A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
Video game genre
A video game genre is a classification assigned to a video game based on its gameplay interaction rather than visual or narrative differences. A video game genre is defined by a set of gameplay challenges and are classified independently of their setting or game-world content, unlike other works of fiction such as films or books. For example, a shooter game is still a shooter game, regardless of when it takes place; as with nearly all varieties of genre classification, the matter of any individual video game's specific genre is open to personal interpretation. Moreover, each individual game may belong to several genres at once; the first attempt to classify different genres of video games was made by Chris Crawford in his book The Art of Computer Game Design in 1984. In this book, Crawford focused on the player's experience and activities required for gameplay. Here, he stated that "the state of computer game design is changing quickly. We would therefore expect the taxonomy presented to become obsolete or inadequate in a short time."
Since among other genres, the platformer and 3D shooter genres, which hardly existed at the time, have gained a lot of popularity. As hardware capabilities have increased, new genres have become possible, with examples being increased memory, the move from 2D to 3D, new peripherals and location. Though genres were just interesting for game studies in the 1980s, the business of video games expanded in the 1990s and both smaller and independent publishers had little chance of surviving; because of this, games settled more into set genres that larger publishers and retailers could use for marketing. Due to "direct and active participation" of the player, video game genres differ from literary and film genres. Though one could state that Space Invaders is a science-fiction video game, such a classification "ignores the differences and similarities which are to be found in the player's experience of the game." In contrast to the visual aesthetics of games, which can vary it is argued that it is interactivity characteristics that are common to all games.
Descriptive names of genres take into account the goals of the game, the protagonist and the perspective offered to the player. For example, a first-person shooter is a game, played from a first-person perspective and involves the practice of shooting; the term "subgenre" may be used to refer to a category within a genre to further specify the genre of the game under discussion. Whereas "shooter game" is a genre name, "first-person shooter" and "third-person shooter" are common subgenres of the shooter genre. Other examples of such prefixes are real-time, turn based, side-scrolling; the target audience, underlying theme or purpose of a game are sometimes used as a genre identifier, such as with "games for girls," games for cats,"Christian game" and "Serious game" respectively. However, because these terms do not indicate anything about the gameplay of a video game, these are not considered genres. Video game genres vary in specificity, with popular video game reviews using genre names varying from "action" to "baseball."
In this practice, basic themes and more fundamental characteristics are used alongside each other. A game may combine aspects of multiple genres in such a way that it becomes hard to classify under existing genres. For example, because Grand Theft Auto III combined shooting and roleplaying in an unusual way, it was hard to classify using existing terms. Since the term Grand Theft Auto clone has been used to describe games mechanically similar to Grand Theft Auto III; the term roguelike has been developed for games that share similarities with Rogue. Elements of the role-playing genre, which focuses on storytelling and character growth, have been implemented in many different genres of video games; this is because the addition of a story and character enhancement to an action, strategy or puzzle video game does not take away from its core gameplay, but adds an incentive other than survival to the experience. According to some analysts, the count of each broad genre in the best selling physical games worldwide is broken down as follows.
The most popular genres are Shooter, Role-playing and Sports, with Platformer and Racing having both declined in the last decade. Puzzle games have declined when measured by sales, however, on mobile, where the majority of games are free-to-play, this genre remains the most popular worldwide. List of video game genres
Dunedin is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, the principal city of the Otago region. Its name comes from the Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland; the urban area of Dunedin lies on the central-eastern coast of Otago, surrounding the head of Otago Harbour, the harbour and hills around Dunedin are the remnants of an extinct volcano. The city suburbs extend out into the surrounding valleys and hills, onto the isthmus of the Otago Peninsula, along the shores of the Otago Harbour and the Pacific Ocean. Dunedin was the largest New Zealand city by territorial land area until superseded by Auckland with the formation of the Auckland Council in November 2010. Archaeological evidence points to lengthy occupation of the area by Māori prior to the arrival of Europeans; the province and region of Otago takes its name from the Ngai Tahu village of Otakou at the mouth of the harbour, which became a whaling station in the 1830s. In 1848 a Scottish settlement was established by the Lay Association of the Free Church of Scotland.
