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Latency (engineering)

Latency is a time interval between the stimulation and response, or, from a more general point of view, a time delay between the cause and the effect of some physical change in the system being observed. Latency is physically a consequence of the limited velocity with which any physical interaction can propagate; the magnitude of this velocity is always equal to the speed of light. Therefore, every physical system with any physical separation between cause and effect will experience some sort of latency, regardless of the nature of stimulation that it has been exposed to; the precise definition of latency depends on the system being observed and the nature of stimulation. In communications, the lower limit of latency is determined by the medium being used for communications. In reliable two-way communication systems, latency limits the maximum rate that information can be transmitted, as there is a limit on the amount of information, "in-flight" at any one moment. In the field of human–machine interaction, perceptible latency has a strong effect on user satisfaction and usability.

Online games are sensitive to latency, since fast response times to new events occurring during a game session are rewarded while slow response times may carry penalties. Due to a delay in transmission of game events, a player with a high latency internet connection may show slow responses in spite of appropriate reaction time; this gives players with low latency connections a technical advantage. Minimizing latency is of interest in the capital markets where algorithmic trading is used to process market updates and turn around orders within milliseconds. Low-latency trading occurs on the networks used by financial institutions to connect to stock exchanges and electronic communication networks to execute financial transactions. Joel Hasbrouck and Gideon Saar measure latency based on three components: the time it takes for information to reach the trader, execution of the trader’s algorithms to analyze the information and decide a course of action, the generated action to reach the exchange and get implemented.

Hasbrouck and Saar contrast this with the way in which latencies are measured by many trading venues who use much more narrow definitions, such as, the processing delay measured from the entry of the order to the transmission of an acknowledgement. Electronic trading now makes up 60% to 70% of the daily volume on the New York Stock Exchange and algorithmic trading close to 35%. Trading using computers has developed to the point where millisecond improvements in network speeds offer a competitive advantage for financial institutions. Network latency in a packet-switched network is measured as either one-way, or round-trip delay time. Round-trip latency is more quoted, because it can be measured from a single point. Note that round trip latency excludes the amount of time that a destination system spends processing the packet. Many software platforms provide a service called ping that can be used to measure round-trip latency. Ping uses the Internet Control Message Protocol echo request which causes the recipient to send the received packet as an immediate response, thus it provides a rough way of measuring round-trip delay time.

Ping cannot perform accurate measurements, principally because ICMP is intended only for diagnostic or control purposes, differs from real communication protocols such as TCP. Furthermore and internet service providers might apply different traffic shaping policies to different protocols. For more accurate measurements it is better to use specific software, for example: hping, Netperf or Iperf. However, in a non-trivial network, a typical packet will be forwarded over multiple links and gateways, each of which will not begin to forward the packet until it has been received. In such a network, the minimal latency is the sum of the transmission delay of each link, plus the forwarding latency of each gateway. In practice, minimal latency includes queuing and processing delays. Queuing delay occurs when a gateway receives multiple packets from different sources heading towards the same destination. Since only one packet can be transmitted at a time, some of the packets must queue for transmission, incurring additional delay.

Processing delays are incurred. Bufferbloat can cause increased latency, an order of magnitude or more; the combination of propagation, serialization and processing delays produces a complex and variable network latency profile. Latency limits total throughput in reliable two-way communication systems as described by the bandwidth-delay product. Latency in optical fiber is a function of the speed of light, 299,792,458 meters/second in vacuum; this would equate to a latency of 3.33 µs for every kilometer of path length. The index of refraction of most fiber optic cables is about 1.5, meaning that light travels about 1.5 times as fast in a vacuum as it does in the cable. This works out to about 5.0 µs of latency for every kilometer. In shorter metro networks, higher latency can be experienced due to extra distance in building risers and cross-connects. To calculate the latency of a connection, one has to know the distance traveled by the fiber, a straight line, since it has to traverse geographic contours and obstacles, such as roads and railway tracks, as well as other rights-of-way.

Due to imperfections in the fiber, light degrades as it is transmitted thr

Betrayal (TV series)

Betrayal is an American drama television series that aired on ABC from September 29, 2013, to January 19, 2014. The series starred Hannah Ware, it is based on the Dutch drama series Overspel, broadcast by VARA. The pilot episode was directed by Patty Jenkins. Betrayal joined ABC's Sunday line-up after ABC's dramas, Once Upon a Revenge. On May 9, 2014, ABC canceled Betrayal after one season; the series stars Hannah Ware as Sara Hanley, a photographer, who begins an affair with Jack McAllister, a lawyer for a powerful family. Both married to other people and Sara find themselves drawn to one another; the premise revolves around a murder trial, which involves both of them on separate sides which makes things more complicated. Hannah Ware as Sara Hanley Henry Thomas as T. J. Karsten Wendy Moniz as Elaine McAllister Chris Johnson as Drew Stafford Braeden Lemasters as Victor McAllister Elizabeth McLaughlin as Valerie McAllister Stuart Townsend as Jack McAllister James Cromwell as Thatcher Karsten Helena Mattsson as Brandy Korskaya Merrin Dungey as Alissa Barnes Brendan Hines as Aidan Roxana Brusso as Serena Sanguillen Sofia Black D'Elia as Jules Carmen Roman as Constance Mrozek The show premiered in South Africa on M-Net on Saturday 19 October 2013 at 20:30.

