Dalea purpurea is a species of flowering plant in the legume family known by the common name purple prairie clover, better written as "prairie-clover," in recognition of the fact that it is not a true clover. It is native to central North America, where it occurs from central Canada to the southeastern and southwestern United States, except for the east and west coasts, it is a common and widespread plant within its range on the Great Plains. In 1804, Meriwether Lewis collected a specimen in Nebraska. Dalea purpurea is a perennial herb growing 20 to 90 cm tall; the mature plant has a large taproot 5.5 to 6.5 feet deep. The stem is woody with several branches; the leaves are divided into 3 to 7 narrow leaflets. The inflorescence atop each stem branch is a spike up to 7 cm long containing many purple flowers; the fruit is a legume pod containing 2 seeds. This plant is adapted to a habitat with periodic wildfires. In some areas, it depends on fire to clear encroaching woody vegetation, as it cannot tolerate shade.
Dalea purpurea is a common member of the flora on the plains of central North America, occurring in a variety of habitat types, including several types of grassland. It occurs in glades and floodplains, oak woodlands, pinyon-juniper woodlands, many types of forests, the Sand Hills of Nebraska, it occurs in a variety of prairie ecosystems. On tallgrass prairie it is associated with plants such as little bluestem, big bluestem, prairie Junegrass, prairie dropseed, lead plant, silky aster. On midgrass prairie it grows alongside several grasses such as silver bluestem, purple threeawn, sideoats grama, sand dropseed. On shortgrass prairie it is associated with grasses such as blue grama, hairy grama, buffalo grass; this species may be considered an indicator of pristine prairie. The nectar and pollen of Dalea purpurea attract many bees, flies and skippers. Several plasterer bees are specialist pollinators of Dalea species, other insects eat the seeds and leaves; this species is used for revegetation efforts on reclaimed land, such as land, strip mined.
It is good for fixing nitrogen in soil. Though it is found in mid- to late-successional stages of ecological succession, it may be a pioneer species, taking hold in bare and disturbed habitat, such as roadsides. Purple prairie clover provides food for a number such as pronghorn, it grows in cultivated fields and becomes included in hay for livestock. It is nutritious and is "considered one of the most important legumes in native grasslands on the Great Plains." It had a number of uses for Native Americans. The leaves are edible and good for making tea and medicines, the roots are palatable when chewed; the stems were used as brooms by the Pawnee people. Dalea purpurea has been found to contain several active constituents, including pawhuskin A, pawhuskin B, pawhuskin C, petalostemumol; the pawhuskins possess affinity for the opioid receptors, pawhuskin A, by far the most potent of the group, acts as a non-selective antagonist of all three opioid receptors, with preference for the κ- and μ-opioid receptors over the δ-opioid receptor.
USDA Plants Profile for Dalea purpurea
Apiaceae or Umbelliferae is a family of aromatic flowering plants named after the type genus Apium and known as the celery, carrot or parsley family, or as umbellifers. It is the 16th-largest family of flowering plants, with more than 3,700 species in 434 genera including such well-known and economically important plants such as ajwain, anise, caraway, celery, coriander, dill, hemlock, cow parsley, parsley and sea holly, as well as silphium, a plant whose identity is unclear and which may be extinct; the family Apiaceae includes a significant number of phototoxic species and a smaller number of poisonous species. Some species in the family Apiaceae are cytotoxic. Most Apiaceae are annual, biennial or perennial herbs, though a minority are woody shrubs or small trees such as Bupleurum fruticosum, their leaves are of variable size and alternately arranged, or with the upper leaves becoming nearly opposite. The leaves may be sessile. There are no stipules but the petioles are sheathing and the leaves may be perfoliate.
The leaf blade is dissected, ternate or pinnatifid, but simple and entire in some genera, e.g. Bupleurum, their leaves emit a marked smell when crushed, aromatic to foetid, but absent in some species. The defining characteristic of this family is the inflorescence, the flowers nearly always aggregated in terminal umbels, that may be simple or more compound umbelliform cymes; the flowers are perfect and actinomorphic, but there may be zygomorphic flowers at the edge of the umbel, as in carrot and coriander, with petals of unequal size, the ones pointing outward from the umbel larger than the ones pointing inward. Some are andromonoecious, polygamomonoecious, or dioecious, with a distinct calyx and corolla, but the calyx is highly reduced, to the point of being undetectable in many species, while the corolla can be white, pink or purple; the flowers are nearly pentamerous, with five petals and stamens. The androecium consists of five stamens, but there is variation in the functionality of the stamens within a single inflorescence.
