The Ainu or the Aynu, in the historical Japanese texts the Ezo, are an indigenous people of Japan and Russia. The official number of the Ainu is 25,000, but unofficially is estimated at 200,000, as many Ainu have been assimilated into Japanese society and have no knowledge of their ancestry. Recent research suggests that Ainu culture originated from a merger of the Jomon and Satsumon cultures; these early inhabitants did not speak the Japanese language and were conquered by the Japanese early in the 9th century. In 1264, Ainu invaded the land of Nivkh people controlled by the Yuan Dynasty, resulting in battles between Ainu and the Chinese. Active contact between the Wajin and the Ainu of Ezochi began in the 13th century; the Ainu formed a society of hunter-gatherers, surviving by hunting and fishing. They followed a religion, based on natural phenomena. During the Muromachi period, the disputes between the Japanese and Ainu developed into a war. Takeda Nobuhiro killed Koshamain. Many Ainu were subject to Japanese rule which led to a violent Ainu revolt such as Koshamain's Revolt in 1456.
During the Edo period the Ainu, who controlled the northern island, now named Hokkaido, became involved in trade with the Japanese who controlled the southern portion of the island. The Tokugawa bakufu granted the Matsumae clan exclusive rights to trade with the Ainu in the northern part of the island; the Matsumae began to lease out trading rights to Japanese merchants, contact between Japanese and Ainu became more extensive. Throughout this period the Ainu became dependent on goods imported by the Japanese, were suffering from epidemic diseases such as smallpox. Although the increased contact created by the trade between the Japanese and the Ainu contributed to increased mutual understanding, it led to conflict which intensified into violent Ainu revolts; the most important was an Ainu rebellion against Japanese authority. Another large-scale revolt by Ainu against Japanese rule was the Menashi-Kunashir Battle in 1789. In the 18th century, there were 80,000 Ainu. In 1868, there were about 15,000 Ainu in Hokkaido, 2000 in Sakhalin and around 100 in the Kuril islands.
The beginning of the Meiji Restoration in 1868 proved a turning point for Ainu culture. The Japanese government introduced a variety of social and economic reforms in hope of modernizing the country in the Western style. One innovation involved the annexation of Hokkaido. Sjöberg quotes Baba's account of the Japanese government's reasoning: … The development of Japan's large northern island had several objectives: First, it was seen as a means to defend Japan from a developing and expansionist Russia. Second … it offered a solution to the unemployment for the former samurai class … Finally, development promised to yield the needed natural resources for a growing capitalist economy. In 1899, the Japanese government passed an act labelling the Ainu as "former aborigines", with the idea they would assimilate—this resulted in the Japanese government taking the land where the Ainu people lived and placing it from on under Japanese control. At this time, the Ainu were granted automatic Japanese citizenship denying them the status of an indigenous group.
The Ainu were becoming marginalized on their own land—over a period of only 36 years, the Ainu went from being a isolated group of people to having their land, language and customs assimilated into those of the Japanese. In addition to this, the land the Ainu lived on was distributed to the Wajin who had decided to move to Hokkaido, encouraged by the Japanese government of the Meiji era to take advantage of the island's abundant natural resources, to create and maintain farms in the model of Western industrial agriculture. While at the time, the process was referred to as colonization, the notion was reframed by Japanese elites to the common usage kaitaku, which instead conveys a sense of opening up or reclamation of the Ainu lands; as well as this, factories such as flour mills, beer breweries and mining practices resulted in the creation of infrastructure such as roads and railway lines, during a development period that lasted until 1904. During this time, the Ainu were forced to learn Japanese, required to adopt Japanese names, ordered to cease religious practices such as animal sacrifice and the custom of tattooing.
The 1899 act was replaced in 1997—until the government had stated there were no ethnic minority groups. It was not until June 2008, that Japan formally recognised the Ainu as an indigenous group; the vast majority of these Wajin men are believed to have compelled Ainu women to partner with them as local wives. Intermarriage between Japanese and Ainu was promoted by the Ainu to lessen the chances of discrimination against their offspring; as a result, many Ainu are indistinguishable from their Japanese neighbors, but some Ainu-Japanese are interested in traditional Ainu culture. For example, born as a child of an Ainu father and a Japanese mother, became a musician who plays the traditional Ainu instrument tonkori. There are many small towns in the southeastern or Hidaka region where ethnic Ainu live such as in Nibutani. Many live in Sambutsu on the eastern coast. In 1966 the number of "pure" Ainu was about 300, their most known ethnonym is derived
Thai people or Thais known as Siamese, are a nation and Tai ethnic group native to Central Thailand. Part of the larger Tai ethno-linguistic group native to Southeast Asia as well as southern China and Northeast India, Thais speak the Central Thai language, classified as part of the Tai–Kadai family of languages; the majority of Thais are followers of Theravada Buddhism. As a result of government policy during the 1930s and 1940s encouraging the assimilation of all the various ethno-linguistic groups in the country into the dominant Thai language and culture, the term Thai people has come to refer to the population of Thailand in general; this includes other subgroups of the Tai ethno-linguistic group, such as the northern Thai people and the Isan-Lao people, as well as non-Tai groups, the largest of, that of the ethnic Chinese. According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai/Tai would have evolved from the etymon *kri:'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *dajA > tʰajA2 or > tajA2.
