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Late Triassic

The Late Triassic is the third and final of three epochs of the Triassic Period in the geologic timescale. The Triassic-Jurassic extinction event began during this epoch and is one of the five major mass extinction events of the Earth; the corresponding series is known as the Upper Triassic. In Europe the epoch was called the Keuper, after a German lithostratigraphic group that has a corresponding age; the Late Triassic spans the time between 237 Ma and 201.3 Ma. It is followed by the Early Jurassic epoch; the Late Triassic is divided into the Carnian and Rhaetian ages. Many of the first dinosaurs evolved during the Late Triassic, including Plateosaurus and Eoraptor; the extinction event that began during the Late Triassic resulted in the disappearance of about 76% of all terrestrial and marine life species, as well as 20% of taxonomic families. Although the Late Triassic Epoch did not prove to be as destructive as the preceding Permian Period, which took place 50 million years earlier and destroyed about 70% of land species, 57% of insect families as well as 95% of marine life, it resulted in great decreased in population sizes of many living organism populations.

The Late Triassic had negative effects on the conodonts and ammonoid groups. These groups once served as vital index fossils, which made it possible to identify feasible life span to multiple strata of the Triassic strata; these groups were affected during the epoch, became extinct soon after. Despite the large populations that withered away with the coming of the Late Triassic, many families, such as the pterosaurs, crocodiles and fish were minimally affected. However, such families as the bivalves, marine reptiles and brachiopods were affected and many species became extinct during this time. Most of the evidence suggests the increase of volcanic activity was the main cause of the extinction; as a result of the rifting of the super continent Pangea, there was an increase in widespread volcanic activity which released large amounts of carbon dioxide. At the end of the Triassic period, massive eruptions occurred along the rift zone, known as the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, for about 500,000 years.

These intense eruptions were classified as flood basalt eruptions, which are a type of large scale volcanic activity that releases a huge volume of lava in addition to sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide. The sudden increase in carbon dioxide levels is believed to have enhanced the greenhouse effect, which acidified the oceans and raised average air temperature; as a result of the change in biological conditions in the oceans, 22% of marine families became extinct. In addition, 53% of marine genera and about 76–86% of all species became extinct, which vacated ecological niches. While the majority of the scientists agree that volcanic activity was the main cause of the extinction, other theories suggest the extinction was triggered by the impact of an asteroid, climate change, or rising sea levels; the Carnian Age is the first stage of the three to occur during the duration of the mass extinction era. The Carnian age developed about 228 to 217 million years ago, signals the start of the Late Triassic Epoch.

The Carnian stage can further be broken down to relative species activity during the time, based on fossils and evidence found dating back to this time period. For example, marine life such as serenites nanseni and Trachyceras Obesum can be dated back to the early Carnian stage. Meanwhile, Tropites Dilleri, Tropites Welleri and klamathites macrolobatus can all be dated back to the late Carnian stage, During the Carnian era, archosaurs took on a powerful role in existence and domination in terms of land and resources; the archosaur species included animals similar to today's general large lizards. Many families of prehistoric animals existed during this time period, such as the phytosaurs, prestosuchids and poposaur archosaurs populated many areas of the earth, were scattered among areas such as today's India, North America, South America and Britain. Evidence of fossils of such prehistoric animals have been found in these parts of the world. However, during the Carnian time period, separation of the northern areas began to occur, which separated the Laurasian supercontinent existing at the time.

In addition, the Gondwanaland supercontinent of the South began to separate and disperse itself. However, Pangaea was still intact at this time. During these land mass separations, regions were tectonically active, which caused cataclysmic flows of lava, which would lead to rift lines and land separation; this signified the start to the eventual Late Triassic mass extinction. The Norian age is the second stage of the three to occur during the duration of the triassic mass extinction; this stage developed about 217 to 204 million years ago. This stage comes after the Carnian stage, is known for its rising populations of mesozoic organisms as well as the decline in populations of previous species that had once played important roles in the environment; this stage identifies with its own species of ammonoid index fossils, how it differs from the preceding Carnian stage. In this stage and evidence of Cyrtopleurites bicrenatus are found in these different areas of the world, which seem to be more complex and advanced than those in the preceding stage of the era.

