Tokuhime was a princess during the Sengoku and Edo periods of Japanese history. She was the second daughter of Tokugawa Ieyasu. Tokuhime was known as Ofū, Harima-gozen, Ryōshō-in. In 1582, the death of Oda Nobunaga in the Incident at Honnōji left Kai and Shinano Provinces without an overlord, the struggle between Ieyasu and Hōjō Ujinao began. However, at that time, the two had nearly equal strength, thinking that a serious war would weaken the winner, they sought peace; as part of the accord, Ieyasu agreed to give Toku to Ujinao to be his wife. In 1590, Toyotomi Hideyoshi attacked the Hōjō stronghold at Odawara Castle in the Subjugation of Odawara, eradicating the Hōjō as a power. At that time, Ujinao appealed to his father-in-law Ieyasu, who prevailed upon Hideyoshi to spare Ujinao and Toku, sending them to Mount Kōya. In the following year, Ujinao died. Princess Tokuhime and Ujinao had two daughters: Hōshuin-dono. After Ujinao's death, the princess returned to Ieyasu. In 1594, Hideyoshi arranged for Toku to marry Ikeda Terumasa.
They gave birth to five sons: Ikeda Teruoki, Ikeda Teruzumi, Ikeda Masatsuna, Ikeda Tadatsugu and Ikeda Tadakatsu. Tadatsugu became the lord of Okayama Castle at age five, following the death of Kobayakawa Hideaki
Battle of Mimasetoge
The battle of Mimasetōge took place in 1569, as the forces of Takeda Shingen withdrew from repeated failed sieges of the Hōjō clan's Odawara Castle in the Kanagawa Prefecture of Japan. The Hōjō forces, led by the brothers Ujiteru and Ujikuni, lay in wait for him in the pass of Mimase; the Takeda vanguard, which included Baba Nobuharu, was hard-pressed. Shingen himself led up the Takeda main body; the battle turned in favor of the Takeda when Yamagata Masakage launched a furious counterattack, inflicting heavy casualties on the Hôjô. The Hôjô were defeated and forced to retreat north, allowing the Takeda to return to Kai — leaving behind some 900 dead. Turnbull, Stephen; the Samurai Sourcebook. London: Cassell & Co
Odawara Castle is a landmark in the city of Odawara in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Odawara was a stronghold of the Doi clan during the Kamakura period, a fortified residence built by their collateral branch, the Kobayakawa clan stood on the approximate site of the present castle. After the Uesugi Zenshū Revolt of 1416, Odawara came under the control of the Omori clan of Suruga, they were in turn defeated by Ise Moritoki of Izu, founder of the Odawara Hōjō clan in 1495. Five generations of the Odawara Hōjō clan improved and expanded on the fortifications of Odawara Castle as the center of their domains, which encompassed most of the Kantō region. During the Sengoku period, Odawara Castle had strong defenses, as it was situated on a hill, surrounded by moats with water on the low side, dry ditches on the hill side, with banks and cliffs located all around the castle, enabling the defenders to repel attacks by Uesugi Kenshin in 1561 and Takeda Shingen in 1569. In 1587, the defences of the castle were expanded by the Odawara Hōjō in anticipation of the coming conflict with Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
However, during the Battle of Odawara in 1590, Hideyoshi forced the surrender of the Odawara Hōjō without storming the castle through a combination of a three-month siege and bluff. After ordering most of the fortifications destroyed, he awarded the holdings of the Odawara Hōjō to his leading general Tokugawa Ieyasu. After Ieyasu completed Edo Castle, he turned site of Odawara Castle over to one of his senior retainers, Ōkubo Tadayo, who reconstructed the castle in its present form on a reduced scale, with the entire castle fitting inside what was once the third bailey of the Sengoku period Hōjō castle. However, his successor Ōkubo Takachika was dispossessed by the shogunate in 1614. From 1619-1623, the castle was assigned to Abe Masatsugu. After 1623, Odawara Domain reverted to tenryō status and a palace was constructed in the inner bailey to serve as a retirement home of Shōgun Tokugawa Hidetada. On his death, Odawara Domain was revived as an 85,000 koku holding for Inaba Masakatsu, the eldest son of Kasuga no Tsubone, the wet nurse to Shōgun Tokugawa Iemitsu.