Michel Ferlus' work is based on some simple rules of phonetic change observable in the Sinosphere and studied for the most part by William H. Baxter. Michel Ferlus notes that a rooted belief in Thailand has it that the term ‘Thai’ derives from the last syllables -daya in Sukhodaya/ Sukhothay, the name of the first Thai Kingdom; the spelling emphasizes this prestigious etymology by writing ไทย to designate the Thai/ Siamese people, while the form ไท is used to refer to Tai speaking ethnic groups. Lao writes ໄທ in both cases. There have been many theories proposing the origin of the Tai peoples — of which the Thai are a subgroup — including an association of the Tai people with the Kingdom of Nanzhao, proven to be invalid. Linguistic studies suggested that the origin of the Tai people lies around the Chinese Province of Guangxi, where the Zhuang people are still a majority; the ancient Tai people are theorized to have founded the kingdom of Nanyue, referred to by Han leaders as a "foreign servant", synecdoche for a vassal state.
The Qin dynasty founded Guangdong in 214 BC, initiating the successive waves of Chinese migrations from the north for hundreds of years to come. With the political and cultural pressures from the north, some Tai peoples migrated south where they met the classical Indianized civilizations of Southeast Asia. According to linguistic and other historical evidence, the southwestward migration of Tai-speaking tribes from Guangxi took place sometime between the 8th-10th centuries; the Tais from the north settled in the Chao Phraya valley from the tenth century onwards, in lands of the Dvaravati culture, assimilating the earlier Austroasiatic Mon and Khmer people, as well as coming into contact with the Khmer Empire. The Tais who came to the area of present-day Thailand were engulfed into the Theravada Buddhism of the Mon and the Hindu-Khmer culture and statecraft. Therefore, the Thai culture is a mixture of Tai traditions with Indic and Khmer influences. Early Thai chiefdoms included Suphan Buri Province.
The Lavo Kingdom, the center of Khmer culture in Chao Phraya valley, was the rallying point for the Thais. The Thai were called "Siam" by the Angkorians and they appeared on the bas relief at Angkor Wat as a part of the army of Lavo Kingdom. Sometimes the Thai chiefdoms in the Chao Phraya valley were put under the Angkorian control under strong monarchs but they were independent. A new city-state known as Ayutthaya, named after the Indian city of Ayodhya, was founded by Ramathibodi and emerged as the center of the growing Thai empire starting in 1350. Inspired by the Hindu-based Khmer Empire, the Ayutthayan empire's continued conquests led to more Thai settlements as the Khmer empire weakened after their defeat at Angkor in 1431. During this period, the Ayutthayans developed a feudal system as various vassal states paid homage to the Ayutthayans kings; as Thai power expanded at the expense of the Mon and Khmer, the Thai Ayutthayans faced setbacks at the hands of the Malays at Malacca and were checked by the Toungoo of Burma.
Other peoples living under Thai rule Mon and Lao, as well as Chinese, Indian or Muslim immigrants continued to be assimilated by Thais, but at the same time they influenced Thai culture, philosophy and politics. In his paper Jek pon Lao, Sujit Wongthet, who describes himself in the paper as a Chinese mixed with Lao, claims that the present-day Thai are Chinese mixed with Lao, he insinuates that the Thai are no longer a well-defined race but an ethnicity composed of many races and cultures. The biggest and most influential group are Thais of Chinese origin. In her paper the positions of non-Thai languages in Thailand, Theraphan Luangthongkum, a Thai linguist of Chinese extraction, states that 40% of the Thai population are descendants of former Chinese immigrants. Though sporadic wars continued with the Burmese and other neighbors, Chinese wars with Burma and European intervention elsewhere in Southeast Asia allowed the Thai to develop an independent course by trading with the Europeans as well as playing the major powers against each other in order to remain independent.