Between 1855 and 1900 many thousands of Scots emigrated to the incorporated city. Dunedin became wealthy beginning in the 1860s. In the mid-1860s, between 1878 and 1881, it was New Zealand's largest urban area; the city population at 5 March 2013 was 120,246. While Tauranga, Napier-Hastings and Hamilton have eclipsed the city in size of population since the 1980s to make it only the seventh-largest urban area in New Zealand, Dunedin is still considered one of the four main cities of New Zealand for historic and geographic reasons. Dunedin has a diverse economy, which includes manufacturing and technology-based industries as well as education and tourism; the city's most important activity centres around tertiary education—Dunedin is home to the University of Otago, New Zealand's oldest university, the Otago Polytechnic. Students account for a large proportion of the population. In 2014 Dunedin was designated as a UNESCO City of Literature. Archaeological evidence shows the first human occupation of New Zealand occurred between 1250–1300 AD, with population concentrated along the southeast coast.
A camp site at Kaikai Beach, near Long Beach, has been dated from about that time. There are numerous archaic sites in what is now Dunedin, several of them large and permanently occupied in the 14th century; the population contracted but expanded again with the evolution of the Classic culture which saw the building of several pā, fortified settlements, notably Pukekura at, about 1650. There was a settlement in what is now central Dunedin occupied as late as about 1785 but abandoned by 1826. There were Maori settlements at Whareakeake, Purakaunui and Huriawa to the north, at Taieri Mouth and Otokia to the south, all inside the present boundaries of Dunedin. Māori tradition tells first of a people called Kahui Tipua living in the area Te Rapuwai, semi-legendary but considered to be historical; the next arrivals were Waitaha followed by Kāti Māmoe late in the 16th century and Kai Tahu who arrived in the mid-17th century. These migration waves have been represented as'invasions' in European accounts but modern scholarship has cast doubt on that.
They were migrations like those of the European which incidentally resulted in bloodshed. The sealer John Boultbee recorded in the 1820s that the'Kaika Otargo' were the oldest and largest in the south. Lieutenant James Cook stood off what is now the coast of Dunedin between 25 February 1770 and 5 March 1770, naming Cape Saunders and Saddle Hill, he reported penguins and seals in the vicinity, which led sealers to visit from the beginning of the 19th century. The early years of sealing saw a feud between sealers and local Māori from 1810 to 1823, the "Sealers' War" sparked by an incident on Otago Harbour, but William Tucker became the first European to settle in the area in 1815. Permanent European occupation dates from 1831, when the Weller brothers founded their whaling station at Otago, modern Otakou, on the Otago Harbour. Epidemics badly reduced the Māori population. By the late 1830s the Harbour had become an international whaling port. Wright & Richards started a whaling station at Karitane in 1837 and Johnny Jones established a farming settlement and a mission station, the South Island's first, at Waikouaiti in 1840.
The settlements at Karitane and Waikouaiti have endured making modern Dunedin one of the longest European settled territories in New Zealand. In 1844, the Deborah, captained by Thomas Wing and carrying his wife Lucy and a representative of the New Zealand Company, Frederick Tuckett, sailed south to determine the location of a planned Free Church settlement. After inspecting several areas around the eastern coast of the south island, Tuckett selected the site which would become known as Dunedin; the Lay Association of the Free Church of Scotland, through a company called the Otago Association, founded Dunedin at the head of Otago Harbour in 1848 as the principal town of its special settlement. The name Dunedin comes from Dùn Èideann, the Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. Charles Kettle the city's surveyor, instructed to emulate the ch
Video game programmer
A game programmer is a software engineer, programmer, or computer scientist who develops codebases for video games or related software, such as game development tools. Game programming has many specialized disciplines, all of which fall under the umbrella term of "game programmer". A game programmer should not be confused with a game designer. In the early days of video games, a game programmer took on the job of a designer and artist; this was because the abilities of early computers were so limited that having specialized personnel for each function was unnecessary. Game concepts were light and games were only meant to be played for a few minutes at a time, but more art content and variations in gameplay were constrained by computers' limited power; as specialized arcade hardware and home systems became more powerful, game developers could develop deeper storylines and could include such features as high-resolution and full color graphics, advanced artificial intelligence and digital sound.