Iemitsu visited Odawara Castle in 1634. Under the Inaba clan, the castle was extensively renovated. In 1686, the Inaba were transferred, the Ōkubo clan returned to Odawara, with the domain expanded in kokudaka to 103,000 koku; the castle suffered great damage during the 1703 Genroku earthquake, which destroyed most of the castle structures. The donjon was restored by 1706, but the rest of the castle took until 1721. Extensive damage occurred again during the 1782 Tenmei earthquake and once more during the 1853 Kaei earthquake. During the Boshin War of the Meiji restoration, Ōkubo Tadanori permitted the pro-Imperial forces of the Satchō Alliance to pass through Odawara on their way to Edo without opposition; the new Meiji government ordered the destruction of all former feudal fortifications, in compliance with this directive, all structures of Odawara Castle were pulled down from 1870–1872. In 1893, the stone base of the former donjon become the foundation for a Shinto shrine, the Ōkubo Jinja, dedicated to the spirits of the generations of Ōkubo daimyō.
In 1901, the Odawara Imperial Villa was constructed within the site of the former inner and second bailies. The Imperial Villa was destroyed by the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, which caused many of the stone facing on the castle ramparts to collapse. Repair work was made to the stone walls from 1930–1931, but with poor workmanship. In 1934, two of the remaining yagura were on a half-scale. In 1938, the castle site was proclaimed a National Historic Site, with the area under historic preservation restrictions expanded in 1959, again in 1976 based on further archaeological investigations. In 1950, repairs were made to the stone base of the former donjon, in ruins since the Great Kantō earthquake, the area was made into the Odawara Castle Park, which included an art museum, local history museum, city library, amusement park and zoo; the three-tiered, five-storied donjon, the top floor of, an observatory, was rebuilt in 1960 out of reinforced concrete to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the proclamation of Odawara as a city.
However, the reconstructed donjon is not accurate, as the observation deck was added at the insistence of the Odawara City tourism authorities. Plans have been discussed since the late 1960s on a more accurate restoration of the central castle grounds to its late Edo period format; these plans resulted in the reconstruction of the Tokiwagi Gate in 1971, the Akagane Gate in 1997, the Umadashi Gate in 2009. The castle tower was remodelled from July 2015 until April 2016 to improve earthquake resistance and to modernise its exhibits. Odawara City government donated all entry fees on the day of the re-opening to Kumamoto City government, to be put towards repairs to Kumamoto Castle, damaged in the 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes; the reconstructed Odawara Castle was listed as one of the 100 Fine Castles of Japan by the Japan Castle Foundation in 2006. Schmorleitz, Morton S.. Castles in Japan. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Co. pp. 144–145. ISBN 0-8048-1102-4. Motoo, Hinago. Japanese Castles. Tokyo: Kodansha. P. 200 pages.
ISBN 0-87011-766-1. Mitchelhill, Jennifer. Castles of the Samurai: Power and Beauty. Tokyo: Kodansha. P. 112 pages. ISBN 4-7700-2954-3. Turnbull, Stephen. Japanese Castles 1540-1640. Osprey Publishing. P. 64 pages. ISBN 1-84176-429-9. - Jcastle Profile - Odawara Castle - Japanese Castle Explorer Odawara City home page
Tokugawa Ieyasu was the founder and first shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, which ruled Japan from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Ieyasu seized power in 1600, received appointment as shōgun in 1603, abdicated from office in 1605, but remained in power until his death in 1616, his given name is sometimes spelled Iyeyasu, according to the historical pronunciation of the kana character he. Ieyasu was posthumously enshrined at Nikkō Tōshō-gū with the name Tōshō Daigongen, he was one of the three unifiers of Japan, along with his former lord Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi. During the Muromachi period, the Matsudaira clan controlled a portion of Mikawa Province. Ieyasu's father, Matsudaira Hirotada, was a minor local warlord based at Okazaki Castle who controlled a portion of the Tōkaidō highway linking Kyoto with the eastern provinces, his territory was sandwiched between stronger and predatory neighbors, including the Imagawa clan based in Suruga Province to the east and the Oda clan to the west.