The Chakkri dynasty under Rama I held the Burmese at bay, while Rama II and Rama III helped to shape much of Thai society, but led to Thai setbacks as the Europeans moved into
The Yage Letters
For the musical group by this name, see The Yage Letters. The Yage Letters, first published in 1963, is a collection of correspondence and other writings by Beat Generation authors William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg, it was issued by City Lights Books. Most of the letters date back to 1953 and chronicle Burroughs' visit to the Amazon rainforest in search of yagé, a plant with near-mythical hallucinogenic and some say telepathic qualities. Along the way and Ginsberg share other stories and anecdotes, including some concepts Burroughs would use in novels such as Naked Lunch; the book ends with further correspondence written in 1960 detailing Ginsberg's experiments with yagé. Beyond the letters themselves, the book is noteworthy for two short pieces by Burroughs; the anarchic "Roosevelt After Inauguration", a savage parody of American politics in which "a purple-assed baboon" is appointed to the United States Supreme Court, was omitted from the original edition of the book on the grounds it might be considered obscene.
The story was restored to The Yage Letters in a reprinting by City Lights. The second notable piece serves as the epilogue to the book. "I Am Dying, Meester?" is considered a poem by some and is an early demonstration of the "cut-up technique" espoused by Burroughs in the 1960s, shuffling together fragments of sentences and thoughts from other texts to create a surreal new narrative. Some sources, including City Lights Books itself, consider The Yage Letters to be a novel. According to the back cover of a 1990s edition of the book and Ginsberg began compiling the work in late 1953, not long after the original set of letters was written, but it was not published for nearly a decade. In April 2006, City Lights Books published Yage Letters Redux, a new edition of the book edited by Oliver Harris; the book has been expanded with an extensive essay on its history, along with unpublished material by Burroughs and Ginsberg. Harris established that the 1953 letters were in fact fabricated from notes and a prose narrative which Burroughs first wrote
Sir Frank Athelstane Swettenham was a British colonial administrator who became the first Resident general of the Federated Malay States, which brought the Malay states of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang together under the administration of a Resident-General based in Kuala Lumpur. He served from 1 July 1896 to 4 November 1901, he was an amateur painter and antique collector. He was born in Belper, the son of attorney James Oldham Swettenham, Charlotte Elizabeth Carr and was educated at the Dollar Academy in Scotland and St Peter's School, York, he was a descendant of Mathew Swetenham, Henry IV's bow bearer, the younger brother of the colonial administrator Sir James Alexander Swettenham. He was one of close to forty former British Empire officials to oppose the Malayan Union. Swettenham co-authored a A Dictionary of the Malay Language with Hugh Clifford; the dictionary, published in stages between 1894 and 1902, was abandoned after the letter'G' as by it had been made redundant by the publication of R.
J. Wilkinson's A Malay English Dictionary, he published four books: Malay Sketches, Unaddressed Letters, Also & Perhaps and Arabella in Africa, the last being illustrated by the famous mural painter and illustrator, Rex Whistler. The book was Whistler's first official commission. Swettenham was a British colonial official in British Malaya, famous as influential in shaping British policy and the structure of British administration in the Malay Peninsula. In 1871 Swettenham was first sent to Singapore as a cadet in the civil service of the Straits Settlements, he learned the Malay language and played a major role as British-Malay intermediary in the events surrounding British intervention in the peninsular Malay states in the 1870s. He was a member of the Commission for the Pacification of Larut set up following the signing of the Pangkor Treaty of 1874 and he served alongside John Frederick Adolphus McNair, Chinese Kapitan Chung Keng Quee and Chin Seng Yam; the Commission was successful in freeing many women taken as captives during the Larut Wars, getting stockades dismantled and getting the tin mining business going again.
More than a decade in 1882, he was appointed as resident to the Malay state of Selangor. In Selangor office, the development of coffee and tobacco estates had promoted by him, while in the meantime, helped boost tin earnings by constructing a railway from Kuala Lumpur, to the port of Klang, named Port Swettenham in his honour, he attended the federation, along with the title of resident-general after he secured an agreement of federation from the states of Perak, Negri Sembilan, Pahang in 1895, when he was a resident of Perak state. In 1897 he was knighted by Queen Victoria, in October 1901, three years before his retirement, he was appointed Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Straits Settlements. Swettenham had long been critical of the influence of Siam in the northern Malay states of Kelantan and Trengganu, which had traditionally recognised the suzerainty of Siam by sending a tribute of a golden flower to the King of Siam every three years. After his appointment as Governor of the Straits Settlements, he attempted to negotiate with Siam for greater British influence over the affairs of these states.
