Jin (Korean state)
The state of Jin was a confederacy of statelets which occupied some portion of the southern Korean peninsula during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BCE, bordering the Korean kingdom Gojoseon to the north. Its capital was somewhere south of the Han River, it preceded the Samhan confederacies. "Jin" is the Revised Romanization of Korean 진 written 辰 in Korean Chinese characters. This character's Old Chinese pronunciation has been reconstructed as /*ər/ and referred to the 5th earthly branch of the Chinese and Korean zodiacs, a division of the orbit of Jupiter identified with the dragon; this was associated with a bearing of 120° but with the two-hour period between 7 and 9 am, leading it to be associated with dawn and the direction east. A variant romanization is Chin, it is not clear as to. It seems that it was a federation of small states much like the subsequent Samhan. For the state to be able to contend with Wiman Joseon and send embassies to the court of Han Dynasty China, there was some level of stable central authority.
Korean historian Ki-baek Lee suggests that the kingdom's attempt to open direct contacts "suggests a strong desire on the part of Chin to enjoy the benefits of Chinese metal culture." However, for the most part Wiman Joseon prevented direct contact between China. King Jun of Gojoseon is reported to have fled to Jin after Wiman seized his throne and established Wiman Joseon; some believe that Chinese mentions of Gaemaguk refers to Jin. Goguryeo is said to have conquered "Gaemaguk" in 26 AD, but this may refer to a different tribe in northern Korea. Records are somewhat contradictory on Jin's demise: it either became the Jinhan, or diverged into the Samhan as a whole. Archeological records of Jin have been found centered in territory that became Mahan. Alexander Vovin suggests that Japonic languages were spoken in large parts of southern Korea and Jeju before they were replaced by proto-Koreanic speakers, thus it is possible. Archaeologically, Jin is identified with the Korean bronze dagger culture, which succeeded the Liaoning bronze dagger culture in the late first millennium BCE.
The most abundant finds from this culture have been in southwestern Korea's Chungcheong and Jeolla regions. This suggests that Jin was based in the same area, which coincides with the fragmentary historical evidence. Artifacts of the culture show some similarities to the Yayoi people of Kyūshū, Japan. Jin was succeeded by the Samhan: Mahan and Byeonhan. Chinese historical text, Records of the Three Kingdoms says that Jinhan is the successor of the Jin state, while the Book of the Later Han writes that Mahan and Byeonhan were all part of the former Jin state as well as 78 other tribes; the name of Jin continued to be used in the name of the Jinhan confederacy and in the name "Byeonjin," an alternate term for Byeonhan. In addition, for some time the leader of Mahan continued to call himself the "Jin king," asserting nominal overlordship over all of the Samhan tribes. History of Korea List of Korea-related topics Samhan Lee, C.-k.. The bronze dagger culture of the Korean peninsula. Korea Journal 36, 17-27.
Lee, K.-b.. A new history of Korea. Tr. by E. W. Wagner & E. J. Schulz, based on the 1979 rev. ed. Seoul: Ilchogak. ISBN 89-337-0204-0
Korean Confucianism is the form of Confucianism that emerged and developed in Korea. One of the most substantial influences in Korean intellectual history was the introduction of Confucian thought as part of the cultural influence from China. Today the legacy of Confucianism remains a fundamental part of Korean society, shaping the moral system, the way of life, social relations between old and young, high culture, is the basis for much of the legal system. Confucianism in Korea is sometimes considered a pragmatic way of holding a nation together without the civil wars and internal dissent that were inherited from the Goryeo dynasty. Confucius is thought to have been born in 551 BCE and raised by his mother following the death of his father when Confucius was three years old; the Latinized name "Confucius" by which most Westerners recognize him is derived from "Kong Fuzi" first coined by 16th-century Jesuit missionaries to China. The Analects, or Lunyu, a collection of sayings and ideas attributed to the Chinese philosopher and his contemporaries, is believed to have been written by Confucius' followers during the Warring States period, achieving its final form during the Han dynasty.