Hirotada's main enemy was the father of Oda Nobunaga. Tokugawa Ieyasu was born in Okazaki Castle on the 26th day of the twelfth month of the eleventh year of Tenbun, according to the Japanese calendar. Named Matsudaira Takechiyo, he was the son of Matsudaira Hirotada, the daimyō of Mikawa of the Matsudaira clan, Odai-no-kata, the daughter of a neighbouring samurai lord, Mizuno Tadamasa, his mother and father were step-siblings. They were just 17 and 15 years old when Ieyasu was born. In the year of Ieyasu's birth, the Matsudaira clan was split. In 1543, Hirotada's uncle, Matsudaira Nobutaka defected to the Oda clan; this gave Oda Nobuhide the confidence to attack Okazaki. Soon afterwards, Hirotada's father-in-law died, his son Mizuno Nobumoto revived the clan's traditional enmity against the Matsudaira and declared for Oda Nobuhide as well; as a result, Hirotada sent her back to her family. As both husband and wife remarried and both went on to have further children, Ieyasu had 11 half-brothers and sisters.
As Oda Nobuhide continued to attack Okazaki, in 1548 Hirotada turned to his powerful eastern neighbor, Imagawa Yoshimoto for assistance. Yoshimoto agreed to an alliance under the condition that Hirotada send his young heir to Sunpu Domain as a hostage. Oda Nobuhide, learned of this arrangement and had Ieyasu abducted from his entourage en route to Sunpu. Ieyasu was just five years old at the time. Nobuhide threatened to execute Ieyasu. Despite this refusal, Nobuhide chose not to kill Ieyasu, but instead held him as a hostage for the next three years at the Mansho-ji Temple in Nagoya. In 1549, when Ieyasu was 6, his father Hirotada was murdered by his own vassals, bribed by the Oda clan. At about the same time, Oda Nobuhide died during an epidemic. Nobuhide's death dealt a heavy blow to the Oda clan. An army under the command of Imagawa Sessai laid siege to the castle where Oda Nobuhiro, Nobuhide's eldest son and the new head of the Oda, was living. With the castle about to fall, Sessai offered a deal to Nobuhide's second son.
Sessai offered to give up the siege. Nobunaga agreed, so Ieyasu was taken as a hostage to Sumpu. At Sumpu, he remained a hostage, but was treated well as a useful future ally of the Imagawa clan until 1556 when he was 15 years old. In 1556 Ieyasu came of age, with Imagawa Yoshimoto presiding over his genpuku ceremony. Following tradition, he changed his name from Matsudaira Takechiyo to Matsudaira Jirōsaburō Motonobu, he was briefly allowed to visit Okazaki to pay his respects to the tomb of his father, receive the homage of his nominal retainers, led by the karō Torii Tadayoshi. One year at the age of 13, he married his first wife, Lady Tsukiyama, a relative of Imagawa Yoshitmoto, changed his name again to Matsudaira Kurandonosuke Motoyasu. Allowed to return to his native Mikawa, the Imagawa ordered him to fight the Oda clan in a series of battles. Motoyasu fought his first battle in 1558 at the Siege of Terabe; the castellan of Terabe in western Mikawa, Suzuki Shigeteru, betrayed the Imagawa by defecting to Oda Nobunaga.