Some flowers are functionally staminate. Pollination of one flower by the pollen of a different flower of the same plant is common; the gynoecium consists of two carpels fused into a single, bicarpellate pistil with an inferior ovary. Stylopodia support two styles and secrete nectar, attracting pollinators like flies, gnats, beetles and bees; the fruit is a schizocarp consisting of two fused carpels that separate at maturity into two mericarps, each containing a single seed. The fruits of many species are dispersed by wind but others such as those of Daucus spp. are covered in bristles, which may be hooked in sanicle Sanicula europaea and thus catch in the fur of animals. The seeds have an oily endosperm and contain essential oils, containing aromatic compounds that are responsible for the flavour of commercially important umbelliferous seed such as anise and coriander; the shape and details of the ornamentation of the ripe fruits are important for identification to species level. Apiaceae was first described by John Lindley in 1836.
The name is derived from the type genus Apium, used by Pliny the Elder circa 50 AD for a celery-like plant. The alternative name for the family, derives from the inflorescence being in the form of a compound umbel; the family was one of the first to be recognized as a distinct group in Jacques Daleschamps' 1586 Historia generalis plantarum. With Robert Morison's 1672 Plantarum umbelliferarum distribution nova it became the first group of plants for which a systematic study was published; the family is solidly placed within the Apiales order in the APG III system. It is related to Araliaceae and the boundaries between these families remain unclear. Traditionally groups within the family have been delimited based on fruit morphology, the results from this have not been congruent with the more recent molecular phylogenetic analyses; the subfamilial and tribal classification for the family is in a state of flux, with many of the groups being found to be grossly paraphyletic or polyphyletic. According to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website as of July 2014, 434 genera are in the family Apiaceae.
The black swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polyxenes, uses the family Apiaceae for food and host plants for oviposition. The 22-spot ladybird is commonly found eating mildew on these shrubs. Many members of this family are cultivated for various purposes. Parsnip and Hamburg parsley produce tap roots that are large enough to be useful as food. Many species produce essential oils in their leaves or fruits and as a result are flavourful aromatic herbs. Examples are parsley, coriander and dill; the seeds may be used in cuisine, as with coriander, fennel and caraway. Other notable cultivated Apiaceae include chervil, celery, sea holly, galbanum, anise, and
The Anacardiaceae known as the cashew family or sumac family, are a family of flowering plants, including about 83 genera with about 860 known species. Members of the Anacardiaceae bear fruits that are drupes and in some cases produce urushiol, an irritant; the Anacardiaceae include numerous genera, several of which are economically important, notably cashew, poison ivy, smoke tree, yellow mombin, Peruvian pepper and cuachalalate. The genus Pistacia is now included, but was placed in its own family, the Pistaciaceae. Trees or shrubs, each has inconspicuous flowers and resinous or milky sap that may be poisonous, as in black poisonwood and sometimes foul-smelling. Resin canals located in the inner fibrous bark of the fibrovascular system found in the plant's stems and leaves are characteristic of all members of this family. Tannin sacs are widespread among the family; the wood of the Anacardiaceae has the frequent occurrence of simple small holes in the vessels in some species side by side with scalariform holes (in Campnosperma and Heeria argentea.
The simple pits are located in contact with the parenchyma. Leaves are deciduous or evergreen alternate and imparipinnate with opposite leaflats, while others are trifoliolate or simple or unifoliolate. Leaf architecture is diverse. Primary venation is pinnate. Secondary venation is eucamptodromous, craspedodromous or cladodromous Cladodromous venation, if present is considered diagnostic for Anacardiaceae. Flowers grow at the end of a branch or stem or at an angle from where the leaf joins the stem and have bracts. With this family and male flowers occur on some plants, bisexual and female flowers are on others, or flowers have both stamens and pistils. A calyx with three to seven cleft sepals and the same number of petals no petals, overlap each other in the bud. Stamens are twice as many or equal to the number of petals, inserted at the base of the fleshy ring or cup-shaped disk, inserted below the pistil. Stamen stalks are separate, anthers are able to move. Flowers have the ovary free. In the stamenate flowers, ovaries are single-celled.
