The International Laser Class sailboat called Laser Standard and the Laser One is a popular one-design class of small sailing dinghy. According to the Laser Class Rules the boat may be sailed by either one or two people, though it is sailed by two; the design, by Bruce Kirby, emphasizes performance. The dinghy is manufactured by independent companies in different parts of the world, including LaserPerformance, Performance Sailcraft Australia and Performance Sailcraft Japan; the Laser is one of the most popular single-handed dinghies in the world. As of 2018, there are more than 215,000 boats worldwide. A cited reason for its popularity is that it is robust and simple to rig and sail in addition to its durability; the Laser provides competitive racing due to the tight class association controls which eliminate differences in hull and equipment. The term "Laser" is used to refer to the Laser Standard. However, there are two other sail plan rigs available for the Laser Standard hull and a series of other "Laser"-branded boats which are of different hull designs.
Examples include Laser Pico. The Laser Standard, Laser Radial and Laser 4.7 are three types of'Laser' administered by the International Laser Class Association. The laser's hull is made out of Glass Reinforced Plastics; the deck has a foam layer underneath for strength. The boat's history began with a phone call between Canadians Bruce Ian Bruce. While discussing the possibility of a car-topped dinghy for a line of camping equipment, Bruce Kirby sketched what would be known as "the million dollar doodle"; the plans stayed with Kirby until 1970 when One Design and Offshore Yachtsman magazine held a regatta for boats under $1000, called "America's Teacup". After a few sail modifications, the Laser won its class; the prototype was named the "Weekender". In December 1970 Dave Balfour, a McGill engineering student, suggested the name Laser and contributed the Laser sail insignia; the Laser sailboat was unveiled at the New York Boat Show in 1971. The first world championship was held in 1974 in Bermuda.
Entrants came from 24 countries, first place was won by Peter Commette from the United States. The Laser became a men's Olympic-class boat at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, a special Olympic edition of the boat was released that year in commemoration. A version with a smaller sail, the Laser Radial, was first sailed as a women's Olympic-class boat at the 2008 Summer Olympics. Arguably the greatest champion of the Laser Class is Robert Scheidt from Brazil; the Laser is manufactured by different companies in different regions. They include LaserPerformance in Europe and the Americas, Performance Sailcraft Australia in Oceania and Performance Sailcraft; as a one-design class of sailboat, all Lasers are built to the same specifications. The hull is 4.2 metres long, with a waterline length of 3.81 m. The hull weight is 56.7 kg. The various sizes of Laser are all cat-rigged; the Laser Standard sail has a sail area of 7.06 m² and in higher winds, is most competitive when sailed by a fit and muscular person weighing no less than 80 kg.
The Laser uses a Portsmouth Yardstick of 1097 for racing involving other classes. The equivalent yardstick in North America is the D-PN, 91.1 for a Laser. Laser sailing and racing presents a unique set of skill based challenges. Fast Laser sailing requires an advanced level of fitness in order to endure the straight legged hiking and body-torque techniques essential in getting upwind and reaching quickly. Since 1998 Laser sailing has increased not only to be physical upwind and reaching, but to include far more demanding sailing and potential speed increases when sailing downwind. Traditionally sailing downwind has been considered processional in dinghy racing being pushed downwind, but Laser sailors, including Ben Ainslie and Robert Scheidt changed the techniques used to race a Laser downwind. The techniques these sailors introduced use a much more dynamic sailing method, concentrating on surfing the waves going downwind; the sailors will weave their way downwind looking to either side for the next large wave they can "hop" onto and surf downwind.