Technology has advanced to such a great degree that contemporary games boast 3D graphics and full motion video using assets developed by professional graphic artists. Nowadays, the derogatory term "programmer art" has come to imply the kind of bright colors and blocky design that were typical of early video games; the desire for adding more depth and assets to games necessitated a division of labor. Art production was relegated to full-time artists. Next game programming became a separate discipline from game design. Now, only some games, such as the puzzle game Bejeweled, are simple enough to require just one full-time programmer. Despite this division, most game developers have some say in the final design of contemporary games. A contemporary video game may include advanced physics, artificial intelligence, 3D graphics, digitised sound, an original musical score, complex strategy and may use several input devices and may be playable against other people via the Internet or over a LAN; each aspect of the game can consume all of one programmer's time and, in many cases, several programmers.
Some programmers may specialize in one area of game programming, but many are familiar with several aspects. The number of programmers needed for each feature depends somewhat on programmers' skills, but are dictated by the type of game being developed. Game engine programmers create the base engine of the game, including the simulated physics and graphics disciplines. Video games use existing game engines, either commercial, open source or free, they are customized for a particular game, these programmers handle these modifications. A game's physics programmer is dedicated to developing the physics. A game will only simulate a few aspects of real-world physics. For example, a space game may need simulated gravity, but would not have any need for simulating water viscosity. Since processing cycles are always at a premium, physics programmers may employ "shortcuts" that are computationally inexpensive, but look and act "good enough" for the game in question. In other cases, unrealistic physics are employed to allow easier gameplay or for dramatic effect.
Sometimes, a specific subset of situations is specified and the physical outcome of such situations are stored in a record of some sort and are never computed at runtime at all. Some physics programmers may delve into the difficult tasks of inverse kinematics and other motions attributed to game characters, but these motions are assigned via motion capture libraries so as not to overload the CPU with complex calculations. For a role-playing game such as World of Warcraft, only one physics programmer may be needed. For a complex combat game such as Battlefield 1942, teams of several physics programmers may be required; this title belonged to a programmer who developed specialized blitter algorithms and clever optimizations for 2D graphics. Today, however, it is exclusively applied to programmers who specialize in developing and modifying complex 3D graphic renderers; some 2D graphics skills have just become useful again, for developing games for the new generation of cell phones and handheld game consoles.
A 3D graphics programmer must have a firm grasp of advanced mathematical concepts such as vector and matrix math and linear algebra. Skilled programmers specializing in this area of game development can demand high wages and are a scarce commodity, their skills can be used for video games on any platform. An AI programmer develops the logic of time to simulate intelligence in opponents, it has evolved into a specialized discipline, as these tasks used to be implemented by programmers who specialized in other areas. An AI programmer may program pathfinding and enemy tactic systems; this is one of the most challenging aspects of game programming and its sophistication is developing rapidly. Contemporary games dedicate 10 to 20 percent of their programming staff to AI; some games, such as strategy games like Civilization III or role-playing video games such as The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion, use AI while others, such as puzzle games, use it sparingly or not at all. Many game developers have created entire languages that can be used to program their own AI for games via scripts.
