Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions and spiritual practices based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are recognized by scholars: Theravada and Mahayana. Most Buddhist traditions share the goal of overcoming suffering and the cycle of death and rebirth, either by the attainment of Nirvana or through the path of Buddhahood. Buddhist schools vary in their interpretation of the path to liberation, the relative importance and canonicity assigned to the various Buddhist texts, their specific teachings and practices. Observed practices include taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha, observance of moral precepts, monasticism and the cultivation of the Paramitas.
Theravada Buddhism has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia such as Myanmar and Thailand. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Nichiren Buddhism and Tiantai, is found throughout East Asia. Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian adepts, may be viewed as a separate branch or as an aspect of Mahayana Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth-century India, is practiced in the countries of the Himalayan region and Kalmykia. Buddhism is an Indian religion attributed to the teachings of the Buddha born Siddhārtha Gautama, known as the Tathāgata and Sakyamuni. Early texts have his personal name as "Gautama" or "Gotama" without any mention of "Siddhārtha," which appears to have been a kind of honorific title when it does appear; the details of Buddha's life are mentioned in many Early Buddhist Texts but are inconsistent, his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain. The evidence of the early texts suggests that he was born as Siddhārtha Gautama in Lumbini and grew up in Kapilavasthu, a town in the plains region of the modern Nepal-India border, that he spent his life in what is now modern Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother was Queen Maya, he was born in Lumbini gardens. However, scholars such as Richard Gombrich consider this a dubious claim because a combination of evidence suggests he was born in the Shakyas community – one that gave him the title Shakyamuni, the Shakya community was governed by a small oligarchy or republic-like council where there were no ranks but where seniority mattered instead; some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, claims about the society he grew up in may have been invented and interpolated at a time into the Buddhist texts. According to the Buddhist sutras, Gautama was moved by the innate suffering of humanity and its endless repetition due to rebirth, he set out on a quest to end this repeated suffering. Early Buddhist canonical texts and early biographies of Gautama state that Gautama first studied under Vedic teachers, namely Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, learning meditation and ancient philosophies the concept of "nothingness, emptiness" from the former, "what is neither seen nor unseen" from the latter.
Finding these teachings to be insufficient to attain his goal, he turned to the practice of asceticism. This too fell short of attaining his goal, he turned to the practice of dhyana, which he had discovered in his youth, he famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya in the Gangetic plains region of South Asia. He gained insight into the workings of karma and his former lives, attained enlightenment, certainty about the Middle Way as the right path of spiritual practice to end suffering from rebirths in Saṃsāra; as a enlightened Buddha, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his life teaching the Dharma he had discovered, died at the age of 80 in Kushinagar, India. Buddha's teachings were propagated by his followers, which in the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE became over 18 Buddhist sub-schools of thought, each with its own basket of texts containing different interpretations and authentic teachings of the Buddha.
The Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful. This keeps us caught in saṃsāra, the endless cycle of repeated rebirth and dying again, but there is a way to liberation from this endless cycle to the state of nirvana, namely following the Noble Eightfold Path. The truth of dukkha is the basic insight that life in this mundane world, with its clinging and craving to impermanent states and things is dukkha, unsatisfactory. Dukkha can be translated as "incapable of satisfying," "the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity of all conditioned phenomena". Dukkha is most translated as "suffering," but this is inaccurate, since it refers not to episodic suffering, but to the intrinsically unsat
Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
The Korean Provisional Government, formally the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was a recognized Korean government-in-exile, based in Shanghai, in Chungking, during the Japanese colonial rule of Korea. On April 11, 1919, the provisional constitution was enacted, the national sovereignty was called "Republic of Korea" and the political system was called "Democratic Republic". Introduced the presidential system and established three separate systems of legislative and judicial separation, the KPG inherited the territory of the former Korean Empire and stated that he favored the former imperial court, it supported and supported the independence movement under the provisional government, received economic and military support from the Kuomintang of China, the Soviet Union and France. After the Surrender of Japan on August 15, 1945, figures such as Kim Gu returned. On August 15, 1948, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was dissolved. Rhee, the first president of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, became the first President of the Republic of Korea in 1948.