To maximize their speed, boats will be sailed by the lee, where the air flow over the sail is reversed from its usual direction and thus travels from the lee to the luff of the sail. This change in technique for downwind racing has changed most dinghy racing to be much more competitive on the downwind legs and resulted in a change of the international course shape from a traditional triangle to a trapezoid giving greater opportunity for increased upwind and straight downwind legs. In addition, downwind laser sailing can easily result in a death roll where the boat rocks and capsizes to windward, or the lesser known big brother of the death roll: the California Roll, where the boat capsizes to windward but the sailor is pushed under the boat before popping up the other side. A Laser's date and place of manufacture can be determined by looking at the serial number stamped into the transom or under the fairlead on the bow on
Longeau is a village in the Belgian municipality of Messancy in the province of Luxembourg. Brian Molko and cofounder of the rock band Placebo, spent a big part of his youth in Longeau
LASER Airlines Línea Aérea de Servicio Ejecutivo Regional, CA, is an airline based in Caracas, Venezuela. It operates scheduled and passenger charter services within Venezuela and the Caribbean, South America and Miami, its main base is Caracas. The airline was established in 1993 and started operations in 1994; as of July 2018, LASER operates services to the following domestic and international scheduled destinations: As of November 2018, the LASER Airlines fleet consists of the following aircraft: Media related to LASER Airlines at Wikimedia Commons Official website
The Plymouth Laser is a sports coupe sold by Plymouth from 1989 to 1994. The Laser and its siblings: the Mitsubishi Eclipse and Eagle Talon, were the first vehicles produced under the newly formed Diamond Star Motors, a joint-venture between the Chrysler Corporation and the Mitsubishi Motors Corporation; the "Laser" name was recycled from an earlier sports coupe sold as the Chrysler Laser during the 1980s. Introduced as "the first Plymouth of the'90s" in advertising, the Plymouth Laser debuted in January 1989 as a 1990 model. Commercials for the 1990 Laser featured R&B singer Tina Turner who appeared in a series of 1990 promotional ads for Plymouth. With three available engines, two transmission offerings, sporty "aero" styling, the Laser was the most performance-oriented Plymouth since the Barracuda and Road Runner muscle cars of the 1970s. Despite its close resemblance to its Mitsubishi and Eagle siblings, it has several unique styling cues intended to set it apart from the other two. Apart from badging, Lasers sport a race-inspired look, with a plastic panel in the place of a grille, a full rear lightbar, a bulge on the hood for 2.0 L engined models, available stylish "lace" patterned alloy wheels.
Rallye Sport, models are set apart from the base models by their black roof with body color targa band, power steering, lower bodyside accent striping, dual power mirrors, as well as an array of options not available on base Lasers. Base Lasers carry a 92 hp 1.8 L four-cylinder engine, whereas a 135 hp, 2.0 L DOHC four-cylinder was optional with the Laser RS. The top-of-the-line RS Turbo uses a turbocharged 2.0 L rated at 195 hp. A five-speed manual transmission was standard. A four-speed automatic was optional, except with the turbocharged engine, which could only be ordered with the manual transmission until 1991 models debuted. 1990: the Plymouth Laser was released in January 1989 as a 1990 model. Three models were offered: base, RS, RS Turbo; the similar Mitsubishi Eclipse was released in 1989, the Eagle Talon soon followed. The RS models, among other options could be equipped with a factory installed CD player, a first such option on any Plymouth. 1991: the Laser received anti-lock brakes, the turbocharged engine could now be ordered with an automatic transmission instead of a manual.
The Laser RS could now only be ordered with the 195 hp engine. 1992: the Laser received cosmetic changes for 1992, a new all-wheel-drive model joined the lineup. The RS Turbo AWD came only with a manual transmission, while the front-wheel drive version could still be ordered with an automatic. There was a freshening to the hood and front and rear fascias; the pop-up headlights were removed in favor of multi-form fixed headlights, making the car look more aerodynamic. The rear lightbar was replaced by two separate taillights; the RS model came with other cosmetic differences. The RS could be ordered with the Gold Package, which featured gold trimmed wheels, pin stripes and graphics. Only a limited number of RSs with this package were built. 1993: AWD Lasers could now be ordered with an automatic transmission. With the automatic, the power rating of turbocharged models dropped to 180 hp. All Lasers except for the base model could be equipped with ABS. 1994: Production of the Laser ended on June 3, 1994.
Due to poor sales. Nothing, including the price, was changed; the original base prices for the Plymouth Laser. Figures are in United States dollars; the Laser Turbo was on Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list from 1989 through 1992. The Plymouth Laser was not a major sales success, it did not sell as well as the Eagle Talon, not as well as the Mitsubishi Eclipse. Several factors influenced this. First, the Laser was a product of badge engineering, therefore it had to compete with two other cars that were identical. Compounding the problem, it faced in-house competition from the Talon, as the Eagle brand was owned by Chrysler. Where Plymouth was marketed as the value-oriented, mainstream brand, Chrysler was trying to market Eagle as their performance brand. Due to this, a much heavier amount of advertising was devoted to the Talon; the fact that the Laser was far different from any other product Plymouth was selling at the time did not help its popularity. In the early 1990s, Plymouth's bread and butter lineup still consisted of K-car-derived cars and minivans.