This was nominally within Matsudaira territory, so Imagawa Yoshimoto entrusted the campaign to Ieyasu and his retainers from Okazaki. Ieyasu led the attack in person, but after taking the outer defences, grew fearful of a counterattack to the rear, so he burned the main castle and withdrew; as anticipated, the Oda forces attacked his rear lines, but Motoyasu was prepared and drove off the Oda army. He succeeded in delivering supplies in the 1559 Siege of Odaka. Odaka was the only one of five disputed frontier forts under attack by the Oda which remained in Imagawa hands. Motoyasu launched diversionary attacks against the two neighboring forts, when the garrisons of the other forts went to their assistance, Ieyasu's supply column was able to reach Odaka. By 1560 the leadership of the Oda clan had passed to the brilliant leader Oda Nobunaga. Imagawa Yoshimoto, leading a large army invaded Oda clan territory. Motoyasu was assigned a separate mission to capture the stronghold of Marune; as a result, he and his men were not present at the Battle of Okehazama where Yoshimoto was killed in Nobunaga's surprise assault.
With Yoshimoto dead, the Imagawa clan in a state of confus
Sen no Rikyū
Sen no Rikyū known as Rikyū, is considered the historical figure with the most profound influence on chanoyu, the Japanese "Way of Tea" the tradition of wabi-cha. He was the first to emphasize several key aspects of the ceremony, including rustic simplicity, directness of approach and honesty of self. Originating from the Sengoku period and the Azuchi–Momoyama period, these aspects of the tea ceremony persist. Rikyū is known by many names. There are three iemoto, or "head houses", of the Japanese Way of Tea, that are directly descended from Rikyū: the Omotesenke and Mushakōjisenke, all three of which are dedicated to passing forward the teachings of their mutual family founder, Rikyū. Rikyū was born in Sakai in present-day Osaka Prefecture, his father was a warehouse owner named Tanaka Yohei, who in life used the family name Sen, his mother was Gesshin Myōchin. His childhood name was Yoshiro; as a young man, Rikyū studied tea under the townsman of Sakai named Kitamuki Dōchin, at nineteen, through Dōchin's introduction, he began to study tea under Takeno Jōō, associated with the development of the wabi aesthetic in tea ceremony.
He is believed to have received the Buddhist name Sōeki from the Rinzai Zen priest Dairin Sōtō of Nanshūji temple in Sakai. He married a woman known as Hōshin Myōju around. Rikyū underwent Zen training at Daitoku-ji temple in Kyoto. Not much is known about his middle years. In 1579, at the age of 58, Rikyū became a tea master for Oda Nobunaga and, following Nobunaga's death in 1582, he was a tea master for Toyotomi Hideyoshi, his relationship with Hideyoshi deepened, he entered Hideyoshi's circle of confidants becoming the most influential figure in the world of chanoyu. In 1585, because he needed extra credentials in order to enter the Imperial Palace so that he could help at a tea gathering that would be given by Hideyoshi for Emperor Ōgimachi and held at the Imperial Palace, the emperor bestowed upon him the Buddhist lay name and title "Rikyū Koji". Another major chanoyu event of Hideyoshi's that Rikyū played a central role in was the Grand Kitano Tea Ceremony, held by Hideyoshi at the Kitano Tenman-gū in 1587.
It was during his years that Rikyū began to use tiny, rustic tea rooms referred as sō-an, such as the two-tatami mat tea room named Tai-an, which can be seen today at Myōki-an temple in Yamazaki, a suburb of Kyoto, and, credited to his design. This tea room has been designated as a National Treasure, he developed many implements for tea ceremony, including flower containers and lid rests made of bamboo, used everyday objects for tea ceremony in novel ways. Raku teabowls were originated through his collaboration with a tile-maker named Raku Chōjirō. Rikyū had a preference for simple, rustic items made in Japan, rather than the expensive Chinese-made items that were fashionable at the time. Though not the inventor of the philosophy of wabi-sabi, which finds beauty in the simple, Rikyū is among those most responsible for popularizing it, developing it, incorporating it into tea ceremony, he created a new form of tea ceremony using simple instruments and surroundings. This and his other beliefs and teachings came to be known as sōan-cha, or more wabi-cha.
