Mario Fortino Alfonso Moreno Reyes, known casually as Mario Moreno and known professionally as Cantinflas, was a Mexican actor and screenwriter and an iconic figure in Mexico, although he is recognized in Latin America and Spain and is considered the best Mexican comedian. The humor of Cantinflas so loaded with linguistic aspects of the Mexican speech, as much in the intonation, as in the lexicon or the syntax, was so celebrated by all the Spanish-speaking countries in Latin America and Spain that a whole lexical range of new words arose: to be a cantinflas, cantinflada, cantinflesco or cantinflero. Although some of his films were translated into English and French, the word games so particular in Mexican Spanish were difficult to translate, he portrayed impoverished farmers or a peasant of pelado origin. The character allowed Cantinflas to establish a long, successful film career that included a foray into Hollywood. Charlie Chaplin once commented that he was the best comedian alive, Moreno has been referred to as the "Charlie Chaplin of Mexico".
To audiences in the United States, he is best remembered as co-starring with David Niven in the Academy Award winner for Best Picture film Around the World in 80 Days, for which Moreno won a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy. As a pioneer of the cinema of Mexico, Moreno helped usher in its golden era. In addition to being a business leader, he became involved in Mexico's tangled and dangerous labor politics, his reputation as a spokesperson for the downtrodden gave his actions authenticity and became important in the early struggle against charrismo, the one-party government's practice of co-opting and controlling unions. Moreover, his character Cantinflas, whose identity became enmeshed with his own, was examined by media critics and linguists, who saw him variously as a danger to Mexican society, a bourgeois puppet, a verbal innovator, a picaresque underdog. Mario Fortino Alfonso Moreno Reyes was born in the Santa María la Redonda neighbourhood of Mexico City, grew up in the tough neighbourhood of Tepito.
He was one of eight children born to Pedro Moreno Esquivel, an impoverished mail carrier, María de la Soledad Reyes Guízar. The others were Pedro, José, Esperanza, Catalina and Roberto, he made it through difficult situations with the quick wit and street smarts that he would apply in his films. His comic personality led him to a circus tent show, from there to legitimate theatre and film, he married Valentina Ivanova Zubareff, of Russian ethnicity, on 27 October 1936 and remained with her until her death in January 1966. A son was born to Moreno in 1961 by another woman. Moreno Ivanova died on 15 May 2017, of a presumed heart attack, he served as president of one of the Mexican actors' guilds known as Asociación Nacional de Actores and as first secretary general of the independent filmworkers' union Sindicato de Trabajadores de la Producción Cinematográfica. Following his retirement, Moreno devoted his life to helping others through charity and humanitarian organizations those dedicated to helping children.
His contributions to the Roman Catholic Church and orphanages made him a folk hero in Mexico. He was a Freemason, initiated at Chilam Balam Lodge. In 1961, Cantinflas appeared with Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson at shopping centers and supermarkets in San Antonio, Texas, to support the successful Democratic nominee to the United States House of Representatives for Texas' 20th congressional district, Henry B. Gonzalez, who defeated his Republican challenger, John W. Goode. Gonzalez was the first Hispanic elected to the Texas State Senate and as a U. S. congressman from Texas. A lifelong smoker, Cantinflas died of lung cancer on 20 April 1993 in Mexico City. Thousands appeared on a rainy day for his funeral; the ceremony was a national event. His body lay in state in the Rotonda de Las Personas Ilustres and he was honored by many heads of state and the United States Senate, which held a moment of silence for him. A 20-year legal battle followed between Mario Moreno Ivanova, Cantinflas' son and heir to his estate, the actor's blood nephew Eduardo Moreno Laparade over the control of 34 films made by Cantinflas.
