A laser designator is a laser light source, used to designate a target. Laser designators provide targeting for laser-guided bombs, missiles, or precision artillery munitions, such as the Paveway series of bombs, AGM-114 Hellfire, or the M712 Copperhead round, respectively; when a target is marked by a designator, the beam does not shine continuously. Instead, a series of coded pulses of laser light are fired; these signals bounce off the target into the sky, where they are detected by the seeker on the laser-guided munition, which steers itself towards the centre of the reflected signal. Unless the people being targeted possess laser detection equipment or can hear aircraft overhead, it is difficult for them to determine if they are being marked. Laser designators work best in clear atmospheric conditions. Cloud cover, rain or smoke can make reliable designation of targets impossible. Laser designators may be mounted on ground vehicles, naval vessels, or handheld; the U. S. Air Force selected the Lockheed Martin's Sniper Advanced Targeting Pod in 2004.
It equipped multiple USAF platforms such as the F-16, F-15E, B-1, B-52, A-10C. It operates on multiple international fighter platforms; the U. S. Navy employ LITENING and ATFLIR targeting pods on a variety of strike aircraft; the Litening II is used by many other of the world’s air forces. The United Kingdom’s Royal Air Force use the Litening III system and the French use the Damocles and ATLIS II. U. S. Air Force Joint Terminal Air Controllers and Marine Corps Forward Air Controllers employ a lightweight device, such as the AN/PED-1 Lightweight Laser Designator Rangefinder, permitting them to designate targets for Close Air Support aircraft flying overhead and in close proximity to friendly forces. Northrop Grumman's LLDR, using an eye-safe laser wavelength, recognizes targets, finds the range to a target, fixes target locations for laser-guided, GPS-guided, conventional munitions; this lightweight, interoperable system uniquely provides range finding and targeting information to other digital battlefield systems allowing the system to provide targeting information for non-guided munitions, or when laser designation is unreliable due to battlefield conditions.
Pakistan Army uses home made laser designator LDR-4. Guidance system Laser sight List of laser articles Targeting pods AN/PEQ-1 SOFLAM Lightweight Laser Designator Rangefinder, Northrop Grumman
United States Patent and Trademark Office
The United States Patent and Trademark Office is an agency in the U. S. Department of Commerce that issues patents to inventors and businesses for their inventions, trademark registration for product and intellectual property identification; the USPTO is "unique among federal agencies because it operates on fees collected by its users, not on taxpayer dollars". Its "operating structure is like a business in that it receives requests for services—applications for patents and trademark registrations—and charges fees projected to cover the cost of performing the services provide"; the USPTO is based in Alexandria, after a 2005 move from the Crystal City area of neighboring Arlington, Virginia. The offices under Patents and the Chief Information Officer that remained just outside the southern end of Crystal City completed moving to Randolph Square, a brand-new building in Shirlington Village, on April 27, 2009; the current Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property and Director of the USPTO is Andrei Iancu.
He began his role as Director on February 8, 2018. Iancu was nominated by President Trump in August 2017, unanimously confirmed by the U. S. Senate. Prior to joining the USPTO, he was the Managing Partner at Irell & Manella LLP, where his practice focused on intellectual property litigation; the USPTO cooperates with the European Patent Office and the Japan Patent Office as one of the Trilateral Patent Offices. The USPTO is a Receiving Office, an International Searching Authority and an International Preliminary Examination Authority for international patent applications filed in accordance with the Patent Cooperation Treaty; the USPTO maintains a permanent, interdisciplinary historical record of all U. S. patent applications in order to fulfill objectives outlined in the United States Constitution. The legal basis for the United States patent system is Article 1, Section 8, wherein the powers of Congress are defined, it states, in part: The Congress shall have Power... To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries.
The PTO's mission is to promote "industrial and technological progress in the United States and strengthen the national economy" by: Administering the laws relating to patents and trademarks. The USPTO is headquartered at the Alexandria Campus, consisting of 11 buildings in a city-like development surrounded by ground floor retail and high rise residential buildings between the Metro stations of King Street station and Eisenhower Avenue station where the actual Alexandria Campus is located between Duke Street to Eisenhower Avenue, between John Carlyle Street to Elizabeth Lane in Alexandria, Virginia. An additional building in Arlington, was opened in 2009; the USPTO was expected by 2014 to open its first satellite offices in Detroit, Dallas and Silicon Valley to reduce backlog and reflect regional industrial strengths. The first satellite office opened in Detroit on July 13, 2012. In 2013, due to the budget sequestration, the satellite office for Silicon Valley, home to one of the nation's top patent-producing cities, was put on hold.