This line of chanoyu that his descendants and followers carried on was recognized as the Senke-ryū. A writer and poet, the tea master referred to the ware and its relationship with the tea ceremony, saying, "Though you wipe your hands and brush off the dust and dirt from the vessels, what is the use of all this fuss if the heart is still impure?"Two of his primary disciples were Nanbō Sōkei, a somewhat legendary Zen priest. Nanbō is credited as the original author of a record of Rikyū's teachings. There is, some debate as to whether Nanbō existed, some scholars theorize that his writings were by samurai litterateur Tachibana Jitsuzan, who claimed to have found and transcribed these texts. Yamanoue's chronicle, the Yamanoue Sōji ki, gives commentary about Rikyū's teachings and the state of chanoyu at the time of its writing. Rikyū had a number of children, including a son known in history as Sen Dōan, daughter known as Okame; this daughter became the bride of Rikyū's second wife's son by a previous marriage, known in history as Sen Shōan.
Due to many complex circumstances, Sen Shōan, rather than Rikyū's legitimate heir, Dōan, became the person counted as the 2nd generation in the Sen-family's tradition of chanoyu. Rikyū wrote poetry, practiced ikebana. One of his favourite gardens was said to be at Chishaku-in in Kyoto. Although Rikyū had been one of Hideyoshi's closest confidants, because of crucial differences of opinion and because he was too independent, Hideyoshi ordered him to commit ritual suicide. One year earlier after the Siege of Odawara, his famous disciple Yamanoue Sōji was tortured and decapitated on Hideyoshi's orders. While Hideyoshi's reason may never be known for certain, it is known that Rikyū committed seppuku at his residence within Hideyoshi's Jurakudai villa in Kyoto in 1591 on the 28th day of the 2nd month, at the age of seventy. According to Okakura Kakuzō in The Book of Tea, Rikyū's last act was to hol
Siege of Oshi
The 1590 Siege of Oshi was one of many battles in Toyotomi Hideyoshi's campaigns against the Hōjō clan during Japan's Sengoku period. Oshi Castle was a stronghold of the Narita clan in north-central Musashi Province; the Narita were vassals of the Ogigayatsu Uesugi clan and under the leadership of Narita Akiyasu completed Oshi Castle around 1479. The castle was built on a small elevation near the Tone River and used surrounding marshes and swamplands as part of its outer defenses, it was regarded as one of the seven most important strongholds of the Kantō region. The Narita clan changed their allegiance to the Odawara Hōjō clan following the defeat of the Uesugi clan at the Siege of Kawagoe Castle in 1546. Fourteen years Uesugi Kenshin, the daimyō of the Uesugi clan, invaded the area in support of Uesugi Norimasa; this forced Narita Nagayasu, the Castellan of Oshi Castle to sever his ties to the Odawara Hōjō. However, after a quarrel with Uesugi Kenshin, the enraged Narita switched back to the Odawara Hōjō clan.
In reprisal, Uesugi Kenshin burned down the town around the castle in 1574. During the Siege of Odawara in 1590, the daimyō Toyotomi Hideyoshi dispatched one of his senior retainers, Ishida Mitsunari, on an expedition to reduce the outlying castles still loyal to the Odawara Hōjō clan throughout the Musashi Province. Three days after capturing Tatebayashi Castle, Ishida’s forces of 23,000 troops arrived at Oshi. On arrival they discovered that the Narita clan leader, Narita Ujinaga, was at Odawara with the bulk of his forces, he had left his home castle defended by only 619 samurai and 2000 local conscripts led by his daughter Kaihime and younger brother Narita Ujichika. After the castle refused to surrender, the castle held off numerous attacks from Ishida's forces; this included a copy-cat effort to flood the defenders using the same method that Hideyoshi used at his famous Siege of Takamatsu. Despite Ishida’s impressive construction of 28 kilometers of dikes and torrential rains, the castle still held for over a month.