The Constitution of South Korea, amended in 1987, stated that the Korean people inherited the rule of the KPG. The government was formed on April 13, 1919, shortly after the March 1st movement of the same year during the Imperial Japanese colonial rule of the Korean peninsula. Key members in its establishment included An Changho and Syngman Rhee, both of which were leaders of the Korean National Association at that time. An Changho played an important part in making Shanghai the center of the liberation movement and in getting KPG operations underway; as acting premier, he would help reorganize the government from a parliamentary cabinet system to a presidential system. The government resisted the colonial rule of Korea that lasted from 1910 to 1945, they coordinated the armed resistance against the Japanese imperial army during the 1920s and 1930s, including the Battle of Chingshanli in October 1920 and the assault on Japanese military leadership in Shanghai's Hongkou Park in April 1932. This struggle culminated in the formation of Korean Liberation Army in 1940, bringing together many if not all Korean resistance groups in exile.
The government duly declared war against the Axis powers Japan and Germany on December 9, 1941, the Liberation Army took part in allied action in China and parts of Southeast Asia. During World War II, the Korean Liberation Army was preparing an assault against the Imperial Japanese forces in Korea in conjunction with American Office of Strategic Services, but the Japanese surrender prevented the execution of the plan; the government's goal was achieved with Japanese surrender on September 2, 1945, but they were not approved by other governments as a member of allied nations, who signed peace treaty with Japan in San Francisco. The sites of the Provisional Government in Shanghai and Chongqing have been preserved as museums. In 1919, when U. S. President Woodrow Wilson ruled for national self-determination, Rhee Syng-man promoted the League of Nations mandate in the United States, Kim Kyu-sik pushed for independence under the approval of a victorious country in Paris; the provisional government gained approval from Poland through diplomatic efforts.
Meanwhile, in 1944, the government received approval from the Soviet Union. Jo So-ang, the head of diplomatic department of provisional government, met with the French ambassador in Chongqing and was quoted as saying that French government would give unofficial and substantively approve the government in April 1945. However, The government did not gain formal recognition from United States, United Kingdom and other world powers. Syngman Rhee - Impeached by the provisional assembly Yi Dongnyeong - Acting Park Eun-sik - Acting Park Eun-sik Yi Yu-pil -Acting Yi Sang-ryong Yang Gi-tak Yi Dongnyeong Ahn Chang-ho Yi Dong-nyeong Hong Jin Kim Koo Yi Dongnyeong Song Byeong-jo Yi Dongnyeong - Died in office Kim Koo Syngman Rhee - Became the first president of South Korea, from July 24, 1948 to April 26, 1960 History of South Korea Korean independence movements Korean Liberation Army Korea Times article "Provisional Government in Shanghai Resisted Colonial Rule" by Robert Neff Korea's Provisional Government established in 1919 in Shanghai - Arirang News
Gojoseon named Joseon, was an ancient kingdom on the Korean Peninsula. The addition of Go, meaning "ancient", is used to distinguish it from the Joseon kingdom. According to the Samguk Yusa, Gojoseon was established in 2333 BC by Dangun, said to be the offspring of a heavenly prince and a bear-woman. Though Dangun is a mythological figure for whom no concrete evidence has been found, the account has played an important role in developing Korean identity. Today, the founding date of Gojoseon is celebrated as the National Foundation Day in North Korea and South Korea; some of the same sources relate that in the 12th century BC Gija, a man from the Shang dynasty of China, immigrated to Gojoseon and founded Gija Joseon. However, somewhat similar to the case of Dangun, the evidence for Gija Joseon is lacking and the narrative has been challenged since the 20th century. Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BC. During its early phase, the capital of Gojoseon was located in Liaoning.