In the pistillate flowers, ovaries are sometimes quadri - or quinticelled. One to three styles and one ovule occur in each cavity. Fruits open at maturity and are most drupes. Seed coats are thin or are crust-like. Little or no endosperm is present. Cotyledons are fleshy. Seeds are solitary with no albumen around the embryo. In 1759, Bernard de Jussieu arranged the plants in the royal garden of the Trianon at Versailles, according to his own scheme; that classification included a description of an order called the Terebintaceæ which contained a suborder that included Cassuvium, Mangifera, Connarus and Rourea. In 1789, Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, nephew of Bernard de Jussieu, published that classification scheme. Robert Brown described a subset of the Terebintaceae called Cassuvlæ or Anacardeæ in 1818, using the herbarium, collected by Christen Smith during a fated expedition headed by James Hingston Tuckey to explore the River Congo; the name and genera were based on the order with the same name, described by Bernard de Jussieu in 1759.
The herbarium from that expedition contained only one genus from Rhus. Augustin Pyramus de Candolle in 1824, used Robert Browns name Cassuvlæ or Anacardeæ, wrote another description of the group and filled it with the genera Anacardium, Holigarna, Buchanania, Astronium and Picramnia. John Lindley described the "Essential character" of the Anacardiaceæ, the "Cashew Tribe" in 1831, adopting the order, described by Jussieu, but abandoning the name Terebintaceæ, he includes the genera which were found in de Candolle's Anacardieæ and Sumachineæ: Anacardium, Mangifera and Mauria. The genus Pistacia has sometimes been separated into its own family, the Pistaciaceae, based on the reduced flower structure, differences in pollen, the feathery style of the flowers. However, the nature of the ovary does suggest it belongs in the Anacardiaceae, a position, supported by morphological and molecular studies, recent classifications have included Pistacia in the Anacardiaceae; the genus Abrahamia was separated from Protorhus in 2004.
The family has been treated as a series of five tribes by Engler, into subfamilies by Takhtajan, as Anacardioideae and Spondiadoideae. Pell's molecular analysis reinstated the two subfamilies without further division into tribes. Min and Barfod, in the Flora of China reinstated the five tribes, the single tribe Spondiadeae as Spondiadoideae; the cashew family is more abundant in warm or tropical regions with only a few species living in the temperate zones. Native to tropical Americas and India. Pistacia and some species of Rhus can be found in southern Europe, Rhus species can be found in much of North America and Schinus inhabits South America exclusively. Members of this f
Solidago canadensis is an herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae. It is native to north-central North America, it is an invasive plant in other parts of the continent and several areas worldwide, including Europe and Asia. It is grown as an ornamental in flower gardens; the plant is erect forming colonies. Flowers are small yellow heads held above the foliage on a branching inflorescence. Solidago canadensis is sometimes browsed by deer and is good to fair as food for domestic livestock such as cattle or horses, it is found in a variety of habitats. It is one of the first plants to colonize an area after disturbance and persists once shrubs and trees become established, it is found neither in dry locations nor in waterlogged ones. In many parts of Europe and China, it is established as an invasive weed. In eastern and southeastern China the provinces of Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Shanghai, its invasion has reached pandemic levels and has caused widespread concern, it has been reported that the spread of invasive plants including Canada goldenrod has caused the extinction of 30 native plants in Shanghai.
In the city of Ningbo, Zhejiang, it has reduced local orange harvests. It is still spreading across China, sightings have been reported in as far as Yunnan province. Various national and provincial authorities have been on high alert. In Fukushima, it has colonized the rice fields that have been temporarily abandoned because of the nuclear power plant disaster. Media related to Solidago canadensis at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Solidago canadensis at Wikispecies Jepson Manual Treatment: Solidago canadensis United States Geological Survey: Solidago canadensis Profile: Canada Goldenrod Photos, Text. China Archives, Exotic Plant Spreads Across a Third of Mainland
Commelina communis known as the Asiatic dayflower, is an herbaceous annual plant in the dayflower family. It gets its name because the blooms last for only one day, it is native throughout northern parts of Southeast Asia. In China, the plant is known as yazhicao translating to "duckfoot herb", while in Japan it is known as tsuyukusa, meaning "dew herb", it has been introduced to parts of central and southeastern Europe and much of eastern North America, where it has spread to become a noxious weed. It is common in moist soil; the flowers emerge from summer through fall and are distinctive with two large blue petals and one reduced white petal. The Asiatic dayflower plant serves as the type species for its large genus. Linnaeus picked the name Commelina in honour of the two Dutch botanists of the Commelijn family, using the two large showy petals of Commelina communis to symbolise them. Linnaeus described the species in the first edition of his landmark work, Species Plantarum, in 1753. Long before the plant was studied in Europe, however, it had been used for generations in traditional Chinese medicine.