The nephew claimed. Moreno Ivanova argued that the rights belonged to him. Moreno Laparade won the lawsuit twice, but Moreno Ivanova triumphed after two appeals. In 2005, Mario Moreno Ivanova, Jr. won the rights to the name. At the same time, there was another legal battle between Columbia Pictures and Moreno Ivanova over control of these films. Columbia claimed that it had bought the rights to the 34 films four decades earlier, although the court noted several discrepancies in the papers. Moreno Ivanova wanted the rights to the films to remain his, more Mexico's, as a national treasure. On 2 June 2001 the eight-year battle was resolved with Columbia retaining ownership over the 34 disputed films; as a young man, Cantinflas performed a variety of acts in travelling tents, it was here that he acquired the nickname "Cantinflas". According to one obituary, "Cantinflas" is a meaningless name invented to prevent his parents from knowing he was in the entertainment business, which they considered a shameful occupation.
Cantinflas confirmed it in 1992, in hi
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Fernando Alonso Díaz audio is a Spanish racing driver and former Formula One racing driver. He is a two-time Formula One World Champion and is regarded as one of the greatest Formula One drivers in the history of the sport, he has contested 17 seasons of Formula One. Outside Formula One, Alonso is leading the 2018–19 FIA World Endurance Championship with Toyota Gazoo Racing, he won the 2018 24 Hours of Le Mans on his first attempt and won the 2019 24 Hours of Daytona, after his debut in 2018. He contested the 2017 Indianapolis 500. Born in Oviedo, the capital of the autonomous region of Asturias, Alonso started in karting from the age of 3, he won three consecutive karting championships in Spain from 1994 to 1997, he became world karting champion in 1996. He made his Formula One debut in the 2001 season with Minardi, moved to the Renault team as a test driver the next year; as a main Renault driver from 2003, he was crowned Formula One World Drivers' Champion in both 2005 and 2006. At the age of 24 years and 58 days upon clinching the title, he was the youngest Formula One World Drivers' Champion, subsequently the youngest double Champion at the time.
He joined McLaren in 2007, before returning to Renault for two seasons in 2008 and 2009. Alonso raced for Scuderia Ferrari for five seasons between 2010 and 2014. During that time he finished second in the championship behind Sebastian Vettel three times, won 11 further Grands Prix. Two of those years, he narrowly lost the title at the final race, he returned to McLaren for four seasons between 2015 and 2018. Alonso has held various driving records in Formula One, he was the youngest driver to qualify on pole position and to win a Grand Prix at the 2003 Malaysian Grand Prix and the 2003 Hungarian Grand Prix respectively. He was the youngest World champion upon clinching the title at the age of 24 years and 58 days, subsequently the youngest double World Champion. From 2013 until 2015, he held the record for most career championship points; each of these records were surpassed by Sebastian Vettel. As of February 2019, Alonso is the only Spanish driver to have won a Formula One Grand Prix and is the driver with the sixth highest number of Grand Prix wins, with 32.
As a winner of the Monaco Grand Prix and the 24 Hours of Le Mans, Alonso is one of just thirteen drivers to have won two of the three races that make up the Triple Crown of Motorsport. Alonso is nicknamed a typical diminutive for Fernando in Asturias, his place of birth, he is a Goodwill Ambassador for UNICEF. Fernando Alonso was born in Asturias in northern Spain, his mother worked in a department store and his father was employed as a mechanic in an explosives factory near Oviedo. Alonso has Lorena. Alonso's father José Luis, an amateur kart racer, wanted to pass on his passion to his children, he built a kart meant for eight-year-old Lorena, but unlike her three-year-old brother, she showed no interest in the sport. Alonso attended the Holy Guardian Angel Primary School in Oviedo until he was 14 when he attended the Instituto Leopoldo Alas Clarín of San Lázaro, he dropped out in 2000. Since winning his first world championship in 2005, Alonso became an ambassador of Oxford Brookes University, to promote the new field of study of Motorsport of Business for Social Science financing 12 students from all parts of the world.