In 108 BC, the Han dynasty of China conquered Wiman Joseon. The Han established four commanderies to administer the Gojoseon territory; the area was conquered by Goguryeo in 313 AD. There are three different main founding myths concerning Gojoseon, which revolve around Dangun, Gija, or Wi Man; the myths revolving around Dangun were recorded in the much-later Korean work Samguk Yusa of the 13th century. This work states that Dangun, the offspring of a heavenly prince and a bear-woman, founded Gojoseon in 2333 BC, only to be succeeded by Gija after King Wu of Zhou had placed him onto the throne in 1122 BC. A similar account is found in Jewang Ungi. According to the legend, the Lord of Heaven, Hwanin had a son, who descended to Baekdu Mountain and founded the city of Shinsi. A bear and a tiger came to Hwanung and said that they wanted to become people. Hwuanung said to them that if they went in a cave and lived there for 100 days while only eating mugwort and garlic he will change them into human beings.
However, about halfway through the 100 days the tiger ran out of the cave. On the other hand, the bear restrained herself and became a beautiful woman called Ungnyeo. Hwanung married Ungnyeo, she gave birth to Dangun. While the Dangun story is considered to be a myth, it is believed it is a mythical synthesis of a series of historical events relating to the founding of Gojoseon. There are various theories on the origin of this myth. Seo and Kang believe the Dangun myth is based on integration of two different tribes, an invasive sky-worshipping Bronze Age tribe and a native bear-worshipping neolithic tribe, that led to the foundation of Gojoseon. Lee K. B. believes. Dangun is said to have founded Gojoseon around 2333 BC, based on the descriptions of the Samgungnyusa, Jewang Ungi, Dongguk Tonggam and the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty; the date differs among historical sources, although all of them put it during the mythical Emperor Yao's reign. Samgungnyusa says Dangun ascended to the throne in the 50th year of the legendary Yao's reign, Annals of the King Sejong says the first year, Dongguk Tonggam says the 25th year.
Gija, a man from the period of the Shang dynasty fled to the Korean peninsula in 1122 BC during the fall of the Shang to the Zhou dynasty and founded Gija Joseon. Most experts believe Gija's relation to Gojoseon is a Chinese fabrication and Gija has nothing to do with Gojoseon. In the past, the earliest surviving Chinese record, Records of the Three Kingdoms, recognized Gija Joseon; the Dongsa Gangmok of 1778 described Gija's contributions in Gojoseon. The records of Gija refer to Eight Prohibitions, that are recorded by the Book of Han and evidence a hierarchical society and legal protection of private property. In pre-modern Korea, Gija represented the authenticating presence of Chinese civilization, until the 12th century, Koreans believed that Dangun bestowed upon Korea its people and basic culture, while Gija gave Korea its high culture—and standing as a legitimate civilisation. However, in the modern era Gija's place has diminished to the point of near extinction. Many experts deny its existence for various reasons due to contradicting archaeological evidence and anachronistic historical evidence.
They point to the Bamboo Annals and the Analects of Confucius, which were among the first works to mention Gija, but do not mention his migration to Gojoseon. The myth that Gija migrated to Korea is believed to have been made up by Han Dynasty in order to justify its conquest of Korea. Wi Man was a military officer of the Yan state of northeastern China, who fled to the northern Korean peninsula in 195 BC from the encroaching Han dynasty, he founded a principality with Wanggeom-seong as capital, thought to be on the region of present-day Pyongyang. The 3rd-century Chinese text Weilüe of the Sanguozhi recorded that Wiman usurped King Jun and thus took kingship over Gojoseon Gojoseon history can be divided into three phases, Dangun and Wiman Joseon. Kang & Macmillan, Sohn et al. Kim J. B. Han W. K. Yun N. H. Lee K. B. Lee J. B. viewed the Dangun myth as a native product of proto-Koreans, although it is not always associated with Gojoseon. Kim J. B. rejected the Dangun myth's association with Gojoseon and pushes it further back to the Neolithic period.