The flowers have been used in Japan to produce a dye and a pigment, used in many world-renowned Ukiyo-e woodcuts from the 18th and early 19th centuries. In the modern era the plant has found limited use as a model organism in the field of plant physiology due to its complex pigment chemistry and the ease of viewing its stomata; the Asiatic dayflower is considered a weed both in areas where it was introduced and in certain parts of its native range. The flowers' interactions with pollinators have been well studied and have helped to support important hypotheses about pollination in the field of plant ecology. Recent research has revealed that the Asiatic dayflower can bioaccumulate a number of metals, making it a candidate for revegetating and cleaning spoiled copper mines. Several animals and fungi use the plant as a food source, with a few species feeding upon it exclusively; the Asiatic dayflower is an annual herb with stems that are decumbent, meaning that they are prostrate at the base but become erect towards the tips, but some individuals may be erect.
The diffusely branched stems tend to root at the basal nodes. The pubescence on the stems is variable, but common patterns include a line of hair continuous with the leaf sheath, or they may be glabrous basally, meaning hairless, puberulent towards the extremities, covered with fine hairs; the leaves are sessile: they lack a leaf stalk known as a petiole. The leaf sheaths are cylindrical, sometimes striped with red, glabrous, but have margins that are puberulent or pilose, meaning lined with fine, soft hairs; the leaf blades range from narrowly lanceolate, or lance-shaped, to ovate-elliptic, between egg-shaped and ellipse-shaped. They measure 3–12 cm by 1–4 cm wide; the blades range from glabrous to puberulent and have scabrescent, or rough, margins. Their tips are acute, meaning they come to a point to acuminate, meaning the point develops gradually; the leaf bases are uneven. The flowers are arranged on inflorescences called cincinni, which are called scorpioid cymes; this is a form of a monochasium.
The cincinni are subtended by a modified leaf. The solitary spathes measure 1.2–3 cm long, but some may be up to 3.5 cm in length, while they are 0.8–1.3 cm tall, but sometimes up to 1.8 cm. The uncurved spathes have a cordate, or heart-shaped, whitish base, which contrasts with its dark green veins, their margins lack hairs, are somewhat scabrous, or rough, are unfused, meaning they are distinct to the base. Their apices are acute to acuminate while the surfaces are glabrous, puberulent, or hirsute-ciliate, meaning with longer, shaggier hairs; the spathes are borne on peduncles, or stalks, that measure 0.8–3.5 cm and sometimes up to 5 cm long. There are two cincinni present, though the upper, or distal, cincinnus may be vestigial; the lower, or proximal, cincinnus bears 1 to 4 bisexual flowers and is nearly included in the spathe, while the upper cincinnus has 1 to 2 male flowers and is about 8 mm long. The individual flowers are subtended by bracteoles; the pedicels supporting single flowers, the fruits, are erect but curve when in fruit.
They measure about 3–4 mm. The 3 concave, membranous sepals persist after the fruit develops; the lower sepal is about 4.5 mm long by about 2.2 mm wide. The 2 upper petals are blue to indigo in colour; the upper two petals measure 9–10 mm long by 8–10 mm wide, while the lower petal is 5–6 mm long by about 6 mm wide. The 2 upper petals are composed of a claw about 3 mm long and a broadly ovate limb with an acute apex and a cuneate-cordate base. There are three anticous fertile stamens, meaning they are on the lower part of the flower, three posticous infertile stamens, meaning they are on the upper part of the flower; these infertile stamens are termed staminodes. The fertile stamens are dimorphic: the lateral pair have maroon to indigo anthers that measu
Zizia aurea is a flowering perennial forb of the carrot family. It is hardy in USDA zones 4-9, it can be found from New Brunswick to Saskatchewan in Canada, south to Florida and Texas in the United States. It ranges in height from 40 to 75 centimetres tall but can sometimes grow taller; the leaves can grow up to 8 cm long and 5 cm wide. They are attached to the stems alternately, they are compound and odd-pinnate, with leaflets that are lanceolate or ovate and have serrated edges. It blooms from May to June, its flowers are bunched at the top of the plant. Each flower is only 3 mm long and has five sepals, five petals, five stamens; each flower produces a single 3 to 4 mm long. The fruit changes color as the year goes on. In the fall both the leaves and the fruit turn purple, it is most found in habitats such as moist black soil prairies, openings in moist to mesic woodlands, thickets, limestone glades and bluffs, power line clearings in woodland areas, abandoned fields, wet meadows. It is known for its ability to survive dry summers though it prefers wet habitats.