The Republic of Ireland's public service broadcaster RTÉ Television's RTÉ Two broadcasts the series at 22:00 every Tuesday from October 29, 2013. On August 29, 2013, it was announced that Channel 5 had bought the UK rights to the series, which it began airing Friday 18 April 2014. Italy's public service broadcaster RAI 1 broadcast the series from July 25, 2014, with the title of the show being translated as Tradimenti. In Australia on Network Seven the series was broadcast from November 23, 2015. Betrayal on IMDb Betrayal at

Damon Pierce

Damon Pierce and owner of, is a world renowned bondage rigger, BDSM educator, professional piercer, adult entertainment producer and director from Los Angeles, California. He is known for his skill with well known companies such as Penthouse, Hustler, INSEX/Intersec, KINK, Hustler’s Taboo, Andrew Blake, PlayboyTV, Adam and Eve and Bizarre Video. Damon Pierce has worked with well known photographers like Ed Fox, Steve Diet Goedde, Eric Minh Swenson, Dave Naz and Ken Marcus. With the photographer Dave Naz, Pierce has been published in magazines such as Taboo Magazine, Private Magazine, Leg World, Leg Show and Nuggit. During the 90's, most of the bondage featured in Wicked Pictures was Damon's work. Damon's bondage rigging is not only featured in many adult films as well. Damon Pierce met director and performer Chloe Nicole and begin doing bondage for her movies that she produced for Vivid. Damon met Ernest Green and was asked to do bondage for all of Green’s movies which he produced for Vivid and Eve and Bizarre and Bonview.

He began working for many other adult companies creating creative bondage BDSM scenarios for their movies. ShibariCon Dark Odyssey Leather Retreat Fetish Flea Market BoundCon Germany Venus Fair Germany BOLDCon Stockroom University Debauchery at Threshold Fetish Con BoundCon Austria ROPE It Part Three Mei I Please You? Infernal Restraints Hoisted Hardtied High Strung Women Device Bondage House of Sex & Domination The Rebelle Rousers 2009 - AVN Award Winner – Best Best BDSM Release - House of Sex & Domination 2009 - Ninfa Award Winner for Best BDSM Film - House of Sex & Domination Slave To Bondage website Vintage Rope website Monarchs website Damon Pierce's Portfolio website

Voyage of the Unicorn

Voyage of the Unicorn is a 2001 television film directed Philip Spink and starring Beau Bridges, Chantal Conlin and Heather McEwen. The film is based on James C. Christensen's book Voyage of the Basset, it is featured on TV1000 channel. Dr. Alan Aisling is an antiquities professor who has lost his wife and struggles to keep his daughters' spirits high and his loneliness at bay, his younger daughter Cassie daydreams about the mythical world her illustrator mother left behind in her drawings and annoys her older sister Miranda. Something magical happens: the family find themselves fleeing a plague of monstrous trolls by boarding a mysterious ship called The Unicorn, they are given a quest to find the benevolent dragon that once ruled the legendary faerie isles, before the demon trolls arrived. They partake of the quest that shows them the wonder of the mythological worlds: fire-breathing dragons, the mermaids' siren songs and the Minotaur's labyrinth, try to re-ignite an enthusiasm for life within the family.

Beau Bridges - Professor Alan Aisling Chantal Conlin - Cassie Aisling Heather McEwen - Miranda Aisling Mackenzie Gray - Skotos John DeSantis - Cratch Adrien Dorval - Mog Colin Heath - Malachi Kristian Ayre - Sebastian Mark Gibbon - Minotaur Kira Clavell - Medusa Kimberly Hawthorne - Sphinx Markus Parilo - Oberon Ocean Hellman - Titania Wanda Cannon - Lily C. Ernst Harth - Olaf the Ogre Mark Acheson - Kalgar Jay Brazeau - Mage The film was released on a DVD with the TV film "The Old Curiosity Shop" in 2007, it was considered an "extra". Both parts were released by Hallmark Entertainment as a single stand-alone feature on VHS. Voyage of the Unicorn on IMDb RHI Films


Acavus is a genus of air-breathing land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family Acavidae. They belongs to group of tree snails that inhabited the ancient continent of Gondwana over 150 million years ago; these beautiful tree snails are endemic to Sri Lanka. It is present a large intraspecific polymorphism, with the development of various geographical subspecies. Acavus haemastoma Acavus phoenix Pfeiffer, 1854 Acavus superbus Pfeiffer, 1850 B. Hausdorfi and Kalika K. Pereira - REVISION OF THE GENUS ACAVUS FROM SRI LANKA Natural History Museum Conchology WMSBD

Jacob's Post

Jacob's Post is a hamlet to the east of Burgess Hill, in Lewes district, East Sussex, England. It is named after a traveling peddler named Jacob Harris who in 1734, according to local lore, killed the landlord, his wife and a serving maid at the pub at this spot, the Royal Oak, he was prosecuted for his crime at Horsham gaol and sentenced to be hanged at the place where he carried out his crime. Some time after the hanging a post was erected on the spot where he was put to death, the area became known by the name Jacob's Post; the post itself has a metal bird nailed to the top. The Royal Oak is threatened with demolition. Https://