Many species alive during the Norian age that became extinct lived either in the Tethys-Panthalassan reef province, or the West Pangean reef province. In the Tethys

Caldwell, Ohio

Caldwell is a village located along the West Fork of Duck Creek 23 miles north of Marietta in Noble County, United States. The population was 1,748 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Noble County. Caldwell was founded in 1857, named after Joseph and Samuel Caldwell, the original owners of the town site; the Pennsylvania Railroad reached Caldwell in the 1870s, tying it to markets in the east and north along the Great Lakes. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.90 square miles, of which 0.89 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,748 people, 861 households, 446 families living in the village; the population density was 1,964.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 929 housing units at an average density of 1,043.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 97.7% White, 0.2% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.1% of the population.

There were 861 households of which 21.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.5% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 48.2% were non-families. 43.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 23.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.01 and the average family size was 2.76. The median age in the village was 45.6 years. 18.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 54.5 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,956 people, 831 households, 480 families living in the village; the population density was 1,956 people per square mile. There were 887 housing units at an average density of 906.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 99.13% White, 0.15% African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.20% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.10% of the population.

There were 831 households out of which 26.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.6% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.2% were non-families. 39.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 23.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.86. In the village, the population was spread out with 20.1% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 23.5% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45 to 64, 26.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 82.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.2 males. The median income for a household in the village was $26,020, the median income for a family was $36,094. Males had a median income of $31,250 versus $19,643 for females; the per capita income for the village was $14,942. About 9.7% of families and 14.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.5% of those under age 18 and 15.2% of those age 65 or over.

Public schools in the village are administered by the Caldwell Exempted Village School District. Caldwell High School's cross country team had one of the most dominant runs by any Ohio High School Athletic Association team, winning small-school state championships every year from 1985 to 1992 and the National Championship in 1986. During several of these years, they were arguably the best team in any division, since they beat the best large-school state champions from those years in regular-season races. Mah Dugan Hill, on a 1973 state title team at Caldwell, was head coach of the 1987 thru 1992 teams, is still the head coach at CHS; the Ohio Association of Track and Cross Country Coaches elected him to their Hall of Fame in 1996 and awarded him the Ed Barker award in 2006. Ron Martin was the head coach of the 1985 and 1986 teams and was inducted into the OATCCC Hall of Fame in 1997. Brian Jonard, 1973 the 1976, Tony Carna, 1983 thru 1986, are Caldwell runners who have been inducted into the Hall of Fame as well.

Wikipedia:1986 Caldwell Cross Country Team Caldwell has the Caldwell Public Library, the county's only public lending library. Albert D. Whealdon, college professor and Wisconsin State Assemblyman, was born in Caldwell

Thabazimbi Local Municipality

Thabazimbi Local Municipality is an administrative area in the Waterberg District of Limpopo in South Africa. The seat of Thabazimbi Local Municipality is Thabazimbi. Thabazimbi is an isiZulu name meaning "iron mountain"; the Zulu and Nyasa speaking people worked on this mountain to mine iron. The 2001 census divided the municipality into the following main places: The municipal council consists of twenty-three members elected by mixed-member proportional representation. Twelve councillors are elected by first-past-the-post voting in twelve wards, while the remaining eleven are chosen from party lists so that the total number of party representatives is proportional to the number of votes received. In the election of 3 August 2016, the African National Congress lost its majority on the council. Midah Moselane of the Thabazimbi Residents Association subsequently was elected mayor with support from the Democratic Alliance, the Economic Freedom Fighters, the Freedom Front Plus; the following table shows the results of the election.

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