Due to these factors, the Laser was discontinued after a brief run of 1994 models. This failure of badge-engineering was just a preview of what would happen to the whole Plymouth marque in subsequent years; the Laser's discontinuation coincided with the introduction of its successor, the 1995 Plymouth Neon. The Neon was available as a two-door coupe and a four-door sedan and was a far better sales success than the Laser; the Mitsubishi Eclipse and Eagle Talon were both redesigned for 1995. The Talon became Eagle's last surviving model in 1998; the Eclipse continued until the 2012 model year. Eagle Talon Mitsubishi Eclipse Diamond-Star Motors 1990 Plymouth Laser commercials with Tina Turner Plymouth Laser Review at Consumer Guide.com
VTech Laser 200
The VTech Laser 200 was an early 8-bit home computer from 1983 sold as the Salora Fellow, the Seltron 200 in Hungary and Italy, the Smart-Alec Jr. by Dynasty Computer Corporation in Dallas, Texas for the USA, the Texet TX8000A, the Dick Smith VZ 200. The machine ran basic games on cassette such as "Hoppy", "Cosmic Rescue", "VZ Invaders" and Moon Patrol; the Laser 210 / VZ200 computer was discontinued in 1985. The VZ200 had little impact in the UK where it sold at a similar price to the 16 kB Sinclair Spectrum and in USA where a Timex TS1000 could be bought for $30, it gained a measurable following in other countries where it was supported by the distributor and where Sinclair Research was too disorganised to have any impact. It gained some following in Australia and New Zealand, in some countries in northern continental Europe. In Australia it was bought to learn programming. At its UK launch, Texet claimed that the £98 TX8000-branded version was the cheapest colour home microcomputer on the market.
However, this was not enough to ensure its success against the dominant ZX Spectrum and similar machines on sale. The "Dick Smith"-badged VZ 200 was more successful in Australia, where it proved popular as a first computer. An improved version known as the VTech Laser 310, or the Dick Smith VZ 300 featured a full travel keyboard and 8K ROM software based Floppy Disk Controller, was released in 1985 and continued until 1989; the VZ200 was designed and built by Video Technology Limited in Hong Kong, known back as a manufacturer of electronic toys. It appears that the intention was to look similar to the Sinclair ZX-81 as it has the same type of one key commands but has some extra features, namely, 6 kB of RAM, redefinable characters, a bitmapped mode allowing block by block animation and beeper speaker; the resemblance is superficial however, since it is a version of the much earlier Altair 8800 style systems produced in the 1970s, similar to the Mattel Aquarius, built onto a single circuit board and with a MC6847 video processor and a simple telephone type IC latch used to produce basic single channel square wave sound effects via the built in piezo loudspeaker.
Although crudely made and poorly specified, it was a sound, reliable system with a good variant of BASIC and a fast and reliable cassette loading algorithm. Based on a Zilog Z80A CPU driven by a television colour burst crystal, it offered 16 KB of ROM containing Microsoft BASIC Level II, 8 kB RAM for the PAL model, whilst the NTSC and Secam models had 6 kB RAM and eight colours; the resolution of the VZ200 was 256 x 192 pixels as a grid of 32 x 16 character blocks which were 8 x 8 pixels in size. The visible resolution on the start screen was 256 x 128 since lines were not used so that it would work with both PAL and NTSC television systems and because of a lack of video RAM; the unused lines showed. It was however possible to use the extra lines with machine code programming, the lack of video RAM remedied as on the Atari VCS by paging out and swapping the video RAM and drawing the extra lines on the second scan of the television screen. There were two bitmapped modes: 32 x 64 addressable blocks in eight colours and 32 x 128 addressable blocks in four colours.
Because there is only 2 kB of VRAM, only one of the video display modes of the MC6847 Video Display Generator chip is available disabling the bitmapped higher resolution 256×192 mono colour mode. There were a few unofficial "mods" developed that increased the VRAM and enabled the 256×192 mode that the MC6847 was capable of, a number of programs were written by German user groups that used this particular modification. Rather crude sound effects could be achieved by a built-in push/pull piezo speaker via its BASIC, though 1-bit synth and sampling sound can be produced through both raw Z80 assembly as well as libraries within the Z88 Development Kit; the BASIC interpreter used a modified Microsoft Level II BASIC. The Laser 310 was released in 1985 throughout parts of the United States, it was sold as the "Dick Smith" VZ 300 throughout Australia and New Zealand. Based on a Zilog Z80A CPU with a updated 16k ROM version, it was driven by a television colour burst crystal, it came with 16k of RAM for programming, along with the same 2k of Video Ram as that of the Laser 200.