However and infrastructure updates continued after the sequestration, the Silicon Valley location opened in the San Jose City Hall in 2015. As of September 30, 2009, the end of the U. S. government's fiscal year, the PTO had 9,716 employees, nearly all of whom are based at its five-building headquarters complex in Alexandria. Of those, 6,242 were patent examiners and 388 were trademark examining attorneys. While the agency has noticeably grown in recent years, the rate of growth was far slower in fiscal 2009 than in the recent past. Patent examiners make up the bulk of the employees at USPTO, they hold degrees in various scientific disciplines, but do not hold law degrees. Unlike patent examiners, trademark examiners must be licensed attorneys. All examiners work under a strict, "count"-based production system. For every application, "counts" are earned by composing and mailing a first office action on the merits, upon disposal of an application; the Commissioner for Patents oversees three main bodies, headed by former Deputy Commissioner for Patent Operations Peggy Focarino, the Deputy Commissioner for Patent Examination Policy Andrew Hirshfeld as Acting Deputy, the Commissioner for Patent Resources and Planning, vacant.
The Patent Operations of the office is divided into nine different technology centers that deal with various arts. Prior to 2012, decisions of patent examiners may be appealed to the Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences, an administrative law body of the USPTO. Decisions of the BPAI could further be appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, or a civil suit may be brought against the Commissioner of Patents in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia; the United States Supreme Court may decide on a patent case. Under the America Invents Act, the BPAI was converted to the Patent Trial and Appeal Board or "PTAB". Simila
An articulated robot is a robot with rotary joints. Articulated robots can range from simple two-jointed structures to systems with 10 or more interacting joints, they are powered by a variety including electric motors. Some types of robots, such as robotic arms, can be non-articulated. Articulated Robot: See Figure. An articulated robot uses all; the joints are arranged in a “chain”, so that one joint supports another further in the chain. Continuous Path: A control scheme whereby the inputs or commands specify every point along a desired path of motion; the path is controlled by the coordinated motion of the manipulator joints. Degrees Of Freedom: The number of independent motions in which the end effector can move, defined by the number of axes of motion of the manipulator. Gripper: A device for grasping or holding, attached to the free end of the last manipulator link. Payload: The maximum payload is the amount of weight carried by the robot manipulator at reduced speed while maintaining rated precision.
Nominal payload is measured at maximum speed. These ratings are dependent on the size and shape of the payload. Pick And Place Cycle: See Figure. Pick and place Cycle is the time, in seconds, to execute the following motion sequence: Move down one inch, grasp a rated payload. Reach: The maximum horizontal distance from the center of the robot base to the end of its wrist. Accuracy: See Figure; the difference between the point that a robot is trying to achieve and the actual resultant position. Absolute accuracy is the difference between a point instructed by the robot control system and the point achieved by the manipulator arm, while repeatability is the cycle-to-cycle variation of the manipulator arm when aimed at the same point. Repeatability: See Figure; the ability of a system or mechanism to repeat the same motion or achieve the same points when presented with the same control signals. The cycle-to-cycle error of a system when trying to perform a specific task Resolution: See Figure; the smallest increment of motion or distance that can be detected or controlled by the control system of a mechanism.
The resolution of any joint is a function of encoder pulses per revolution and drive ratio, dependent on the distance between the tool center point and the joint axis. Robot Program: A robot communication program for IBM and compatible personal computers. Provides terminal emulation and utility functions; this program can record all of the user memory, some of the system memory to disk files. Maximum Speed: The compounded maximum speed of the tip of a robot moving at full extension with all joints moving in complimentary directions; this speed is the theoretical maximum and should under no circumstances be used to estimate cycle time for a particular application. A better measure of real world speed is place cycle time. For critical applications, the best indicator of achievable cycle time is a physical simulation. Servo Controlled: Controlled by a driving signal, determined by the error between the mechanism's present position and the desired output position. Via Point: A point through which the robot's tool should pass without stopping.