Siam reluctantly agreed to appoint British advisors, but only on the condition that they were appointed by Bangkok, not by the Foreign Office as he had hoped. However, the process had been initiated whereby these two states and Kedah would accept British Residents. Swettenham was disappointed in his ultimate goal of bringing the southern Thai region of Patani under British control. While on home leave in England in the summer of 1877, Swettenham met and became engaged to Constance Sydney Holmes, daughter of Cecil Frederick Holmes, a housemaster at Harrow School, they married in England in February 1878 and returned together to Singapore, where the nineteen-year old Sydney Swettenham attempted to come to terms with her new role as the wife of a colonial official. Their marriage, strained from the beginning and marked by long periods of separation, lasted until 1938, when Frank Swettenham sued for divorce on the grounds of his wife's insanity. Swettenham became friends with Gertrude Bell when she visited Singapore in 1903 and maintained a correspondence with her until 1909.
They are thought to have had a "passionate affair "after his retirement to England. Frank Swettenham remarried at the age of 89, this time to Vera Seton Guthrie on 22 June 1939, daughter of John Gordon, a successful merchant, widow of John Neil Guthrie, killed in action in France during World War I. While in India in 1883 preparing for the Colonial Exhibition in Calcutta, Swettenham met and had a child with an Anglo-Indian woman from Bangalore. To avoid a scandal, the mother of Swettenham's son was married to an English clerk in the Perak civil service, Walter McKnight Young, his son was raised as Walter Aynsley Young, he was Deputy Commissioner with the Perak Expedition from 1875–1876. British Resident of Selangor in 1882, of Perak from 1889–1896. Resident-General of the Federated Malay States in 1896–1901. Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Straits Settlements 1901–1904. Chaired the royal commission to enquire into the affairs of Mauritius in 1909, he was joint director of the Official Press Bureau from 1915–1919.
A number of places and roads in Malaysia and Singapore were named after Swettenham, including Swettenham Pier in George Town, Penang Island and Swettenham Road (near the
William S. Burroughs
William Seward Burroughs II was an American writer and visual artist. Burroughs was a primary figure of the Beat Generation and a major postmodernist author whose influence is considered to have affected a range of popular culture as well as literature. Burroughs wrote eighteen novels and novellas, six collections of short stories and four collections of essays. Five books have been published of his correspondences, he collaborated on projects and recordings with numerous performers and musicians, made many appearances in films. He was briefly known by the pen name William Lee. Burroughs created and exhibited thousands of paintings and other visual art works, including his celebrated'Gunshot Paintings', he was born into a wealthy family in St. Louis, grandson of the inventor and founder of the Burroughs Corporation, William Seward Burroughs I, nephew of public relations manager Ivy Lee. Burroughs began writing essays and journals in early adolescence, but did not begin publicizing his writing until his thirties.
He left home in 1932 to attend Harvard University, studied English, anthropology as a postgraduate, attended medical school in Vienna. In 1942 Burroughs enlisted in the U. S. Army to serve during World War II, but was turned down by the Office of Strategic Services and Navy, after which he picked up the drug addiction that affected him for the rest of his life, while working a variety of jobs. In 1943, while living in New York City, he befriended Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac, out of their mutual influence grew the foundation of the Beat Generation, a defining influence on the 1960s counterculture. Much of Burroughs' work is semiautobiographical drawn from his experiences as a heroin addict, as he lived throughout Mexico City, London and Tangier in Morocco, as well as from his travels in the South American Amazon, his work features frequent mystical, occult or otherwise magical themes – a constant preoccupation for Burroughs, both in fiction and in real life. Burroughs killed Joan Vollmer, in 1951 in Mexico City.
Burroughs claimed that he shot Vollmer while drunkenly attempting a "William Tell" stunt. He told investigators a different story: that he had been showing his pistol to friends, when it fell and hit the table, firing the bullet that killed Vollmer. After Burroughs returned to the United States, he was convicted of manslaughter in absentia, received a two-year suspended sentence. Burroughs found success with his confessional first novel, but he is best known for his third novel Naked Lunch, a controversial work, the subject of a court case after it was challenged as being in violation of the U. S. sodomy laws. With Brion Gysin, he popularized the literary cut-up technique in works such as The Nova Trilogy. In 1983, Burroughs was elected to the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters, in 1984 he was awarded the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by France. Jack Kerouac called Burroughs the "greatest satirical writer since Jonathan Swift", a reputation he owes to his "lifelong subversion" of the moral and economic systems of modern American society, articulated in darkly humorous sardonicism.