Within a year of the Laser 310's release, an 80k disk drive unit was released on to the market, of which two could be connected to the computer at the same time. A plug-pack cartridge containing the DOS ROM was required to operate the drives; the DOS ROM and diskette drives were backwards compatible with the Laser 200. A number of other VTech designed plug-in peripherals were available for both the Laser 200 and Laser 310 computers. Among them were joysticks, cassette drive, light pen, printer plotter, 75 baud MODEM, word processor cartridge, the 16k and 64k extended RAM cartridges; as numbers of users grew, so did the number of home-made kits which were on offer, which inclu
Apiaceae or Umbelliferae is a family of aromatic flowering plants named after the type genus Apium and known as the celery, carrot or parsley family, or as umbellifers. It is the 16th-largest family of flowering plants, with more than 3,700 species in 434 genera including such well-known and economically important plants such as ajwain, anise, caraway, celery, coriander, dill, hemlock, cow parsley, parsley and sea holly, as well as silphium, a plant whose identity is unclear and which may be extinct; the family Apiaceae includes a significant number of phototoxic species and a smaller number of poisonous species. Some species in the family Apiaceae are cytotoxic. Most Apiaceae are annual, biennial or perennial herbs, though a minority are woody shrubs or small trees such as Bupleurum fruticosum, their leaves are of variable size and alternately arranged, or with the upper leaves becoming nearly opposite. The leaves may be sessile. There are no stipules but the petioles are sheathing and the leaves may be perfoliate.
The leaf blade is dissected, ternate or pinnatifid, but simple and entire in some genera, e.g. Bupleurum, their leaves emit a marked smell when crushed, aromatic to foetid, but absent in some species. The defining characteristic of this family is the inflorescence, the flowers nearly always aggregated in terminal umbels, that may be simple or more compound umbelliform cymes; the flowers are perfect and actinomorphic, but there may be zygomorphic flowers at the edge of the umbel, as in carrot and coriander, with petals of unequal size, the ones pointing outward from the umbel larger than the ones pointing inward. Some are andromonoecious, polygamomonoecious, or dioecious, with a distinct calyx and corolla, but the calyx is highly reduced, to the point of being undetectable in many species, while the corolla can be white, pink or purple; the flowers are nearly pentamerous, with five petals and stamens. The androecium consists of five stamens, but there is variation in the functionality of the stamens within a single inflorescence.
Some flowers are functionally staminate. Pollination of one flower by the pollen of a different flower of the same plant is common; the gynoecium consists of two carpels fused into a single, bicarpellate pistil with an inferior ovary. Stylopodia support two styles and secrete nectar, attracting pollinators like flies, gnats, beetles and bees; the fruit is a schizocarp consisting of two fused carpels that separate at maturity into two mericarps, each containing a single seed. The fruits of many species are dispersed by wind but others such as those of Daucus spp. are covered in bristles, which may be hooked in sanicle Sanicula europaea and thus catch in the fur of animals. The seeds have an oily endosperm and contain essential oils, containing aromatic compounds that are responsible for the flavour of commercially important umbelliferous seed such as anise and coriander; the shape and details of the ornamentation of the ripe fruits are important for identification to species level. Apiaceae was first described by John Lindley in 1836.
The name is derived from the type genus Apium, used by Pliny the Elder circa 50 AD for a celery-like plant. The alternative name for the family, derives from the inflorescence being in the form of a compound umbel; the family was one of the first to be recognized as a distinct group in Jacques Daleschamps' 1586 Historia generalis plantarum. With Robert Morison's 1672 Plantarum umbelliferarum distribution nova it became the first group of plants for which a systematic study was published; the family is solidly placed within the Apiales order in the APG III system. It is related to Araliaceae and the boundaries between these families remain unclear. Traditionally groups within the family have been delimited based on fruit morphology, the results from this have not been congruent with the more recent molecular phylogenetic analyses; the subfamilial and tribal classification for the family is in a state of flux, with many of the groups being found to be grossly paraphyletic or polyphyletic. According to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website as of July 2014, 434 genera are in the family Apiaceae.