Work Envelope: A three-dimensional shape that defines the boundaries that the robot manipulator can reach. Degrees of freedom Articulated soft robotics Robotics suite Industrial robot Robotic arms and cranes used in spaceflight: Canadarm, used on the Space Shuttle Mobile Servicing System known as the Canadarm2, used on the ISS European Robotic Arm, a fourth robotic arm to be installed on the ISS in 2017 The Japanese Remote Manipulator System, used on the ISS JEM module Kibo Dextre known as the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator, used on the ISS Strela, a manually operated arm used on the Russian Orbital Segment of the ISS to perform similar tasks as the Mobile Servicing System
Samsung is a South Korean multinational conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul. It comprises numerous affiliated businesses, most of them united under the Samsung brand, is the largest South Korean chaebol. Samsung was founded by Lee Byung-chul in 1938 as a trading company. Over the next three decades, the group diversified into areas including food processing, insurance and retail. Samsung entered the electronics industry in the late 1960s and the construction and shipbuilding industries in the mid-1970s. Following Lee's death in 1987, Samsung was separated into four business groups – Samsung Group, Shinsegae Group, CJ Group and Hansol Group. Since 1990, Samsung has globalised its activities and electronics; as of 2017, Samsung has the 6th highest global brand value. Notable Samsung industrial affiliates include Samsung Electronics, Samsung Heavy Industries, Samsung Engineering and Samsung C&T. Other notable subsidiaries include Samsung Everland and Cheil Worldwide. Samsung has a powerful influence on South Korea's economic development, politics and culture and has been a major driving force behind the "Miracle on the Han River".
Its affiliate companies produce around a fifth of South Korea's total exports. Samsung's revenue was equal to 17% of South Korea's $1,082 billion GDP. According to Samsung's founder, the meaning of the Korean hanja word Samsung is "tri-star" or "three stars"; the word "three" represents something "big and powerful". In 1938, Lee Byung-chul of a large landowning family in the Uiryeong county moved to nearby Daegu city and founded Samsung Sanghoe. Samsung started out as a small trading company with forty employees located in Su-dong, it dealt in locally-grown groceries and noodles. The company prospered and Lee moved its head office to Seoul in 1947; when the Korean War broke out, he was forced to leave Seoul. He started a sugar refinery in Busan named Cheil Jedang. In 1954, Lee built the plant in Chimsan-dong, Daegu, it was the largest woollen mill in the country. Samsung diversified into many different areas. Lee sought to establish Samsung as leader in a wide range of industries. Samsung moved into lines of business such as insurance and retail.
In 1947, Cho Hong-jai, the Hyosung group's founder, jointly invested in a new company called Samsung Mulsan Gongsa, or the Samsung Trading Corporation, with the Samsung's founder Lee Byung-chull. The trading firm grew to become the present-day Samsung C&T Corporation. After a few years and Lee separated due to differences in management style. Cho wanted a 30 equity share. Samsung Group was separated into Hyosung Group, Hankook Tire and other businesses. In the late 1960s, Samsung Group entered the electronics industry, it formed several electronics-related divisions, such as Samsung Electronics Devices, Samsung Electro-Mechanics, Samsung Corning and Samsung Semiconductor & Telecommunications, made the facility in Suwon. Its first product was a black-and-white television set. In 1980, Samsung acquired the Gumi-based Hanguk Jeonja Tongsin and entered telecommunications hardware, its early products were switchboards. The facility was developed into the telephone and fax manufacturing systems and became the center of Samsung's mobile phone manufacturing.
They have produced over 800 million mobile phones to date. The company grouped them together under Samsung Electronics in the 1980s. After Lee, the founder's death in 1987, Samsung Group was separated into four business groups—Samsung Group, Shinsegae Group, CJ Group and the Hansol Group. Shinsegae was part of Samsung Group, separated in the 1990s from the Samsung Group along with CJ Group, the Hansol Group. Today these separated groups are independent and they are not part of or connected to the Samsung Group. One Hansol Group representative said, "Only people ignorant of the laws governing the business world could believe something so absurd", adding, "When Hansol separated from the Samsung Group in 1991, it severed all payment guarantees and share-holding ties with Samsung affiliates." One Hansol Group source asserted, "Hansol, CJ have been under independent management since their respective separations from the Samsung Group". One Shinsegae department store executive director said, "Shinsegae has no payment guarantees associated with the Samsung Group".