Confucius was born into the class between the aristocracy and the common people. His public life included marriage at the age of 19 that produced a son and a variety of occupations as a farm worker and book-keeper. In his private life he studied and reflected on righteousness, proper conduct and the nature of government such that by the age of 50 he had established a reputation; this regard, however was insufficient for his success in advocating for a strong central government and the use of diplomacy over warfare as the ideal for international relationships. He is said to have spent his last years teaching an ardent group of followers of the values to be appreciated in a collection of ancient writings loosely identified as the Five Classics. Confucius is thought to have died in 479 BCE. Under the succeeding Han dynasty and Tang dynasty, Confucian ideas gained more widespread prominence. During the Song dynasty, the scholar Zhu Xi added ideas from Buddhism into Confucianism. In his life, Zhu Xi was ignored, but not long after his death his ideas became the new orthodox view of what Confucian texts meant.
Modern historians view Zhu Xi as having created something rather different, call his way of thinking Neo-Confucianism. Neo-Confucianism held sway in China, Japan and Vietnam until the 19th century; the nature of early Korean political and cultural organization centered on the clan and the tribe rather than cities and states. A Chinese record of the Gojoseon Kingdom labeled the inhabitants of the peninsula as DONG-I or "eastern barbarians" or "eastern bowmen". Though the Shang dynasty is recognized chiefly for its metallurgical accomplishments, its organizational accomplishments included the invocation of authority through one's ancestors; when the Shang Dynasty was overtaken by the Western Zhou, the Zhou modified the Shang belief in ancestors belief to invoke the "Mandate of Heaven" as a way of identifying the divine right to rule. The Mandate of Heaven was based on rules of good governance and the emperor was granted the right to rule by heaven as long as those rules of good governance were obeyed.
The scattered rule of many semi-autonomous holdings were brought under the rule of a central government as a Zongfa or "kinship network" though as time went on the territory ruled was far too large for all vassals to be actual blood relatives. Vassals to the king enjoyed hereditary titles and were expected to provide labor and fighting forces as circumstances merited. In these many ways, the Gojoseon kingdom would have been “validated” by their “big brother” to the south, while the Gojoseon king would still rule, the “Mandate of Heaven” lay obligations on him to rule justly and and for the benefit of his people and not just his favorites or relatives; as the Western Zhou declined, China entered into a period known as the Spring and Autumn period and the "kinship network" declined. Control of many feudal holdings fell to feudal lords and knights, or "fighting gentlemen". Unbound by family relationships, these men were free to accrue holdings, it was into this period that Confucius was born and spent his entire life seeming to strive for the construction of a governmental ideal in the nature of the Zhou centralized government.
However, in 109 BC the Han Emperor, Wu-Ti overwhelmed Gojoseon by both land and sea and established four bases, or "commanderies", Four Commanderies of Han in the region as a way to stabilize the area for trade. The subsequent introduction of four separate administrations to oversee the region only served to prolong the divided nature of the Korean peninsula and hamper an adoption of the Confucian model; as the Three Kingdoms Period emerged from the Four Commanderies, each Kingdom sought ideologies under which their populations could be consolidated and authority could be validated. From its introduction to the kingdom of Baekje in 338 AD, Korean Buddhism spread to all of the states of the Three Kingdoms Period. Though Korean Shamanism had been an integral part of Korean culture extending back to earliest time, Buddhism was able to strike a balance between the people and their administration by arbitrating the responsibilities of one to the other. By the time of the Goryeo Dynasty the position and status of Buddhism far exceeded its role as a mere religious faith.
Buddhist temples established as acts of f
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great. It may be written as Hangeul following the standard Romanization, it is the official writing system of Korea, both North. It is a co-official writing system in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County in Jilin Province, China, it is sometimes used to write the Cia-Cia language spoken near the town of Indonesia. The Hangul alphabet consisted of 28 letters with 17 consonant letters and 11 vowel letters when it was created; as four became obsolete, the modern Hangul consists of total 24 letters with 14 consonant letters and 10 vowel letters. In North Korea the total is counted 40, it consists of 19 consonant letters and 21 vowel letters as it additionally includes 5 tense consonants and 20. The Korean letters are written in syllabic blocks with each alphabetic letter placed vertically and horizontally into a square dimension.