The black swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polyxenes, uses the family Apiaceae for food and host plants for oviposition. The 22-spot ladybird is commonly found eating mildew on these shrubs. Many members of this family are cultivated for various purposes. Parsnip and Hamburg parsley produce tap roots that are large enough to be useful as food. Many species produce essential oils in their leaves or fruits and as a result are flavourful aromatic herbs. Examples are parsley, coriander and dill; the seeds may be used in cuisine, as with coriander, fennel and caraway. Other notable cultivated Apiaceae include chervil, celery, sea holly, galbanum, anise, and
Silphium was a plant, used in classical antiquity as a seasoning, perfume, as an aphrodisiac, or as a medicine. It was the essential item of trade from the ancient North African city of Cyrene, was so critical to the Cyrenian economy that most of their coins bore a picture of the plant; the valuable product was the plant's resin. Silphium was an important species in prehistory, as evidenced by the Egyptians and Knossos Minoans developing a specific glyph to represent the silphium plant, it was used by most ancient Mediterranean cultures. Legend said; the exact identity of silphium is unclear. It is believed to be a now-extinct plant of the genus Ferula a variety of "giant fennel"; the still-extant plants Margotia gummifera and Ferula tingitana have been suggested as other possibilities. Another plant, was used as a cheaper substitute for silphium, had similar enough qualities that Romans, including the geographer Strabo, used the same word to describe both; the identity of silphium is debated. It is considered to belong to the genus Ferula as an extinct species.
K. Parejko, writing on its possible extinction, concludes that "because we cannot accurately identify the plant we cannot know for certain whether it is extinct". Theophrastus mentioned Silphium as having thick roots covered in black bark, about 48 centimeters long, or one cubit, with a hollow stalk, similar to fennel, golden leaves, like celery; the cause of silphium's supposed extinction is not known. The plant grew along about 125 by 35 miles, in Cyrenaica. Much of the speculation about the cause of its extinction rests on a sudden demand for animals that grazed on the plant, for some supposed effect on the quality of the meat. Overgrazing combined with overharvesting may have led to its extinction. Demand for its contraceptive use was reported to have led to its extinction in the third or second century BCE; the climate of the Maghreb has been drying over the millennia, desertification may have been a factor. Another theory is that when Roman provincial governors took over power from Greek colonists, they over-farmed silphium and rendered the soil unable to yield the type, said to be of such medicinal value.
Theophrastus wrote in Enquiry into Plants that the type of ferula referred to as "silphium" was odd in that it could not be cultivated. He reports inconsistencies in the information; this could suggest the plant is sensitive to soil chemistry as Huckleberries are, which when grown from seed are devoid of fruit. Similar to the soil theory, another theory holds that the plant was a hybrid, which results in desired traits in the first generation, but second-generation can yield unpredictable outcomes; this could have resulted in plants without fruits, when planted from seeds, instead asexually reproducing through their roots. Pliny reported that the last known stalk of silphium found in Cyrenaica was given to the Emperor Nero "as a curiosity". Many medical uses were ascribed to the plant, it was said that it could be used to treat cough, sore throat, indigestion and pains, all kinds of maladies. Hippocrates wrote: When the gut protrudes and will not remain in its place, scrape the finest and most compact silphium into small pieces and apply as a cataplasm.
The plant may have functioned as a contraceptive and abortifacient. Many species in the parsley family have estrogenic properties, some, such as wild carrot, are known to act as abortifacients. Silphium was used in Greco-Roman cooking, notably in recipes by Apicius. Long after its extinction, silphium continued to be mentioned in lists of aromatics copied one from another, until it makes its last appearance in the list of spices that the Carolingian cook should have at hand—Brevis pimentorum que in domo esse debeant —by a certain "Vinidarius", whose excerpts of Apicius survive in one eighth-century uncial manuscript. Vinidarius's dates may not be much earlier. There has been some speculation about the connection between silphium and the traditional heart shape. Silver coins from Cyrene of the 6–5th century BCE bear a similar design, sometimes accompanied by a silphium plant and is understood to represent its seed or fruit; some plants in the family Apiaceae, such as Heracleum sphondylium, have heart-shaped indehiscent mericarps.
Contemporary writings help tie silphium to love. Silphium appears in Pausanias' Description of Greece in a story of the Dioscuri staying at a house belonging to Phormion, a Spartan, "For it so happened that his maiden daughter was living in it. By the next day this maiden and all her girlish apparel had disappeared, in the room were found images of the Dioscuri, a table, silphium upon it." Silphium as Laserpicium makes an appearance in a poem of Catullus to his lover Lesbia. In the Italian military heraldry, Il silfio d’oro reciso di Cirenaica is the symbol granted to units that distinguis