The defenders only surrendered after hearing word that their lord had been defeated at Odawara. Oshi Castle gained fame from the siege as the “floating castle”, but it ruined the career of Ishida, who emerged with a sullied image and the reputation of a poor commander. It subsequently affected his ability to gain the loyalty and support of Japan's other powerful daimyo after the death of Toyotomi Hideyoshi; this lack of support contributed to his defeat at the 1600 Battle of Sekigahara. The Floating Castle by Shinji Higuchi and Isshin Inudo is a comedy-drama film which relates the events of the Siege of Oshi. Kaihime Turnbull, Stephen.'The Samurai Sourcebook'. London: Cassell & Co
Mount Kōya is the common name of a huge temple settlement in Wakayama Prefecture to the south of Osaka. In the strict sense, Kōya-san is the so-called "mountain name" sangō of the Kongōbu-Temple, the ecclesiastical headquarters of the "Koyasan Shingon School". First settled in 819 by the monk Kūkai, Mt. Kōya is known as the world headquarters of the Kōyasan Shingon sect of Japanese Buddhism. Located on an 800 m high plain amid eight peaks of the mountain, the original monastery has grown into the town of Kōya, featuring a university dedicated to religious studies and 120 sub-temples, many of which offer lodging to pilgrims; the mountain is home to the following famous sites: Kongōbu-ji, the head temple of the Kōyasan Shingon Buddhism. Located in the middle of the sanctuary, Kongobuji is colloquially known as "Kōyasan-Issan" meaning "the mountain of Kōya"; the temple was built by the warlord Hideyoshi Toyotomi for the mass of his mother. Named Seiganji, it was renamed Kongobuji in the Meiji Era.
Danjogaran, at the heartland of the Mt. Kōya settlement. Garan is a name for an area that has buildings, a main hall, several pagodas, a scripture storage, a bell tower, a lecture hall, other halls dedicated to important deities. Here we find a shrine dedicated to the Shintō-gods of that mountain area and in front of it an assembly hall. Danjō Garan is one of the two sacred spots around the Mount Kōya. Konpon Daitō, the "Basic Great Pagoda" that according to Shingon Buddhism doctrine represents the central point of a mandala covering all of Japan. Standing at 48.5 m tall and situated right in the middle of Koyasan, this pagoda was built as a seminary for the esoteric practices of Shingon Buddhism. This pagoda and the Okunoin Temple form a large sanctuary. Sannō-dō, an assembly hall for special ceremonies dedicated to the Shintō-gods guarding the area Okunoin, the mausoleum of Kūkai, surrounded by an immense graveyard Kōyasan chōishi-michi, the traditional route up the mountain with stone markers every 109 metres Daimon, the main gate for Mount Kōya.
This mammoth gate stands as the main entrance to Kōyasan. It is flanked on each side by Kongo warriors; the view from the front of the gate is magnificent and, on a clear day, can reach as far as the Seto Inland Sea. Tokugawa Family Tomb; this mausoleum was built by the third shogun Iemitsu Tokugawa. It is architecturally representative of the Edo Period. First Edo shogun Ieyasu is enshrined on the second shogun Hidetada on the left; the Structure is elaborately decorated with ample use of carvings and brass fittings. It houses a replica of the Nestorian steleIn 2004, UNESCO designated Mt. Kōya, along with two other locations on the Kii Peninsula and Omine; the complex includes a memorial hall and cemetery honoring Japanese who were imprisoned or executed for committing atrocities during World War II. Koya-san is accessible by the Nankai Electric Railway from Namba Station to Gokurakubashi Station at the base of the mountain. A cable car from Gokurakubashi whisks visitors to the top in 5 minutes.
The entire trip takes about 1.5 hours on 2 hours by non-express. Local automobile traffic can be heavy on weekends until well into the evening. On weekdays, the mountain offers a pleasant drive followed by the excitement upon reaching the monasteries lining the summit. Many Buddhist monasteries on the mountain function as hotels for visitors providing traditional accommodation with an evening meal and breakfast. Guest are invited to participate in the morning services. Koyasan Reihōkan Mount Ōmine Tourism in Japan Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Routes in the Kii Mountain Range KONGOBUJI（金剛峰寺） Mt. Koya-san JAPAN: the Official Guide Koyasan Tourist Association Photo set of the Okunoin cemetery of Koyasan Nicoloff, Philip L.. Sacred Koyasan: A pilgrimage to the Mountain Temple of Saint Kōbō Daishi and the Great Sun Buddha. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-7259-0