It is a host plant for the caterpillars of Ozark swallowtail butterflies. Media related to Zizia aurea at Wikimedia Commons
Hydrangea is a genus of 70–75 species of flowering plants native to southern and eastern Asia and the Americas. By far the greatest species diversity is in eastern Asia, notably China and Korea. Most are shrubs 1 to 3 meters tall, but some are small trees, others lianas reaching up to 30 m by climbing up trees, they can be either deciduous or evergreen, though the cultivated temperate species are all deciduous. Having been introduced to the Azores, H. macrophylla is now common on Faial, known as the "blue island" due to the vast number of hydrangeas present on the island. ‘Hydrangea’ is derived from Greek and means ‘water vessel’, in reference to the shape of its seed capsules. The earlier name, Hortensia, is a Latinised version of the French given name Hortense, referring to the wife of Jean-André Lepaute. Hydrangea flowers are produced from early spring to late autumn; the flowerheads contain two types of flowers: small non-showy flowers in the center or interior of the flowerhead, large, showy flowers with large colorful sepals.
These showy flowers are extended in a ring, or to the exterior of the small flowers. Plants in wild populations have few to none of the showy flowers, while cultivated hydrangeas have been bred and selected to have more of the larger type flowers. There are two flower arrangements in hydrangeas with corymb style inflorescences, which includes the grown "bigleaf hydrangea"—Hydrangea macrophylla. Mophead flowers are large round flowerheads resembling pom-poms or, as the name implies, the head of a mop. In contrast, lacecap flowers bear round, flat flowerheads with a center core of subdued, small flowers surrounded by outer rings of larger flowers having showy sepals or tepals; the flowers of some rhododendrons and viburnums can appear, at first glance, similar to those of some hydrangeas. In most species the flowers are white, but in some species, can be blue, pink, light purple, or dark purple. In these species the color is affected by the presence of aluminium ions which are available or tied up depending upon the soil pH.
For H. macrophylla and H. serrata cultivars, the flower color can be determined by the relative acidity of the soil: an acidic soil, will have available aluminum ions and produce flowers that are blue to purple, whereas an alkaline soil will tie up aluminum ions and result in pink or red flowers. This is caused by a color change of the flower pigments in the presence of aluminium ions which can be taken up into hyperaccumulating plants. Lowering the pH of potting soils or mixes does not change the flower color to blue, because these soils have no aluminum ions; the ability to blue or pink a hydrangea is influenced by the cultivar. Some plants are selected for their ability to be blued, while others are bred and selected to be red, pink or white; the flower color of most other Hydrangea species is not affected by aluminum and cannot be changed or shifted. Hydrangeas have a nickname called'Change Rose'. Four fossil seeds of †Hydrangea polonica have been extracted from borehole samples of the Middle Miocene fresh water deposits in Nowy Sacz Basin, West Carpathians, Poland.
Hydrangeas are popular ornamental plants, grown for their large flowerheads, with Hydrangea macrophylla being by far the most grown with over 600 named cultivars, many selected to have only large sterile flowers in the flowerheads. Hydrangea macrophylla known as Bigleaf Hydrangea, can be broken up into two main categories; some are best pruned on an annual basis. If not pruned the bush will become very'leggy', growing upwards until the weight of the stems is greater than their strength, at which point the stems will sag down to the ground and break. Other species only flower on'old wood', thus new wood resulting from pruning will not produce flowers until the following season. Hydrangea root and rhizome are indicated for treatment of conditions of the urinary tract in the PDR for Herbal Medicine and may have diuretic properties. Hydrangeas are moderately toxic if eaten, with all parts of the plant containing cyanogenic glycosides. Hydrangea paniculata is sometimes smoked as an intoxicant, despite the danger of illness and/or death due to the cyanide.
The flowers on a hydrangea shrub can change from blue to pink or from pink to blue from one season to the next depending on the acidity level of the soil. Adding organic materials such as coffee grounds, citrus peel or eggshells will increase acidity and turn hydrangea flowers blue, as described in an article on Gardenista. A popular pink hydrangea called Vanilla Strawberry has been named "Top Plant" by the American Nursery and Landscape Association; the hybrid "Runaway Bride Snow White", bred by Ushio Sakazaki from Japan, was named Plant of the Year at the 2018 RHS Chelsea Flower Show. In Japan, ama-cha,甘茶 meaning sweet tea, is another herbal tea made from Hydrangea serrata, whose leaves contain a substance that develops a sweet taste. For the fullest taste, fresh leaves are crumpled and dried, yielding dark brown tea leaves. Ama-cha is used for kan-butsu-e on April 8 every year—the day thought to be Buddha's birthday in Japan. During the ceremony, Ama-cha is served to people in attendance. A legend has it that on the day Buddha was born, nine dragons poured Amrita over him.
In Korean tea