Sohn et al. su
Baekje was a kingdom located in southwestern Korea. It was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, together with Silla. Baekje was founded at Wiryeseong. Baekje, like Goguryeo, claimed to succeed Buyeo, a state established in present-day Manchuria around the time of Gojoseon's fall. Baekje alternately battled and allied with Goguryeo and Silla as the three kingdoms expanded control over the peninsula. At its peak in the 4th century, Baekje controlled most of the western Korean peninsula, as far north as Pyongyang, may have held territories in China, such as in Liaoxi, though this view is controversial, it became a significant regional sea power, with political and trade relations with Japan. Baekje was a great maritime power. In 660 it was defeated, by an alliance of Silla and the Chinese Tang Dynasty, submitted to Unified Silla. Baekje was founded in 18 BC by King Onjo, who led a group of people from Goguryeo south to the Han River basin. According to the Chinese Records of the Three Kingdoms, during the Samhan period, one of the chiefdoms of the Mahan confederacy was called Baekje.
The Samguk Sagi provides a detailed account of Baekje's founding. Jumong had left his son Yuri in Buyeo when he left that kingdom to establish the new kingdom of Goguryeo. Jumong became Divine King Dongmyeong, had two more sons with So Seo-no, Onjo and Biryu; when Yuri arrived in Goguryeo, Jumong promptly made him the crown prince. Realizing Yuri would become the next king, So Seo-no left Goguryeo, taking her two sons Biryu and Onjo south to found their own kingdoms with their people, along with ten vassals, she is remembered as a key figure in the founding of both Baekje. Onjo settled in Wiryeseong, called his country Sipje, while Biryu settled in Michuhol, against the vassals' advice; the salty water and marshes in Michuhol made settlement difficult, while the people of Wiryeseong lived prosperously. Biryu went to his brother Onjo, asking for the throne of Sipje; when Onjo refused, Biryu lost. In shame, Biryu committed suicide, his people moved to Wiryeseong, where King Onjo welcomed them and renamed his country Baekje.
King Onjo moved the capital from the south to the north of the Han river, south again all within present Seoul, under pressure from other Mahan states. King Gaeru is believed to have moved the capital north of the river to Bukhansanseong in 132 in present-day Goyang to the northwest of Seoul. Through the early centuries of the Common Era, sometimes called the Proto–Three Kingdoms Period, Baekje gained control over the other Mahan tribes. During the reign of King Goi, Baekje became a full-fledged kingdom, as it continued consolidating the Mahan confederacy. In 249, according to the ancient Japanese text Nihonshoki, Baekje's expansion reached the Gaya confederacy to its east, around the Nakdong River valley. Baekje is first described in Chinese records as a kingdom in 345; the first diplomatic missions from Baekje reached Japan around 367. King Geunchogo expanded Baekje's territory to the north through war against Goguryeo, while annexing the remaining Mahan societies in the south. During Geunchogo's reign, the territories of Baekje included most of the western Korean Peninsula, in 371, Baekje defeated Goguryeo at Pyongyang.
Baekje continued substantial trade with Goguryeo, adopted Chinese culture and technology. Buddhism became the official state religion in 384. Baekje became a sea power and continued mutual goodwill relationships with the Japanese rulers of the Kofun period, transmitting continental cultural influences to Japan; the Chinese writing system, advanced pottery, ceremonial burial, other aspects of culture were introduced by aristocrats, artisans and monks throughout their relationship. During this period, the Han River basin remained the heartland of the country. In the 5th century, Baekje retreated under the southward military threat of Goguryeo, in 475, the Seoul region fell to Goguryeo. Baekje's capital was located at Ungjin from 475 to 538. Isolated in mountainous terrain, the new capital was secure against the north but disconnected from the outside world, it was closer to Silla than Wiryeseong had been, a military alliance was forged between Silla and Baekje against Goguryeo. Most maps of the Three Kingdoms period show Baekje occupying the Chungcheong and Jeolla provinces, the core of the country in the Ungjin and Sabi periods.