For example, the Korean word for "honeybee" is written 꿀벌, not ㄲㅜㄹㅂㅓㄹ. As it combines the features of alphabetic and syllabic writing systems, it has been described as an "alphabetic syllabary" by some linguists; as in traditional Chinese writing, Korean texts were traditionally written top to bottom, right to left, are still written this way for stylistic purposes. Today, it is written from left to right with spaces between words and western-style punctuation; some linguists consider it among the most phonologically faithful writing systems in use today. One interesting feature of Hangul is that the shapes of its consonants mimic the shapes of the speaker's mouth when pronouncing each consonant; the Korean alphabet was called Hunminjeong'eum, after the document that introduced the script to the Korean people in 1446. The Korean alphabet is called hangeul, a name coined by Korean linguist Ju Si-gyeong in 1912; the name combines the ancient Korean word han, meaning "great", geul, meaning "script".
The word han is used to refer to Korea in general, so the name means "Korean script". It has been romanized in multiple ways: Hangeul or han-geul in the Revised Romanization of Korean, which the South Korean government uses in English publications and encourages for all purposes. Han'gŭl in the McCune–Reischauer system, is capitalized and rendered without the diacritics when used as an English word, Hangul, as it appears in many English dictionaries. Hānkul in the Yale romanization, a system recommended for technical linguistic studies. In North Korea it is called Chosŏn'gŭl after Chosŏn, the North Korean name for Korea after the old name of Korea; the McCune–Reischauer system is used there. Until the mid-20th century, the Korean elite preferred to write using Chinese characters called Hanja, they referred to Hanja as jinseo or "true letters". Some accounts say the elite referred to the Korean alphabet derisively as'amkeul meaning "women's script", and'ahaetgeul meaning "children's script", though there is no written evidence of this.
Supporters of the Korean alphabet referred to it as jeong'eum meaning "correct pronunciation", gukmun meaning "national script", eonmun meaning "vernacular script". Before the creation of the new Korean alphabet, Koreans wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate the modern Korean alphabet by hundreds of years, including Idu script, Hyangchal and Gakpil. However, due to fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, the large number of characters, many lower class Koreans were illiterate. To promote literacy among the common people, the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty, Sejong the Great created and promulgated a new alphabet; the Korean alphabet was designed so that people with little education could learn to write. A popular saying about the alphabet is, "A wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; the project was completed in late December 1443 or January 1444, described in 1446 in a document titled Hunminjeong'eum, after which the alphabet itself was named.
The publication date of the Hunminjeongeum, October 9, became Hangul Day in South Korea. Its North Korean equivalent, Chosŏn'gŭl Day, is on January 15. Another document published in 1446 and titled Hunminjeong'eum Haerye was discovered in 1940; this document explains that the design of the consonant letters is based on articulatory phonetics and the design of the vowel letters are based on the principles of yin and yang and vowel harmony. The Korean alphabet faced opposition in the 1440s by the literary elite, including politician Choe Manri and other Korean Confucian scholars, they believed. They saw the circulation of the Korean alphabet as a threat to their status. However, the Korean alphabet entered popular culture as King Sejong had intended, used by women and writers of popular fiction. King Yeonsangun banned the study and publication of the Korean alphabet in 1504, after a document criticizing the king entered the public. King Jungjong abolished the Ministry of Eonmun, a governmental institution related to Hangul research, in 1506.
The late 16th century, saw a revival of the Korean alphabet as gasa and sijo poetry flourished. In the 17th century, the Korean alphabet novels became a major genre. However, the use of the Korea
History of science and technology in Korea
Like most other regions in the world and technology in Korea has experienced periods of intense growth as well as long periods of stagnation. At the end of the Palaeolithic, people of the Korean Peninsula adopted microlithic stone tool technology, a efficient and useful way of making and maintaining a flexible prehistoric toolkit; the Palaeolithic marks the beginning of a long period of plant and human interaction in which people undoubtedly adopted a number of wild plants for medicinal use. Archaeological evidence from Gosan-ri in Jeju-do indicates that pottery was first made c. 8500-8000 BC. People depended on gathering and fishing as the main source of food until the Middle Jeulmun Period when small-scale cultivation of plants began; the earliest known constellation patterns in Korea can be found on dolmens dating back to 3000 BC. Farmers of the Mumun Period began to use multiple cropping systems of agriculture some time after 1500 BC; this advance in food production irrevocably altered the subsistence systems of the Mumun and hastened the beginnings of intensive agriculture in the Korean Peninsula.