In 1980s, Samsung Electronics began to invest in research and development, investments that were pivotal in pushing the company to the forefront of the global electronics industry. In 1982, it built a television assembly plant in Portugal; as of 2012, Samsung has invested more than US$13,000,000,000 in the Austin facility, which operates under the name Samsung Austin Semiconductor. This makes the Austin location the largest foreign investment in Texas and
Unmanned ground vehicle
An unmanned ground vehicle is a vehicle that operates while in contact with the ground and without an onboard human presence. UGVs can be used for many applications where it may be inconvenient, dangerous, or impossible to have a human operator present; the vehicle will have a set of sensors to observe the environment, will either autonomously make decisions about its behavior or pass the information to a human operator at a different location who will control the vehicle through teleoperation. The UGV is the land-based counterpart to unmanned aerial vehicles and remotely operated underwater vehicles. Unmanned robotics are being developed for both civilian and military use to perform a variety of dull and dangerous activities. A working remote controlled car was reported in the October 1921 issue of RCA's World Wide Wireless magazine; the car was controlled wirelessly via radio. In the 1930s, the USSR developed Teletanks, a machine gun-armed tank remotely controlled by radio from another tank.
These were used in the Winter War against Finland and at the start of the Eastern Front after Germany invaded the USSR in 1941. During World War II, the British developed a radio control version of their Matilda II infantry tank in 1941. Known as "Black Prince", it would have been used for drawing the fire of concealed anti-tank guns, or for demolition missions. Due to the costs of converting the transmission system of the tank to Wilson type gearboxes, an order for 60 tanks was cancelled. From 1942, the Germans used the Goliath tracked mine for remote demolition work; the Goliath was a small tracked vehicle carrying 60 kg of explosive charge directed through a control cable. Their inspiration was a miniature French tracked vehicle found after France was defeated in 1940; the combination of cost, low speed, reliance on a cable for control, poor protection against weapons meant it was not considered a success. The first major mobile robot development effort named Shakey was created during the 1960s as a research study for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.
Shakey was a wheeled platform that had a TV camera, a computer to help guide its navigational tasks of picking up wooden blocks and placing them in certain areas based on commands. DARPA subsequently developed a series of autonomous and semi-autonomous ground robots in conjunction with the U. S. Army; as part of the Strategic Computing Initiative, DARPA demonstrated the Autonomous Land Vehicle, the first UGV that could navigate autonomously on and off roads at useful speeds. Russia and China are expeditiously becoming a commander in Unmanned Ground Vehicle development. Russia has a wide range of plenarily armed war robots. China is looking not only at circumventing American dominance in military robotics, but consolidating the regional advantage. A series of hot territorial disputes between China and its neighbors stimulates military investments in Tokyo and Singapore. Based on its application, unmanned ground vehicles will include the following components: platform, control systems, guidance interface, communication links, systems integration features.
The platform can be based on an all-terrain vehicle design and includes the locomotive apparatus and power source. Tracks and legs are the common forms of locomotion. In addition, the platform may include an articulated body and some are made to join with other units. A primary purpose of UGV sensors is navigation, another is environment detection. Sensors can include compasses, inclinometers, cameras for triangulation and ultrasound range finders, infrared technology. Unmanned ground vehicles are considered Remote-Operated and Autonomous, although Supervisory Control is used to refer to situations where there is a combination of decision making from internal UGV systems and the remote human operator. A remote-operated UGV is a vehicle, controlled by a human operator via interface. All actions are determined by the operator based upon either direct visual observation or remote use of sensors such as digital video cameras. A basic example of the principles of remote operation would be a remote controlled toy car.