These languages are less technical than the language used to implement the game, will be used by the game or level designers to implement the world of the game. Many studios make their games' scripting available to players
Atari 8-bit family
The Atari 8-bit family is a series of 8-bit home computers introduced by Atari, Inc. in 1979 and manufactured until 1992. All of the machines in the family are technically similar and differ in packaging, they are based on the MOS Technology 6502 CPU running at 1.79 MHz, were the first home computers designed with custom co-processor chips. This architecture enabled graphics and sound capabilities that were more advanced than contemporary machines at the time of release, gaming on the platform was a major draw. Star Raiders is considered the platform's killer app; the original Atari 400 and 800 models launched with a series of plug-n-play peripherals that used the Atari SIO serial bus system, an early analog of the modern USB. To meet stringent FCC requirements, the early machines were enclosed in a cast aluminum block, which made them physically robust but expensive to produce. Over the following decade, the 400 and 800 were replaced by the XL series the XE; the XL and XE are much lighter in construction and less expensive to build, while having Atari BASIC built-in and reducing the number of joystick ports from 4 to 2.
The 130XE, released in 1985, increased the memory to 128K of bank-switched RAM. The Atari 8-bit computer line sold two million units during its major production run between late 1979 and mid-1985, they were not only sold through dedicated computer retailers, but department stores such as Sears, using an in-store demo to attract customers. The primary competition in the worldwide market came several years when the Commodore 64 was introduced in 1982; this was the first computer to offer similar graphics performance, went on to be the best selling computer of the 8-bit era. Atari found a strong market in Eastern Europe and had something of a renaissance in the early 1990s as these countries joined a uniting Europe. In 1992, Atari Corp. dropped all remaining support of the 8-bit line. Some time in 1975, Steve Jobs called his former boss at Atari, Al Alcorn, Vice President of Engineering. Jobs was sourcing components for the soon-to-released Apple II, asked Alcorn if he knew of a good switched mode power supply.
Such devices were commercially available. Alcorn instead suggested. Holt worked in Atari's consumer division and had become a leading expert on power supplies, at that time was between projects. Instead, Jobs hired Holt away from Atari, offering him "a ton of stock". Jobs began hiring many Atari engineers and refused to stop this behaviour when asked. In response, Joe Keenan, one of Atari's co-founders, began a project to make an Apple II clone machine, which Atari could produce for much less than Apple, they began design work. It was not long after that news of this project reached Jobs, two weeks he agreed to stop poaching Atari staff; the project was cancelled, ending Atari's first attempt at a personal computer. Design of the 8-bit series of machines started at Atari as soon as the Atari 2600 games console was released in late 1977. While designing the 2600 in 1976, the engineering team from Atari Grass Valley Research Center felt that the 2600 would have about a three-year lifespan before becoming obsolete.
They started blue sky designs for a new console that would be ready to replace it around 1979. What they ended up with was a updated version of the 2600, fixing its more obvious limitations but sharing a similar overall design philosophy; the newer design would be faster than the 2600, have better graphics, would include much better sound hardware. Work on the chips for the new system continued throughout 1978 and focused on much-improved video hardware known as the CTIA. During the early development period, the home computer era began in earnest in the form of the TRS-80, Commodore PET, Apple II family—what Byte Magazine would dub the "1977 Trinity". Nolan Bushnell sold Atari to Warner Communications for $28 million in 1976 in order to raise funds for the launch of the 2600. Warner had sent Ray Kassar to act as the CEO of the company. Kassar felt. In order to adapt the machine to this role, it would need to support character graphics, include some form of expansion for peripherals, run the then-universal BASIC programming language.