Korea and adjacent areas of East Asia seem to have been a part of the domestication region of soybean between 1500 and 500 BC. Paddy-field agriculture, a system of wet-rice cultivation, was introduced into the southern Korean Peninsula during this period. Widespread archaeological evidence shows that after 850 BC the technology for heating homes changed. Before 850 BC pit-houses were heated using fire from various kinds of hearths that were dug into the floor of the pit-house. After 850 BC, hearths disappeared from the interior of pit-house architecture and was replaced with some kind of brazier-like technology in Hoseo and western Yeongnam. Bronze objects were exchanged into the Korean Peninsula from the outside before 900 BC. However, the moulds for bronze casting from Songguk-ri and an increased number of bronze artifacts indicates that people in the southern part of the peninsula engaged in bronze metallurgical production starting from c. 700 BC. Several hundred years iron production was adopted, Korean-made iron tools and weaponry became common after 200 BC.
Iron tools facilitated the spread of intensive agriculture into new areas of the Korean Peninsula. Until Koreans were thought to have invented under-floor heating, a system they call "ondol", it was first thought to have been invented by the people of the Northern Okjeo around 2,500 years ago. However, the recent discovery of a c. 3,000-year-old equivalent indoor heating system in Alaska has called current explanation into question. The absence of prehistoric and/or ancient ondol features in the area between the two archaeological sites makes it unlikely that the two systems might have come from the same source. However, there has been hypothesis that whale-hunting people from the Korean peninsula have migrated to Alaska by sea during the time period, this could explain the phenomenon; the production of hard-fired stoneware ceramics, in which clay is vitrified in kilns at >1000 °C, occurred first in the Korean Peninsula during the Three Kingdoms Period. This period is notable for the establishment of industrial-scale production of pottery and roof tiles.
This involved the adoption of Chinese dragon kiln or climbing kiln technology sometime between AD 100-300. One of few examples of science and technology during the Three Kingdoms of Korea that has survived until this day is the Cheomseongdae, which means "star gazing platform" and is one of the oldest observatories installed on Earth, it was built during Queen Seondeok's rule. The tower is built out of 366 pieces of cut granite which some claim represent the 366 days of the lunar year and has 12 base stones which represent the twelve months of the year; the design is said to be influenced by Buddhism. The nine-story wooden pagoda of Hwangnyongsa, commissioned by Queen Seondeok after the main temple was finished, is reputed to be the largest premodern Korean stupa built, it was reported to be 80 metres in height. Only its foundation stones remain today but they attest to the mammoth proportions of the original structure. During the Goryeo Dynasty metal movable type printing was invented by Choe Yun-ui in 1234.
This invention made printing easier, more efficient and increased literacy, which observed by Chinese visitors was seen to be so important where it was considered to be shameful to not be able to read. The Mongol Empire adopted Korea's movable type printing and spread as far as Central Asia. There is conjecture as to whether or not Choe's invention had any influence on printing inventions such as Gutenberg's Printing press; when the Mongols invaded Europe they inadvertently introduced different kinds of Asian technology. During the late Goryeo Dynasty, Goryeo was at the cutting edge of shipboard artillery in world. In 1356 early experiments were carried out with gunpowder weapons that shot wood or metal projectiles. In 1373 experiments with incendiary arrows and "fire tubes" an early form of the Hwacha were developed and placed on Korean warships; the policy of placing cannons and other gunpowder weapons continued well into the Joseon Dynasty and by 1410, over 160 Joseon warships had cannons on board.
Choe Mu-seon, a medieval Korean inventor, military commander and scientist, introduced the widespread use of gunpowder to Korea for the first time and created various gunpowder-based weapons. The weapons were created because of Japanese pirates raiding Korea's coastal regions. Choe obtained knowledge of gunpowder from a Chinese merchant named Lee Yuan despite the fact that it was against Mongol law. Lee was at first reluctant but came around be
Division of Korea
The Division of Korea began at the end of World War II in 1945. With the defeat of Japan, the Soviet Union occupied the north of Korea, the United States occupied the south, with the boundary between their zones being the 38th parallel. With the onset of the Cold War, negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union failed to lead to an independent and unified Korea. In 1948, UN-supervised elections were held in the US-occupied south only. Syngman Rhee won the election; this led to the establishment of the Republic of Korea in South Korea, promptly followed by the establishment of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in North Korea. The United States supported the South, the Soviet Union supported the North, each government claimed sovereignty over the whole Korean peninsula. In 1950, North Korea invaded the South to try to reunify the peninsula under its communist rule; the subsequent Korean War, which lasted from 1950 to 1953, ended with a stalemate and has left the two Koreas separated by the Korean Demilitarized Zone up to the present day.