J. G. Ballard considered Burroughs to be "the most important writer to emerge since the Second World War", while Norman Mailer declared him "the only American writer who may be conceivably possessed by genius". Burroughs created visual art throughout his lifetime, but never exhibited it until 1987, after the death of his friend and collaborator Brion Gysin. For the next and last 10 years of his life, he presented his paintings and drawings at museums and galleries worldwide. Burroughs had William S. Burroughs Jr. with his second wife Joan Vollmer. William Burroughs died at his home in Lawrence, after suffering a heart attack in 1997. Burroughs was born in 1914, the younger of two sons born to Mortimer Perry Burroughs and Laura Hammon Lee, his was a prominent family of English ancestry in Missouri. His grandfather, William Seward Burroughs I, founded the Burroughs Adding Machine company, which evolved into the Burroughs Corporation. Burroughs' mother was the daughter of a minister whose family claimed to be related to Robert E. Lee.
His maternal uncle, Ivy Lee, was an advertising pioneer employed as a publicist for the Rockefellers. His father ran Cobblestone Gardens in St. Louis, it was during his childhood that Burroughs' developed a lifelong interest in magic and the occult – topics which would find their way into his work across the years. Burroughs described how he saw an apparition of a green reindeer in the woods as a child, which he identified as a totem animal, as well as a vision of ghostly grey figures at play in his bedroom; as a boy, Burroughs lived on Pershing Ave. in St. Louis' Central West End, he attended John Burroughs School in St. Louis where his first published essay, "Personal Magnetism" – which revolved around telepathic mind-control – was printed in the John Burroughs Review in 1929, he attended the Los Alamos Ranch School in New Mexico, stressful for him. The school was a boarding school for the wealthy, "where the spindly sons of the rich could be transformed into manly specimens". Burroughs kept journals documenting an erotic attachment to another boy.
According to his own account, he destroyed these ashamed of their content. He kept his sexual orientation concealed from his family well into adulthood, due to the context in which he grew up and from which he f
The Inughuit Arctic Highlanders, are Greenlandic Inuit. Known as "Polar Eskimos", they are the northernmost group of Inuit, the world's northernmost people, living in Greenland. Inughuit make up about 1% of the population of Greenland; the Inughuit speak Inuktun known as North Greenlandic, Thule Inuit, or Polar Eskimo. It is a dialect of Inuktitut, an Eskimo–Aleut language related to the Greenlandic language spoken elsewhere in Greenland. In Kalaallisut, the official dialect of Greenlandic, Inuktun is called Avanersuarmiutut. Before 1880, their population was estimated to be between 200 people. From 1880 to 1930, they were estimated to number 250. In 1980, their estimated population was 700, it rose to 800 in 2010; the Inughuit were first contacted by Europeans in 1818, when John Ross led an expedition into their territory. Ross dubbed them "Arctic Highlanders", they are believed to have lived in total isolation, to the point of being unaware of other humans, are cited as one of the only non-agricultural societies to live without armed feuds or warfare, a state that continued after contact.
In 1908 and 1909, the Inughuit were instrumental in assisting both Frederick Cook and Robert Peary on their claimed conquests of the North Pole. Erik Holtved, a Dane, was the first university-trained ethnologist to study the Inughuit. Inughuit people live north of the Arctic Circle on the west coast of Greenland, between 75°—80° N and 58°–74° W; the northernmost settlement was at the village of Etah, but it was abandoned due to the harsh conditions there. The northernmost constant settlement is now Hiurapaluk. Pituffik known as "Dundas" or "Thule" to Europeans, was the chief settlement of the Inughuit until 1953 when it was displaced by the United States' Thule Air Base, with its residents relocated to Qaanaaq. Established in 1953, Qaanaaq is the largest Inughuit settlement. 1968 Thule Air Base B-52 crash The Inughuit tribe of Northern Greenland, BBC Recognizing the Inughuit as a Distinct Indigenous People of Greenland and their Right to Return to their Traditional Lands, Inuit Circumpolar Conference Executive Council Resolution 03-02
Filipinos are the people who are native to or identified with the country of the Philippines. Filipinos come from various ethnolinguistic groups that are native to the islands or migrants from various Asia Pacific regions. There are more than 175 ethnolinguistic groups, each with its own language, identity and history; the modern Filipino identity, with its Austronesian roots, was influenced by Spain and the United States. The name Filipino was derived from the term las Islas Filipinas, the name given to the archipelago in 1543 by the Spanish explorer and Dominican priest Ruy López de Villalobos, in honour of Philip II of Spain. During the Spanish colonial period the term Filipino was used to classify Spaniards born in the Philippine islands, while indigenous peoples of the islands were called Indio. Historian Ambeth Ocampo has suggested that the first documented use of the word to Filipino to refer to Indios was the Spanish-language poem A la juventud filipina, published in 1879 by José Rizal..