In 538, King Seong moved the capital to Sabi, rebuilt his kingdom into a strong state. From this time, the official name of the country was Nambuyeo, a reference to Buyeo to which Baekje traced its origins; the Sabi Period witnessed the flowering of Baekje culture, alongside the growth of Buddhism. Under pressure from Goguryeo to the north and Silla to the east, Seong sought to strengthen Baekje's relationship with China; the location of Sabi, on the navigable Geum River, made contact with China much easier, both trade and diplomacy flourished during his reign and continuing on into the 7th century. In the 7th century, with the growing influence of Silla in the southern and central Korean peninsula, Baekje began its decline. In 660, the coalition troops of Silla and Tang of China attacked Ba
Four Commanderies of Han
The Four Commanderies of Han were Chinese commanderies located in northern Korean Peninsula and part of the Liaodong Peninsula from around the end of the second century BC through the early 4th AD, for the longest lasting. The commanderies were set up to control the populace in the former Gojoseon area as far south as the Han River, with a core area at Lelang near present-day Pyongyang by Emperor Wu of the Han dynasty in early 2nd century BC after his conquest of Wiman Joseon; as such, these commanderies are seen as Chinese colonies by some scholars. Though disputed by North Korean scholars, Western sources describe the Lelang Commandery as existing within the Korean peninsula, extend the rule of the four commanderies as far south as the Han River. However, South Korean scholars assumed its administrative areas to Hwanghae provinces. Three of the commanderies fell or retreated westward within a few decades, but the Lelang commandery remained as a center of cultural and economic exchange with successive Chinese dynasties for four centuries.
As its administrative center in Lelang, the Chinese built what was in essence a Chinese city where the governor and merchants, Chinese colonists lived. Their administration had considerable impact on the life of the native population and the fabric of Gojoseon society became eroded. Goguryeo, a founded, a mixed Koreanic and Yemaek kingdom began conquering the commanderies and absorbed them into its own territory. Lelang Commandery: 25 prefectures, 62,812 households, population of 406,748. Lintun Commandery Xuantu Commandery: 3 prefectures, 45,006 households, population of 221,845. Zhenfan Commandery A commandery, separated out of Lelang Commandery in the years of its history is the Daifang Commandery Other descriptions: the Tongdian, the Records of Three Kingdoms, the Book of Later Han In the North Korean academic community and some parts of the South Korean academic community, the Han dynasty's annexation of the Korean peninsula have been denied. Proponents of this revisionist theory claim that the Han Commanderies existed outside of the Korean peninsula, place them somewhere in Liaodong Commandery, China instead.
The demonization of Japanese historical and archaeological findings in Korea as imperialist forgeries owes in part to those scholars' discovery of the Lelang Commandery—by which the Han Dynasty administered territory near Pyongyang—and insistence that this Chinese commandery had a major impact on the development of Korean civilization. Until the North Korean challenge, it was universally accepted that Lelang was a commandery established by Emperor Wu of Han after he defeated Gojoseon in 108 BCE. To deal with the Han Dynasty tombs, North Korean scholars have reinterpreted them as the remains of Gojoseon or Goguryeo. For those artifacts that bear undeniable similarities to those found in Han China, they propose that they were introduced through trade and international contact, or were forgeries, "should not by any means be construed as a basis to deny the Korean characteristics of the artifacts"; the North Koreans say that there were two Lelangs, that the Han administered a Lelang on the Liao River on the Liaodong peninsula, while Pyongyang was an "independent Korean state" of Lelang, which existed between the 2nd century BCE until the 3rd century CE.