Alonso lived in Oxford, England until he moved his residence to Switzerland in 2006. Alonso owned a house in Mont-sur-Rolle, near Lake Geneva from 2006 to 2010, in February 2010 he moved house to Lugano in order to be closer to his new Formula One employer Ferrari, it is common for Formula One stars to take up residence in Switzerland to reduce their tax bills. In the winter of 2010–11, Alonso moved back to Oviedo in order to be closer to friends and family, costing him an estimated £50 million in tax. Alonso married Raquel del Rosario, lead singer of Spanish pop band El Sueño de Morfeo, on 17 November 2006, they announced their intention to divorce in December 2011. In mid-2012, Alonso started dating Russian model Dasha Kapustina; the couple split in 2014. Since early 2015, Alonso had a relationship with Spanish journalist Lara Álvarez, they separated in 2016. Since 2017 Alonso is in a relationship with Italian model Linda Morselli. Alonso is a supporter of the football teams Real Real Oviedo. In addition to Spanish, he speaks English and French.
Alonso has a tattoo of a samurai on his back. He revealed that the tattoo showed strength in his muscles and force of will with inspiration from the Hagakure, the spiritual guide written by Yamamoto Tsunetomo in the 18th century, he lives in Dubai. Alonso confirmed his atheism in a 2005 interview. In 2017 he was asked. Alonso replied "I believe things happen. All the things that happen in a race or happen in a championship or in your life, there is maybe a reason behind, and that reason is because better times are coming, I prefer to think that way." As a child, Alonso participated in karting competitions around Spain, supported by his father, who doubled as his mechanic. His family lacked the financial resources needed to develop a career in motorsport, but his victories attracted sponsorship and the required funds. Alonso has attributed his ability to adapt his driving style to different conditions to his karting career: having started racing at the age of three, he tended to be "four or five years younger" than his competitors, had to cope with the challenges of racing at that age: "you can't reach the pedals, you can't reach
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero is a Spanish politician and member of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party. He was the Prime Minister of Spain being elected for two terms, in the 2004 and 2008 general elections. On 2 April 2011 he announced he would not stand for re-election in the 2011 general election and left office on 20 December 2011. Among the main actions taken by the Zapatero administration were the withdrawal of Spanish troops from the Iraq war, the increase of Spanish troops in Afghanistan. José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero was born in Valladolid, Castile and León, to Juan Rodríguez y García-Lozano, a lawyer, María de la Purificación Zapatero Valero, he grew up in León. His paternal grandfather, Juan Rodríguez y Lozano, was a Republican captain, executed by Francisco Franco's National army a month into the Spanish Civil War, for refusing to fight with them, his whereabouts were revealed by fascists in Valladolid. His maternal grandfather, Faustino Valentín Zapatero Ballesteros, was a paediatrician and middle class liberal.
His maternal grandmother María de la Natividad Valero y Asensio was a conservative and died at age 103. Zapatero was born in Valladolid not only because of his mother's attachment to her family, who lived there, but because of the medical profession of her father. Zapatero has said that, as a youngster, "as I remember it, I used to participate in late night conversations with my father and brother about politics, law or literature". However, he did not get along well with his father at times. Sources say that his father refused to let him work or take any part in his law firm, this scarred him for life, he says that his family taught him to be tolerant, thoughtful and austere. The memory of Republican Captain Rodríguez y Lozano was kept alive by his last will, handwritten 24 hours before facing the firing squad, which can be considered a final declaration of principles; the will comprised the first three bestowing his possessions on his heirs. In the sixth, Zapatero's grandfather asked his family to clear his name in the future as his creed consisted only in his "love for peace, for good and for improving the living conditions of the lower classes".
According to an Israeli newspaper, Maariv, by Zapatero's own statement: "My family, named Zapatero, is of Jewish descent" from a family of Marranos. He is an agnostic, he studied Law at the University of León, graduating in 1982. His performance as a student was above average before his pre-University year. According to his brother Juan: "He didn't study much but it made no difference, he continued successfully". After graduating, Zapatero worked as a teaching assistant in constitutional law at the University of León until 1986, it was subsequently found that he had been appointed by his department without the usual selection process involving interviews and competitive examinations, which if true, constitutes a case of political favouritism. He has declared that the only activity that attracts him besides politics is teaching or, at most, academic research. Rodríguez Zapatero met Sonsoles Espinosa in León in 1981, they have two daughters named Laura and Alba. Having received successive deferments because of his conditions as a university student and a teaching assistant, Zapatero did not do the compulsory military service.