Some examples of remote-operated UGV technology are: Unmanned Snatch Land Rover. Frontline Robotics Teleoperated UGV Gladiator Tactical Unmanned Ground Vehicle iRobot PackBot Unmanned ground vehicle Miloš used by Serbian Armed Forces Foster-Miller TALON Remotec ANDROS F6A Autonomous Solutions Mesa Associates Tactical Integrated Light-Force Deployment Assembly Vecna Robotics Battlefield Extraction-Assist Robot G-NIUS Autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicles Guardium Robowatch ASENDRO Ripsaw MS1 DRDO Daksh VIPeR DOK-ING mine clearing and underground mining UGV's MacroUSA Armadillo V2 Micro UGV and Scorpion SUGV Nova 5 Krymsk APC An autonomous UGV is an autonomous robot that operates without the need for a human controller; the vehicle uses its sensors to develop some limited understanding of the environment, used by control algorithms to determine the next action to take in the context of a human provided mission goal. This eliminates the need for any human to watch over the menial tasks that the UGV is completing.
A autonomous robot may have the ability to: Collect information about the environment, such as building maps of building interiors. Detect objects of interest such as people and vehicles. Travel between waypoints without human navigation assistance. Work for extended durations without human intervention. Avoid situatio
A military is a heavily-armed, highly-organised force intended for warfare known collectively as armed forces. It is officially authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their distinct military uniform, it may consist of one or more military branches such as an Army, Air Force and in certain countries and Coast Guard. The main task of the military is defined as defence of the state and its interests against external armed threats. Beyond warfare, the military may be employed in additional sanctioned and non-sanctioned functions within the state, including internal security threats, population control, the promotion of a political agenda, emergency services and reconstruction, protecting corporate economic interests, social ceremonies and national honor guards. A nation's military may function as a discrete social subculture, with dedicated infrastructure such as military housing, utilities, hospitals, legal services, food production and banking services.
In broad usage, the terms "armed forces" and "military" are treated as synonymous, although in technical usage a distinction is sometimes made in which a country's armed forces may include both its military and other paramilitary forces. There are various forms of irregular military forces; the profession of soldiering as part of a military is older than recorded history itself. Some of the most enduring images of classical antiquity portray the power and feats of its military leaders; the Battle of Kadesh in 1274 BC was one of the defining points of Pharaoh Ramses II's reign, his monuments commemorate it in bas-relief. A thousand years the first emperor of unified China, Qin Shi Huang, was so determined to impress the gods with his military might that he had himself buried with an army of terracotta soldiers; the Romans paid considerable attention to military matters, leaving to posterity many treatises and writings on the subject, as well as a large number of lavishly carved triumphal arches and victory columns.
Issue: Possibly cognate with Thousand, cf. Latin and Romance language root word "mil-")The first recorded use of the word military in English, spelled militarie, was in 1582, it comes from the Latin militaris through French, but is of uncertain etymology, one suggestion being derived from *mil-it- – going in a body or mass. The word is now identified as denoting someone, skilled in use of weapons, or engaged in military service, or in warfare; as a noun, the military refers to a country's armed forces, or sometimes, more to the senior officers who command them. In general, it refers to the physicality of armed forces, their personnel and the physical area which they occupy; as an adjective, military referred only to soldiers and soldiering, but it soon broadened to apply to land forces in general, anything to do with their profession. The names of both the Royal Military Academy and United States Military Academy reflect this. However, at about the time of the Napoleonic Wars,'military' began to be used in reference to armed forces as a whole, in the 21st century expressions like'military service','military intelligence', and'military history' encompass naval and air force aspects.
As such, it now connotes any activity performed by armed force personnel. Military history is considered to be the history of all conflicts, not just the history of the state militaries, it differs somewhat from the history of war, with military history focusing on the people and institutions of war-making, while the history of war focuses on the evolution of war itself in the face of changing technology and geography. Military history has a number of facets. One main facet is to learn from past accomplishments and mistakes, so as to more wage war in the future. Another is to create a sense of military tradition, used to create cohesive military forces. Still, another may be to learn to prevent wars more effectively. Human knowledge about the military is based on both recorded and oral history of military conflicts, their participating armies and navies and, more air forces. There are two types of military history, although all texts have elements of both: descriptive history, that serves to chronicle conflicts without offering any statements about the causes, nature of conduct, the ending, effects of a conflict.
