeles County, United States. The population was 36,590 at the 2010 census, down from 36,929 in 2000. Monrovia has been used for filming TV shows and commercials. Monrovia is the fourth oldest general law city in Los Angeles County and the L. A. Basin. Incorporated in 1887, Monrovia has grown from a sparse community of orange ranches to a residential community of 37,000. Around 500 BC, a band of Shoshonean-speaking Indians named the Tongva established settlements in what is now the San Gabriel Valley, they were called the Gabrieliño Indians by a tribe of Mission Indians. The Tongva were not farmers. Abundant oaks in the Valley, such as Coast Live Oak and Interior Live Oak provided a staple of the Tongva diet: acorn mush made of boiled acorn flour. In 1769, the Portolà expedition was the first recorded Spanish land entry and exploration of present-day California the Spanish colonial Las Californias Province of the Viceroyalty of New Spain.
It had been claimed from sea by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo in 1542 for the King of Spain, Europeans first visited the San Gabriel Valley, including Monrovia. The expedition, led by Gaspar de Portolà, proceeded north from San Diego, passing through the area en route to Monterey Bay. Accompanying Portolà was Franciscan padre Juan Crespí, famed diarist of the expedition. Much of what is known of early California is from Crespi's detailed descriptions. In 1771, the Franciscans established the Mission San Gabriel Arcangel in the San Gabriel Valley; the mission continued after Mexican independence in 1822. In 1833, the Mexican Congress initiated secularization of the missions in Alta California, to begin seizure of mission properties for sale to private rancho grantees. In 1841, Alta California Governor Juan Alvarado issued Mexican land grants for Rancho Azusa de Duarte to Andres Duarte, a Mexican soldier. Monrovia is made of parts of these two ranchos. In the mid-19th century, most of Rancho Azusa de Duarte was subdivided and sold by Duarte to settle his debts.
Some of those parcels became part of the ranch of Monrovia's namesake. Rancho Santa Anita changed hands several times before the multimillionaire, silver baron and rancher, E. J. "Lucky" Baldwin acquired it in 1875. That same year his Los Angeles Investment Company began subdividing and selling parcels from many of his ranchos. In 1883, 240 acres of Rancho Santa Anita were sold to Monroe for $30,000. Additional parcels of Rancho Santa Anita were sold to Edward F. Spence, John D. Bicknell, James F. Crank, J. F. Falvey; the completion of the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Valley Railroad in 1887 sold to the Santa Fe, Southern Pacific railroads to Southern California would bring new people looking for homes and investment opportunities. With this in mind, Spence, Bicknell and Falvey combined their land under the business name of the Monrovia Land and Water Company in 1886, centered at Orange and Myrtle Avenues; the subdivision was sold. The town was incorporated in 1887 under the leadership of prohibitionists who wished to control the arrival of an unwelcome saloon.
The first order of business for the newly formed government was to pass a tippler's law, prohibiting the sale of alcohol. In 1903 the Monrovia News was established. In the same year, the Pacific Electric was opened providing transportation to and from Los Angeles, making it possible for Monrovian homeowners to work in Los Angeles. In 1905 Carnegie funds became available and with the help of the Board of Trade, the Monrovia Women's Club, a bond issue was passed to purchase the Granite Bank Building to be used as a City Hall, to acquire property for a public park; the Granite Building serves as the city hall and police department facilities in 1961 and the fire department in 1974. In 1956, the old Carnegie library building was torn down and a new library was constructed. In March 2007, a new library was voted on by the people of Monrovia, it won with 70% yes votes. The library now has 190,000 books, a heritage room for historical documents, areas for children and adults. A city council-manager type government was instituted in 1923.
In 1930, the Monrovia Airport known as the Foothill Flying Club, was commercially established. The small airstrip claimed to have had 12,000 paying customers use the airfield in 1932 and on the 19th of May, 1938, the first airmail flight took off from the Monrovia Airport. Ownership of the airport changed hands several times during the time it was in operation but was remembered by pilots to be "the friendliest little airport in the country." Apart from usage by Riley Brothers, TWA Captain and former airshow pilot Kalman Irwin, Pancho Barnes, the airfield is well known for its use as a movie-filming location. The first movie to be filmed at the Monrovia Airport was "The Fighting Pilot." Other films shot at the airfield included 20,000 Men a Year," "The Great Plane Robbery," and most notably, "The Big Noise," featuring Laurel and Hardy. The 35-acre airfield, used as a runway as well as an airplane repair and storage service, was forc