As an MP he was exempted. Zapatero attended his first political rally, organized by the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party in Gijón in 1976; some political parties had been legal since 21 July 1976, but the PSOE was not legalized until February 1977. The speech of Felipe González, the PSOE leader and future Prime Minister of Spain, who took part in the rally, exerted an important influence on Zapatero, he said, among other things, that "the Socialists' goal was the seizure of power by the working class to transform the ownership of the means of production" and that "the PSOE was a revolutionary party but not revolutionarist or aventurist, as it defended the use of elections to come to power". Zapatero and his family had been traditionally attracted to the Communist Party as it was the only party organized before Francisco Franco's death in 1975. But, after the famous political rally in Gijón, Zapatero, started to believe that the Socialist Party was the most probable future for the Spanish left.
At that time the Socialist Party was rebuilding its infrastructure in the province of León after having been outlawed following the Spanish Civil War. In 1977, the year of the first democratic elections after Franco's death, Zapatero supported both the Communist and Socialist parties, he pasted posters of both parties. He joined the PSOE on 23 February 1979; the impression Felipe González had caused on him in 1976 played a fundamental role in his decision to join the party. In 1979, during the Congreso Extraordinario del PSOE, the PSOE had renounced Marxism as its ideological base, he said nothing about joining t
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007. He was Leader of the Opposition from 1994 to 1997; as of 2017, Blair is the last British Labour Party leader to have won a general election. From 1983 to 2007, Blair was the Member of Parliament for Sedgefield, he was elected Labour Party leader in July 1994, following the sudden death of his predecessor, John Smith. Under Blair's leadership, the party used the phrase "New Labour", to distance it from previous Labour policies and the traditional conception of socialism. Blair declared support for a new conception that he referred to as "social-ism", involving politics that recognised individuals as interdependent, advocated social justice, the equal worth of each citizen, equal opportunity referred to as the Third Way. Critics of Blair denounced him for bringing the Labour Party towards the perceived centre ground of British politics, abandoning'genuine' socialism and being too amenable to capitalism.
Supporters, including the party's public opinion pollster Philip Gould, stated that the Labour Party had to demonstrate that it had made a decisive break from its left-wing past, in order to win an election again. In May 1997, the Labour Party won a landslide the largest in its history. Blair, at 43 years of age, became the youngest Prime Minister since 1812. In September 1997, Blair attained early personal popularity, receiving a 93% public approval rating, after his public response to the death of Diana, Princess of Wales; the Labour Party went on to win two more general elections under his leadership: in 2001, in which it won another landslide victory, in 2005, with a reduced majority. During his first term as Prime Minister, his government oversaw a large increase in public spending and introduced the National Minimum Wage Act, Human Rights Act, Freedom of Information Act, his government held referendums in which the Scottish and Welsh electorates voted in favour of devolved administration.
In Northern Ireland, Blair was involved in negotiating the Good Friday Agreement. Blair supported the foreign policy of the George W. Bush administration, ensured that the British Armed Forces participated in the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan and, more controversially, the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Blair has faced criticism for his role in the invasion of Iraq, including calls for having him tried for war crimes and waging a war of aggression. Blair was succeeded as Leader of the Labour Party and as Prime Minister by Gordon Brown in June 2007. On the day that Blair resigned as Prime Minister, he was appointed the official Special Envoy of the Quartet on the Middle East, an office which he held until May 2015, he runs the Tony Blair Institute for Global Change. Anthony Charles Lynton Blair was born at Queen Mary Maternity Home in Edinburgh, Scotland, on 6 May 1953, he was the second son of Hazel Blair. Leo Blair was the illegitimate son of two entertainers and was adopted as a baby by Glasgow shipyard worker James Blair and his wife, Mary.