The 2600 had no bitmap graphics support or a character generator, all on-screen graphics were created using Player-Missile graphics and a simple background using fixed patterns. The CTIA was designed on the same model, mainly used sprites for drawing. Instead of expanding the CTIA to handle these tasks, the designers introduced an new chip for this purpose, the Alphanumeric Television Interface Controller, or ANTIC; the CTIA and ANTIC worked together to produce a complete display, with the CTIA in charge of sprites and producing color video output, the ANTIC in charge of bitmap and character graphics. Management identified two sweet spots for the new computers: a low-end version known as "Candy", a higher-end machine known as "Colleen"; the primary difference between the two models was marketing. Colleen included user-accessible expansion slots for RAM and ROM, two 8 KB ROM cartridge slots, RF and monitor output and a full keyboard. Candy was designed as a games console, lacking a keyboard and input/output ports, although an external keyboard was planned tha
Shooter games are a subgenre of action video game, which test the player's speed and reaction time. It includes many subgenres that have the commonality of focusing on the actions of the avatar using some sort of weapons; this weapon is a gun or some other long-range weapon. A common resource found in many shooter games is ammunition. Most the purpose of a shooter game is to shoot opponents and proceed through missions without the player character being killed or dying. A shooting game is a genre of video game where the player has limited spatial control of his or her character, the focus is entirely on the defeat of the character's enemies using weaponry. Shoot'em ups are a specific subgenre of shooters wherein the player may move up and down and left and right around the screen firing straight forward. Shoot'em ups share common gameplay, but are categorized by viewpoint; this includes fixed shooters such as Space Invaders and Galaxian. This genre includes "run and gun" games which emphasize greater maneuvering or jumping, such as Thexder and Metal Slug.
Shooting gallery games include light gun games, although many can be played using a regular joypad and an on-screen cursor to signify where the bullets are being aimed. When these debuted, they were played from a first-person perspective, with enemy fire that occurred anywhere on the screen damaging or killing the player; as they evolved away from the use of light guns, the player came to be represented by an on-screen avatar someone on the bottom of the screen, who could move and avoid enemy attacks while returning fire. These sorts of shooters always utilize horizontal scrolling to the right to indicate level progression, with enemies appearing in waves from predestined locations in the background or from the sides. One of the earliest examples is the 1985 arcade game Shootout produced by Data East. A specific subgenre of this type of game is the Cabal shooter, named for the game Cabal, in which the player controls an on-screen avatar that can run and jump around the screen in addition to being able to aim their gun.
Other games in this subgenre include Blood Bros. Dynamite Duke, NAM-1975, Wild Guns, Sin and Punishment; as light gun games became more prevalent and started to make use of 3D backgrounds, such as the Time Crisis or House of the Dead series, these sorts of games fell out of popular production, but many like Blood Bros. still have their fanbase today. Other notable games of this category include Laser Invasion. Light gun shooters are shooting gallery games that use a pointing device for computers and a control device for arcade and video games; the first light guns appeared following the development of light-sensing vacuum tubes. It was not long before the technology began appearing in arcade shooting games, beginning with the Seeburg Ray-O-Lite in 1936; these early light gun games used small targets onto. If the beam struck the target, a "hit" was scored. Modern screen-based light guns work on the opposite principle—the sensor is built into the gun itself, the on-screen target emit light rather than the gun.
The first light gun of this type was used on the MIT Whirlwind computer, which used a similar light pen. Like rail shooters, movement is limited in light-gun games. Notable games of this category include the 1974 and 1984 versions of Wild Gunman, Duck Hunt for the NES, the Virtua Cop series, Time Crisis series, House of the Dead series, Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles & Darkside Chronicles. First-person shooters are characterized by an on-screen view that simulates the in-game character's point of view. While many rail shooters and light-gun shooters use a first-person perspective, they are not included in this category. Notable examples of the genre include Doom, Half-Life, Counter-Strike, GoldenEye 007, Medal of Honor, Call of Duty, TimeSplitters, Team Fortress 2 and Halo. Third-person shooters are characterized by a third-person camera view that displays the player character in his/her surroundings. Notable examples of the genre include the Tomb Raider series, Syphon Filter, Max Payne, SOCOM, Star Wars: Battlefront, Resident Evil 4, Gears of War, Splatoon.
Third person shooter mechanics are incorporated into open-world adventure and sandbox games, including the Elder Scrolls series and the Grand Theft Auto franchise. Hero shooters are a variation of multiplayer first- or third-person arena-based shooters, where players, split among two or more teams, select from pre-designed "hero" characters that each possess unique attributes, skills and other activated abilities. Hero shooters encourage teamwork between players on a team, guiding players to select effective combinations of hero characters and coordinate the use of hero abilities during a match; such games are inspired by multiplayer online battle arena games. A popular hero shooter is Team