The traditional view of Lelang, according to them, was expanded by Chinese chauvinists and Japanese imperialists. While promoted by the academic community of North Korea, supported by certain writers and historians in South Korea, this theory is not recognized in the mainstream academic circles of South Korea, United States and Japan. Han conquest of Gojoseon Daifang Commandery Canghai Commandery
Goguryeo called Goryeo, was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of Manchuria. Along with Baekje and Silla, Goguryeo was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, it was an active participant in the power struggle for control of the Korean peninsula and was associated with the foreign affairs of neighboring polities in China and Japan. The Samguk sagi, a 12th-century text from Goryeo, indicates that Goguryeo was founded in 37 BCE by Jumong, a prince from Buyeo, enthroned as Dongmyeong. Goguryeo was one of the great powers in East Asia, until its defeat by a Silla–Tang alliance in 668 after prolonged exhaustion and internal strife caused by the death of Yeon Gaesomun. After its fall, its territory was divided among the states of Later Balhae; the name Goryeo, a shortened form of Goguryeo, was adopted as the official name in the 5th century, is the origin of the English name "Korea". In the geographic monographs of the Book of Han, the word Goguryeo made its first appearance in 113 BCE in the name of Gaogouli County under the jurisdiction of Xuantu Commandery.
In the Old Book of Tang, it is recorded that Emperor Taizong refers to Goguryeo's history as being some 900 years old. According to the 12th-century Samguk sagi and the 13th-century Samgungnyusa, a prince from the Buyeo kingdom named Jumong fled after a power struggle with other princes of the court and founded Goguryeo in 37 BCE in a region called Jolbon Buyeo thought to be located in the middle Yalu and Tongjia River basin, overlapping the current China-North Korea border. In 75 BCE, a group of Yemaek who may have originated from Goguryeo made an incursion into China's Xuantu Commandery west of the Yalu. However, the weight of textual evidence from the Old Book of Tang, New Book of Tang, the Samguk sagi, the Nihon Shoki as well as other ancient sources would support a 37 BCE or "middle" first century BCE foundation date for Goguryeo. Archaeological evidence would support centralized groups of Yemaek tribes in the 2nd century BC, but there is no direct evidence that would suggest these Yemaek groups were known as or would identify themselves as Goguryeo.
The first mention of Goguryeo as a group label associated with Yemaek tribes is a reference in the Han Shu that discusses a Goguryeo revolt in 12 CE, during which they broke away from the influence of the Chinese at Xuantu. At its founding, the Goguryeo people are believed to be a blend of people from Buyeo and Yemaek, as leadership from Buyeo may have fled their kingdom and integrated with existing Yemaek chiefdoms; the Records of the Three Kingdoms, in the section titled "Accounts of the Eastern Barbarians", implied that Buyeo and the Yemaek people were ethnically related and spoke a similar language. Both Goguryeo and Baekje originated from Buyeo; the earliest mention of Jumong is in the 4th-century Gwanggaeto Stele. Jumong is the modern Korean transcription of 鄒牟 Chumo, or 仲牟 Jungmo; the Stele states that Jumong was the first king and ancestor of Goguryeo and that he was the son of the prince of Buyeo and daughter of Habaek, the god of the Amnok River or, according to an alternate interpretation, the sun god Haebak.
The Samguk sagi and Samgungnyusa paint names Jumong's mother as Yuhwa. Jumong's biological father was said to be a man named Haemosu, described as a "strong man" and "a heavenly prince." The river god chased Yuhwa away to the Ubal River due to her pregnancy, where she met and became the concubine of Geumwa. Jumong was well known for his exceptional archery skills. Geumwa's sons became jealous of him, Jumong was forced to leave Eastern Buyeo; the Stele and Korean sources disagree as to which Buyeo Jumong came from. The Stele says he came from Buyeo and the Samgungnyusa and Samguk sagi say he came from Eastern Buyeo. Jumong made it to Jolbon, where he married Soseono, daughter of its ruler, he subsequently became king himself, founding Goguryeo with a small group of his followers from his native country. A traditional account from the "Annals of Baekje" section in the Samguk sagi says that Soseono was the daughter of Yeon Tabal, a wealthy influential figure in Jolbon and married to Jumong. However, the same source states that the king of Jolbon gave his daughter to Jumong, who had escaped with his followers from Eastern Buyeo, in marriage.