Hazel Corscadden was the daughter of George Corscadden, a butcher and Orangeman who moved to Glasgow in 1916. In 1923, he returned to County Donegal. In Ballyshannon, Corscadden's wife, Sarah Margaret, gave birth above the family's grocery shop to Blair's mother, Hazel. Blair has an older brother, Sir William Blair, a High Court judge, a younger sister, Sarah. Blair's first home was with his family at Paisley Terrace in the Willowbrae area of Edinburgh. During this period, his father worked as a junior tax inspector whilst studying for a law degree from the University of Edinburgh. Blair's first relocation was. At the end of 1954, Blair's parents and their two sons moved from Paisley Terrace to Adelaide, South Australia, his father lectured in law at the University of Adelaide. It was when in Australia; the Blairs lived in the suburb of Dulwich close to the university. The family returned to the United Kingdom in the summer of 1958, they lived for a time with Hazel's mother and stepfather at their home in Stepps on the outskirts of north-east Glasgow.
Blair's father accepted a job as a lecturer at Durham University, thus moved the family to Durham, England. Aged five, this marked the beginning of a long association. With his parents basing their family in Durham, Blair attended Chorister School from 1961 to 1966. Aged thirteen, he was sent to spend his school term time boarding at Fettes College in Edinburgh from 1966 to 1971. Blair is reported to have hated his time at Fettes, his teachers were unimpressed with him. Blair modelled himself on Mick Jagger, lead singer of The Rolling Stones. During his time there he met Charlie Falconer, whom he appointed Lord Chancellor. Leaving Fettes College at the age of eighteen, Blair next spent a year in London attempting to find fame as a rock music promoter. In 1972, at the age of nineteen, he enrolled for university at St John's College, reading Jurisprudence for three years; as a student, he played guitar and sang in a rock band called Ugly Rumours, performed some stand-up comedy, including parodying James T.
Kirk as a character na
Louis van Gaal
Aloysius Paulus Maria van Gaal OON is a Dutch former football manager and player. At club level, he served as manager of Ajax, Barcelona, AZ Alkmaar, Bayern Munich and Manchester United, as well as having two spells in charge of the Netherlands national team. Van Gaal is one of the most decorated managers in world football, having won 20 major honours in his managerial career. Before his career as a coach, Van Gaal played as a midfielder for Royal Antwerp, Sparta Rotterdam, Ajax and AZ, he is a qualified physical education teacher, worked at high schools during his career as a semi-professional footballer. After a brief spell as an assistant coach at AZ, Van Gaal served as the assistant under Leo Beenhakker at Ajax and took over as head coach in 1991. Under his lead, the club won three Eredivisie titles, the UEFA Cup, the UEFA Champions League, he moved to Barcelona in 1997 and won two league titles and one Copa del Rey, but left after disagreements with the club's hierarchy. Van Gaal was appointed at the Netherlands, but failed to qualify for the 2002 FIFA World Cup.
This preceded another brief spell at Barcelona, before he returned to AZ, where he won an Eredivisie title, was hired by Bayern Munich in 2009. In Germany, he secured the Bundesliga, the DFB-Pokal, reached the final of the Champions League, but returned to the Netherlands, where he led the nation to third at the 2014 FIFA World Cup, he was hired at Manchester United that summer, where he won one FA Cup before being dismissed in 2016. Van Gaal was born in Amsterdam; as a youngster, he started playing for the Amsterdam amateur side RKSV de Meer. At the age of 20, he joined the second team of Ajax, but was never chosen to play in the first team, which at the time boasted players such as Johan Cruyff and Johan Neeskens in the midfield positions, he was loaned to Belgian First Division side Royal Antwerp playing under Guy Thys with whom he was runner-up in the Belgian top division in 1974 and 1975. During his time with Antwerp, Van Gaal suffered a broken nose in a friendly against K. V. Kortrijk. After four years spent in Belgium, he returned to his homeland and made his Eredivisie debut for Telstar under the guidance of manager, Mircea Petescu, whom he followed to Sparta Rotterdam.