Despite the growing importance of military technology, military activity depends above all on people. For example, in 2000 the British Army declared: "Man is still the first weapon of war." The military organization is characterized by a strict hierarchy divided by military rank, with ranks grouped as officers, non-commissioned officers, personnel at the lowest rank. While senior officers make strategic decisions, subordinated military personnel fulfil them. Although rank titles vary by military branch and country, the rank hierarchy is common to all state armed forces worldwide. In addition to their rank, personnel occupy one of many trade roles, which are grouped according to
Soft Robotics is the specific subfield of robotics dealing with constructing robots from compliant materials, similar to those found in living organisms. Soft robotics draws from the way in which living organisms move and adapt to their surroundings. In contrast to robots built from rigid materials, soft robots allow for increased flexibility and adaptability for accomplishing tasks, as well as improved safety when working around humans; these characteristics allow for its potential use in the fields of manufacturing. The bulk of the field of soft robotics is based upon the design and construction of robots made from compliant materials, with the end result being similar to invertebrates like worms and octopuses; the motion of these robots is difficult to model, as continuum mechanics apply to them, they are sometimes referred to as continuum robots. Soft Robotics is the specific sub-field of robotics dealing with constructing robots from compliant materials, similar to those found in living organisms.
Soft robotics draws from the way in which these living organisms move and adapt to their surroundings. This allows scientists to use soft robots to understand biological phenomena using experiments that cannot be performed on the original biological counterparts. In contrast to robots built from rigid materials, soft robots allow for increased flexibility and adaptability for accomplishing tasks, as well as improved safety when working around humans; these characteristics allow for its potential use in the fields of manufacturing. However, there exist rigid robots that are capable of continuum deformations, most notably the snake-arm robot. Certain soft robotic mechanics may be used as a piece in a larger rigid robot. Soft robotic end effectors exist for grabbing and manipulating objects, they have the advantage of producing a low force, good for holding delicate objects without breaking them. In addition, hybrid soft-rigid robots may be built using an internal rigid framework with soft exteriors for safety.
The soft exterior may be multifunctional, as it can act as both the actuators for the robot, similar to muscles in vertebrates, as padding in case of a collision with a person. Plant cells can inherently produce hydrostatic pressure due to a solute concentration gradient between the cytoplasm and external surroundings. Further, plants can adjust this concentration through the movement of ions across the cell membrane; this changes the shape and volume of the plant as it responds to this change in hydrostatic pressure. This pressure derived shape evolution is desirable for soft robotics and can be emulated to create pressure adaptive materials through the use of fluid flow; the following equation models the cell volume change rate: V ˙ = A L p V ˙ is the rate of volume change. A is the cell membrane. L p is the hydraulic conductivity of the material. Δ P is the change in hydrostatic pressure. Δ π is the change in osmotic potential. This principle has been leveraged in the creation of pressure systems for soft robotics.
These systems are composed of soft resins and contain multiple fluid sacs with semi-permeable membranes. The semi-permeability allows for fluid transport that leads to pressure generation; this combination of fluid transport and pressure generation leads to shape and volume change. Another biologically inherent shape changing mechanism is that of hygroscopic shape change. In this mechanism, plant cells react to changes in humidity; when the surrounding atmosphere has a high humidity, the plant cells swell, but when the surrounding atmosphere has a low humidity, the plant cells shrink. This volume change has been observed in pollen grains and pine cone scales. Conventional manufacturing techniques, such as subtractive techniques like drilling and milling, are unhelpful when it comes to constructing soft robots as these robots have complex shapes with deformable bodies. Therefore, more advanced manufacturing techniques have been developed; those include Shape Deposition Manufacturing, the Smart Composite Microstructure process, 3D multimaterial printing.
SDM is a type of rapid prototyping whereby machining occur cyclically. One deposits a material, machines it, embeds a desired structure, deposits a support for said structure, further machines the product to a final shape that includes the deposited material and the embedded part. Embedded hardware includes circuits and actuators, scientists have embedded controls inside of polymeric materials to create soft robots, such as the Stickybot and the iSprawl. SCM is a process whereby one combines rigid bodies of carbon fiber reinforced polymer with flexible polymer ligaments; the flexible polymer act as joints for the skeleton. With this process, an integrated structure of the CFRP and polymer ligaments is created through the use of laser machining followed by lamination; this SCM process is utilized in the production of mesoscale robots as the polymer connectors serve as low friction alternatives to pin joints.3D printing can now be used to print a wide range of silicone inks using Robocasting known as direct ink writing.
This manufacturing route allows for a seamless production of fluidic elastomer actuators with locally define