Diplomatic initiatives have so far failed to end the division. When the Russo-Japanese War ended in 1905 Korea became a nominal protectorate of Japan, was annexed by Japan in 1910; the Korean Emperor Gojong was removed. In the following decades and radical groups emerged in exile, to struggle for independence. Divergent in their outlooks and approaches, these groups failed to unite in one national movement; the Korean Provisional Government in China failed to obtain widespread recognition. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, in the middle of World War Two, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill and Chiang Kai-shek agreed that Japan should lose all the territories it had conquered by force. At the end of the conference, the three powers declared that they were, "mindful of the enslavement of the people of Korea... determined that in due course Korea shall become free and independent." Roosevelt floated the idea of a trusteeship over Korea, but did not obtain agreement from the other powers.
Roosevelt raised the idea with Joseph Stalin at the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945. Stalin advocated that the period of trusteeship be short. At the Tehran and Yalta Conferences, Stalin promised to join his allies in the Pacific War in two to three months after victory in Europe. On August 8, 1945, three months to the day after the end of hostilities in Europe, two days after the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan; as war began, the Commander-in-Chief of Soviet Forces in the Far East, Marshal Aleksandr Vasilevsky, called on Koreans to rise up against Japan, saying "a banner of liberty and independence is rising in Seoul". Soviet troops advanced and the US government became anxious that they would occupy the whole of Korea. On August 10, 1945 two young officers – Dean Rusk and Charles Bonesteel – were assigned to define an American occupation zone. Working on short notice and unprepared, they used a National Geographic map to decide on the 38th parallel.
They chose it because it divided the country in half but would place the capital Seoul under American control. No experts on Korea were consulted; the two men were unaware that forty years before and pre-revolutionary Russia had discussed sharing Korea along the same parallel. Rusk said that had he known, he "almost surely" would have chosen a different line; the division placed sixteen million Koreans in the American zone and nine million in the Soviet zone. To the surprise of the Americans, the Soviet Union accepted the division; the agreement was incorporated into General Order No. 1 for the surrender of Japan. Soviet forces began amphibious landings in Korea by August 14 and took over the north-east of the country, on August 16 they landed at Wonsan. On August 24, the Red Army reached Pyongyang. General Nobuyuki Abe, the last Japanese Governor-General of Korea, had established contact with a number of influential Koreans since the beginning of August 1945 to prepare the hand-over of power. Throughout August, Koreans organized people's committee branches for the "Committee for the Preparation of Korean Independence", led by Lyuh Woon-hyung, a left-wing politician.
On September 6, 1945, a congress of representatives was convened in Seoul and founded the short-lived People's Republic of Korea. In the spirit of consensus, conservative elder statesman Syngman Rhee, living in exile in the US, was nominated as President; when Soviet troops entered Pyongyang, they found a local branch of the Committee for the Preparation of Korean Independence operating under the leadership of veteran nationalist Cho Man-sik. The Soviet Army allowed these "People's Committees" to function. In September 1945, the Soviet administration issued its own currency, the "Red Army won". In 1946, Colonel-General Terentii Shtykov took charge of the administration and began to lobby the Soviet government for funds to support the ailing economy. In February 1946 a provisional government called the Provisional People's Committee was formed under Kim Il-sung, who had spent the last years of the war training with Soviet troops in Manchuria. Conflicts and power struggles ensued at the top levels of government in Pyongyang as different aspirants maneuvered to gain positions of power in the new government.