He joined AZ, where he became assistant coach in 1986. After a short career at AZ, he returned to Ajax to become Leo Beenhakker's assistant; when Beenhakker left in 1991, Van Gaal took over as manager. Van Gaal was Ajax manager from 1991 until 1997 and had a successful tenure. Under Van Gaal, Ajax became the Eredivisie champions three times, in 1994, 1995 and 1996, he led Ajax to the KNVB Cup in 1993 and the Johan Cruyff Shield in 1993, 1994, 1995. On the European scene, Ajax captured the UEFA Cup in 1992 and the UEFA Champions League in 1995 after beating Milan in the final; the latter win was followed by a 5–1 aggregate win over Real Zaragoza in the 1995 UEFA Super Cup. Late in 1995, Ajax beat Brazilian side Grêmio on penalties to win the Toyota Cup. Ajax were Champions League runners-up in 1996 after losing to Juventus on penalties. Ajax was so successful under Van Gaal's leadership that during the 1990s, the Netherlands national team was dominated by Ajax players such as Patrick Kluivert, Marc Overmars, Dennis Bergkamp and Ronald de Boer, Edgar Davids, Clarence Seedorf, Winston Bogarde, Michael Reiziger and Edwin van der Sar.
After serving out his contract at Ajax in 1997, Van Gaal received his knighthood in the Order of Orange-Nassau. Van Gaal moved to Barcelona in 1997, taking over from Bobby Robson, helped the team win two La Liga titles and the Copa del Rey once. Despite this success, he came under criticism, he expressed that it was difficult to implement his football philosophy at Barcelona due to cultural differences, that he struggled hard as some players were unwilling to follow his lead. His rows with Rivaldo are an example of this: Van Gaal insisted Rivaldo play as a left winger, whereas Rivaldo argued that he wanted to play in the centre, in effect undermining Van Gaal. Van Gaal left the Catalan side on 20 May 2000, days after losing the league title to Deportivo de La Coruña, uttering the immortal line, "Amigos de la prensa. Yo me voy. Felicidades." He returned to the Netherlands to manage the Netherlands national team in preparation for the 2002 FIFA World Cup. Under Van Gaal, the Netherlands started their campaign to qualify for the 2002 World Cup poorly.
Placed in Group 2, an injury-hit side could only manage to secure a late 2–2 draw at home to the Republic of Ireland, having been 2–0 down with 20 minutes to go. A 4–0 win over Cyprus was followed by a 2–0 defeat to Portugal, though the team went on to defeat Spain 2–1 in a friendly at the end of the year. In 2001, the Netherlands beat Andorra and Estonia, but despite leading group leaders Portugal 2–0 with seven minutes left, drew 2–2 and fell three points behind second-place Republic of Ireland, who were unbeaten; when the sides met in Dublin, Van Gaal boasted before the match that his squad was so much more talented the Irish fans would want them to qualify. Ireland went down to ten men after 58 minutes but scored nine minutes and won 1–0; the Netherlands fell seven points behind them with two games left to play, meaning that they failed to qualify for the World Cup for the first time since 1986. Van Gaal stepped down as manager on 31 January 2002 to be replaced by Dick Advocaat. After this, speculation began that Van Gaal would succeed Sir Alex
Condoleezza Rice is an American political scientist and diplomat. She served as the 66th United States Secretary of State, the second person to hold that office in the administration of President George W. Bush. Rice was the first female African-American Secretary of State, as well as the second African-American Secretary of State, the second female Secretary of State. Rice was President Bush's National Security Advisor during his first term, making her the first woman to serve in that position. Rice was born in Birmingham and grew up while the South was racially segregated, she obtained her bachelor's degree from the University of Denver and her master's degree in political science from the University of Notre Dame. In 1981 she received a PhD from the School of International Studies at the University of Denver, she worked at the State Department under the Carter administration and pursued an academic fellowship at Stanford University, where she served as provost from 1993 to 1999. Rice served on the National Security Council as the Soviet and Eastern Europe Affairs Advisor to President George H. W. Bush during the dissolution of the Soviet Union and German reunification from 1989 to 1991.