The lack of the letter "F" in the pre-1987 Tagalog alphabet caused the letter "P" to be substituted for "F", though the alphabets and/or writing scripts of some non-Tagalog ethnic groups included the letter "F". Upon official adoption of the modern, 28-letter Filipino alphabet in 1987, the term Filipino was preferred over Pilipino. Locally, some still use "Pilipino" to refer to the people and "Filipino" to refer to the language, but in international use "Filipino" is the usual form for both. A number of Filipinos refer to themselves colloquially as "Pinoy", a slang word formed by taking the last four letters of "Filipino" and adding the diminutive suffix "-y". Other collective endonyms for the Filipino people include: "Patria Adorada" as popularized by Jose Rizal through his poem "Mi último adiós", "Bayang Pilipino" or the more poetic "Sambayanáng Pilipino". In 2010, a metatarsal from "Callao Man", discovered in 2007, was dated through uranium-series dating as being 67,000 years old. Prior to that, the earliest human remains found in the Philippines were thought to be the fossilized fragments of a skull and jawbone, discovered in the 1960s by Dr. Robert B.
Fox, an anthropologist from the National Museum. Anthropologists who examined these remains agreed; these include the Homo sapiens. The "Tabon Man" fossils are considered to have come from a third group of inhabitants, who worked the cave between 22,000 and 20,000 BCE. An earlier cave level lies so far below the level containing cooking fire assemblages that it must represent Upper Pleistocene dates like 45 or 50 thousand years ago. Researchers say this indicates that the human remains were pre-Mongoloid, from about 40,000 years ago. Mongoloid is the term which anthropologists applied to the ethnic group which migrated to Southeast Asia during the Holocene period and evolved into the Austronesian people, a group of Malayo-Polynesian-speaking people including those from Indonesia, the Philippines, Malagasy, the non-Chinese Taiwan Aboriginals or Rhea's. Fluctuations in ancient shorelines between 150,000 BC and 17,000 BC connected the Malay Archipelago region with Maritime Southeast Asia and the Philippines.
This may have enabled ancient migrations into the Philippines from Maritime Southeast Asia 50,000 BC to 13,000 BC. A January 2009 study of language phylogenies by R. D. Gray at the University of California, Los Angeles published in the journal Science, suggests that the population expansion of Austronesian peoples was triggered by rising sea levels of the Sunda shelf at the end of the last ice age; this was a two-pronged expansion, which moved north through the Philippines and into Taiwan, while a second expansion prong spread east along the New Guinea coast and into Oceania and Polynesia. The Negritos are descendants of the indigenous populations of the Sunda landmass and New Guinea, pre-dating the Mongoloid peoples who entered Southeast Asia. Multiple studies show that Negritos from Southeast Asia to New Guinea share a closer cranial affinity with Australo-Melanesians, they were the ancestors of such tribes of the Philippines as the Aeta, Ayta, Ati and other similar groups. Today they comprise just 0.03% of the total Philippine population.
The majority of present-day Filipinos are a product of the long process of evolution and movement of people. After the mass migrations through land bridges, migrations continued by boat during the maritime era of South East Asia; the ancient races became homogenized into the Malayo-Polynesians which colonized the majority of the Philippine and Indonesian archipelagos. Since at least the 3rd century, various ethnic groups established several communities; these were formed by the assimilation of various native Philippine kingdoms. South Asian and East Asian people together with the people of the Indonesian archipelago and the Malay Peninsula, traded with Filipinos and introduced Hinduism and Buddhism to the native tribes of the Philippines. Most of these people stayed in the Philippines where they were absorbed into local societies. Many of the barangay were, to a varying extent, under the de jure jurisprudence of one of several neighboring empires, among them the Malay Srivijaya, Javanese Majapahit, Malacca, Indian Chola and Khmer empires, although de facto had established their own independent system of rule.
Trading links with Sumatra, Java, Malay Peninsu