In March 1946 the provisional government instituted a sweeping land-reform program: land belonging to Japanese and collaborator landowners was divided and redistributed to poor farmers. Organizing the many poor civilians and agricultura
Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
The Korean Provisional Government, formally the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was a recognized Korean government-in-exile, based in Shanghai, in Chungking, during the Japanese colonial rule of Korea. On April 11, 1919, the provisional constitution was enacted, the national sovereignty was called "Republic of Korea" and the political system was called "Democratic Republic". Introduced the presidential system and established three separate systems of legislative and judicial separation, the KPG inherited the territory of the former Korean Empire and stated that he favored the former imperial court, it supported and supported the independence movement under the provisional government, received economic and military support from the Kuomintang of China, the Soviet Union and France. After the Surrender of Japan on August 15, 1945, figures such as Kim Gu returned. On August 15, 1948, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was dissolved. Rhee, the first president of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, became the first President of the Republic of Korea in 1948.
The Constitution of South Korea, amended in 1987, stated that the Korean people inherited the rule of the KPG. The government was formed on April 13, 1919, shortly after the March 1st movement of the same year during the Imperial Japanese colonial rule of the Korean peninsula. Key members in its establishment included An Changho and Syngman Rhee, both of which were leaders of the Korean National Association at that time. An Changho played an important part in making Shanghai the center of the liberation movement and in getting KPG operations underway; as acting premier, he would help reorganize the government from a parliamentary cabinet system to a presidential system. The government resisted the colonial rule of Korea that lasted from 1910 to 1945, they coordinated the armed resistance against the Japanese imperial army during the 1920s and 1930s, including the Battle of Chingshanli in October 1920 and the assault on Japanese military leadership in Shanghai's Hongkou Park in April 1932. This struggle culminated in the formation of Korean Liberation Army in 1940, bringing together many if not all Korean resistance groups in exile.
The government duly declared war against the Axis powers Japan and Germany on December 9, 1941, the Liberation Army took part in allied action in China and parts of Southeast Asia. During World War II, the Korean Liberation Army was preparing an assault against the Imperial Japanese forces in Korea in conjunction with American Office of Strategic Services, but the Japanese surrender prevented the execution of the plan; the government's goal was achieved with Japanese surrender on September 2, 1945, but they were not approved by other governments as a member of allied nations, who signed peace treaty with Japan in San Francisco. The sites of the Provisional Government in Shanghai and Chongqing have been preserved as museums. In 1919, when U. S. President Woodrow Wilson ruled for national self-determination, Rhee Syng-man promoted the League of Nations mandate in the United States, Kim Kyu-sik pushed for independence under the approval of a victorious country in Paris; the provisional government gained approval from Poland through diplomatic efforts.
Meanwhile, in 1944, the government received approval from the Soviet Union. Jo So-ang, the head of diplomatic department of provisional government, met with the French ambassador in Chongqing and was quoted as saying that French government would give unofficial and substantively approve the government in April 1945. However, The government did not gain formal recognition from United States, United Kingdom and other world powers. Syngman Rhee - Impeached by the provisional assembly Yi Dongnyeong - Acting Park Eun-sik - Acting Park Eun-sik Yi Yu-pil -Acting Yi Sang-ryong Yang Gi-tak Yi Dongnyeong Ahn Chang-ho Yi Dong-nyeong Hong Jin Kim Koo Yi Dongnyeong Song Byeong-jo Yi Dongnyeong - Died in office Kim Koo Syngman Rhee - Became the first president of South Korea, from July 24, 1948 to April 26, 1960 History of South Korea Korean independence movements Korean Liberation Army Korea Times article "Provisional Government in Shanghai Resisted Colonial Rule" by Robert Neff Korea's Provisional Government established in 1919 in Shanghai - Arirang News
Three Kingdoms of Korea
The Three Kingdoms of Korea refers to the three kingdoms of Baekje and Goguryeo. Goguryeo was known as Goryeo, from which the modern name Korea is derived; the Three Kingdoms period is defined as being from 57 BC to 668 AD. The three kingdoms occupied the entire Korean Peninsula and half of Manchuria, located in present-day China and Russia; the kingdoms of Baekje and Silla dominated the southern half of the Korean Peninsula and Tamna, whereas Goguryeo controlled the Liaodong Peninsula and the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. Baekje and Goguryeo originated from Buyeo. In the 7th century, allied with China under the Tang dynasty, Silla unified the Korean Peninsula for the first time in Korean history, forming a united Korean national identity for the first time. After the fall of Baekje and Goguryeo, the Tang dynasty established a short-lived military government to administer parts of the Korean peninsula. However, as a result of the Silla–Tang War, Silla forces expelled the Protectorate armies from the peninsula in 676.