On December 17, 2000, she left her position and joined the Bush administration as National Security Advisor. In Bush's second term, she became Secretary of State. Following her confirmation as Secretary of State, Rice pioneered the policy of Transformational Diplomacy directed toward expanding the number of responsible democratic governments in the world and in the Greater Middle East; that policy faced challenges as Hamas captured a popular majority in Palestinian elections, influential countries including Saudi Arabia and Egypt maintained authoritarian systems with U. S. support. She has logged more miles traveling than any other Secretary of State. While in the position, she chaired the Millennium Challenge Corporation's board of directors. In March 2009, Rice returned to Stanford University as a political science professor and the Thomas and Barbara Stephenson Senior Fellow on Public Policy at the Hoover Institution. In September 2010, she became a faculty member of the Stanford Graduate School of Business and a director of its Global Center for Business and the Economy.
She is on the Board of Directors of Dropbox and Makena Capital Management, LLC. Rice was born in Birmingham, the only child of Angelena Rice, a high school science and oratory teacher, John Wesley Rice, Jr. a high school guidance counselor, Presbyterian minister, dean of students at Stillman College, a black college in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Her name, derives from the music-related term con dolcezza, which in Italian means, "with sweetness". Rice has roots in the American South going back to the pre-Civil War era, some of her ancestors worked as sharecroppers for a time after emancipation. Rice discovered on the PBS series Finding Your Roots that she is of 51% African, 40% European, 9% Asian or Native American genetic descent, while her mtDNA is traced back to the Tikar people of Cameroon. In her 2017 book, Democracy: Stories from the Long Road to Freedom, she writes, "My great-great-grandmother Zina on my mother's side bore five children by different slave owners" and "My great-grandmother on my father's side, Julia Head, carried the name of the slave owner and was so favored by him that he taught her to read."
Rice grew up in the Titusville neighborhood of Birmingham, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, at a time when the South was racially segregated. The Rices lived on the campus of Stillman College. Rice began to learn French, figure skating and ballet at the age of three. At the age of fifteen, she began piano classes with the goal of becoming a concert pianist. While Rice did not become a professional pianist, she still practices and plays with a chamber music group, she accompanied cellist Yo-Yo Ma playing Johannes Brahms' Violin Sonata in D Minor at Constitution Hall in April 2002 for the National Medal of Arts Awards. In 1967, the family moved to Colorado, she attended St. Mary's Academy, an all-girls Catholic high school in Cherry Hills Village and graduated at age 16 in 1971. Rice enrolled at the University of Denver, where her father was serving as an assistant dean. Rice majored in Music, after her sophomore year, she went to the Aspen Music Festival and School. There, she said, she met students of greater talent than herself, she doubted her career prospects as a pianist.
She began to consider an alternative major. She attended an International Politics course taught by Josef Korbel, which sparked her interest in the Soviet Union and international relations. Rice described Korbel, as a central figure in her life. In 1974, at age 19, Rice was inducted into the Phi Beta Kappa Society, was awarded a B. A. cum laude, in political science by the University of Denver. While at the University of Denver she was a member of Alpha Chi Omega, Gamma Delta chapter, she obtained a master's degree in political science from the University of Notre Dame in 1975. She first worked in the State Department in 1977, during the Carter administration, as an intern in the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, she would study Russian at Moscow State University in the summer of 1979, intern with the RAND Corporation in Santa Monica, California. In 1981, at age 26, she received her Ph. D. in political science from the Josef Korbel School of International Studies at the University of Denver.
Her dissertation centered on military policy and politics in what was the communist state of Czechoslovakia. From