The following period is known as the Unified Later Silla. Subsequently, Go of Balhae, a former Goguryeo general, founded Balhae in the former territory of Goguryeo after defeating the Tang dynasty at the Battle of Tianmenling; the predecessor period, before the development of the full-fledged kingdoms, is sometimes called Proto–Three Kingdoms period. Main primary sources for this period include Samguk sagi and Samguk yusa in Korea, the "Eastern Barbarians" section from the Book of Wei of the Records of the Three Kingdoms in China. Beginning in the 7th century, the name "Samhan" became synonymous with the Three Kingdoms of Korea; the "Han" in the names of the Korean Empire, Daehan Jeguk, the Republic of Korea, Daehan Minguk or Hanguk, are named in reference to the Three Kingdoms of Korea. According to the Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusa, Silla implemented a national policy, "Samhan Unification", to integrate refugees and migrants from Baekje and Goguryeo. In 1982, a memorial stone dating back to 686 was discovered in Cheongju with an inscription: "The Three Han were unified and the domain was expanded."
During the Later Silla period, the concepts of Samhan as the ancient confederacies and the Three Kingdoms of Korea were merged. In a letter to an imperial tutor of the Tang dynasty, Choe Chiwon equated Byeonhan to Baekje, Jinhan to Silla, Mahan to Goguryeo. By the Goryeo period, Samhan became a common name to refer to all of Korea. In his Ten Mandates to his descendants, Wang Geon declared that he had unified the Three Han, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Samhan continued to be a common name for Korea during the Joseon period and was referenced in the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty. In China, the Three Kingdoms of Korea were collectively called Samhan since the beginning of the 7th century; the use of the name Samhan to indicate the Three Kingdoms of Korea was widespread in the Tang dynasty. Goguryeo was alternately called Mahan by the Tang dynasty, as evidenced by a Tang document that called Goguryeo generals "Mahan leaders" in 645. In 651, Emperor Gaozong of Tang sent a message to the king of Baekje referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea as Samhan.
Epitaphs of the Tang dynasty, including those belonging to Baekje and Silla refugees and migrants, called the Three Kingdoms of Korea "Samhan" Goguryeo. For example, the epitaph of Go Hyeon, a Tang dynasty general of Goguryeo origin who died in 690, calls him a "Liaodong Samhan man"; the History of Liao equates Byeonhan to Silla, Jinhan to Buyeo, Mahan to Goguryeo. The name "Three Kingdoms" was used in the titles of the Korean histories Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusa, should not be confused with the Three Kingdoms of China; the Three Kingdoms was founded after the fall of Wiman Joseon, conquered and absorbed various other small states and confederacies. After the fall of Gojoseon, the Han dynasty established four commanderies in present Liaoning. Three fell to the Samhan, the last was destroyed by Goguryeo in 313; the nascent precursors of Baekje and Silla expanded within the web of statelets during the Proto Three Kingdoms Period, Goguryeo conquered neighboring state like Buyeo in Manchuria and chiefdoms in Okjeo, Dongye which occupied the northeastern Korean peninsula.
The three polities made the transition from walled-town state to full-fledged state-level societies between 1st – 3rd century AD. All three kingdoms shared a similar language, their original religions appear to have been shamanistic, but they were influenced by Chinese culture Confucianism and Taoism. In the 4th century, Buddhism was introduced to the peninsula and spread briefly becoming the official religion of all three kingdoms. Goguryeo emerged in the wake of Gojoseon's fall; the first mention of Goguryeo in Chinese records dates from 75 BC in reference to a commandery established by the Chinese Han dynasty, although earlier mentions of "Guri" may be of the same state. Evidence indicates Goguryeo was the most advanced, the first established, of the three kingdoms. Goguryeo the largest of the three kingdoms, had several capitals in alternation: two capitals in the upper Yalu area, Nangrang, now part of Pyongyang. At the beginning, the state was located on t