She gave her husband, financial support in founding the new statelet, Goguryeo. After Yuri, son of Jumong and his first wife, Lady Ye, came from Dongbuyeo and succeeded Jumong, she left Goguryeo, taking her two sons Biryu and Onjo south to found their own kingdoms, one of, Baekje. Jumong's given surname was "Hae", the name of the Buyeo rulers. According to the Samgungnyusa, Jumong changed his surname to "Go" in conscious reflection of his divine parentage. Jumong is recorded to have conquered the tribal states of Biryu in 36 BCE, Haeng-in in 33 BCE, Northern Okjeo in 28 BCE. Goguryeo developed from a league of various Yemaek tribes to an early state and expanded its power from their original basin of control in the Hun River drainage. In the time of Taejodae in 53 CE, five local tribes were reorganized into five centrally ruled districts. Foreign relations and the military were controlled by the king. Early expansion might be best explained by ecology.
History of South Korea
The history of South Korea formally begins with its establishment on August 15, 1948. Korea was administratively partitioned in 1945, at the end of World War II; as Korea was under Japanese rule during World War II, Korea was a belligerent against the Allies by virtue of being Japanese territory. The unconditional surrender of Japan led to the division of Korea into two occupation zones, with the United States administering the southern half of the peninsula and the Soviet Union administering the area north of the 38th parallel; this division was meant to be temporary and was first intended to return a unified Korea back to its people after the United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, Republic of China could arrange a single government for the peninsula. The two parties were unable to agree on the implementation of Joint Trusteeship over Korea; this led in 1948 to the establishment of two separate governments – the Communist-aligned Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the West-aligned First Republic of Korea – each claiming to be the legitimate government of all of Korea.
On June 25, 1950 the Korean War broke out. After much destruction, the war ended on July 27,1953 with the 1948 status quo being restored, as neither the DPRK nor the First Republic had succeeded in conquering the other's portion of the divided Korea; the peninsula was divided by the Korean Demilitarized Zone and the two separate governments stabilized into the existing political entities of North and South Korea. South Korea's subsequent history is marked by alternating periods of autocratic rule. Civilian governments are conventionally numbered from the First Republic of Rhee Syngman to the contemporary Sixth Republic; the First Republic, arguably democratic at its inception, became autocratic until its collapse in 1960. The Second Republic was democratic, but was overthrown in less than a year and replaced by an autocratic military regime; the Third and Fifth Republics were nominally democratic, but are regarded as the continuation of military rule. With the Sixth Republic, the country has stabilized into a liberal democracy.
Since its inception, South Korea has seen substantial development in education and culture. Since the 1960s, the country has developed from one of Asia's poorest to one of the world's wealthiest nations. Education at the tertiary level, has expanded dramatically, it is said to be one of the "Four Tigers" of rising Asian states along with Singapore and Hong Kong. Emperor Hirohito announced the surrender of the Empire of Japan to the Allied Powers on 15 August 1945. General Order No. 1 for the surrender of Japan prescribed separate surrender procedures for Japanese forces in Korea north and south of the 38th parallel. After Japan's surrender to the Allies, division at the 38th parallel marked the beginning of Soviet and U. S. occupation the South, respectively. This division was meant to be temporary, to be replaced by a trusteeship of the United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, Republic of China which would prepare for Korean independence; the trusteeship had been discussed at the Yalta Conference in February 1945.
U. S. forces landed at Incheon on September 8, 1945 and established a military government shortly thereafter. Lt. General John R. Hodge, their commander, took charge of the government. Faced with mounting popular discontent, in October 1945 Hodge established the Korean Advisory Council; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, which had operated from China, sent a delegation with three interpreters to Hodge, but he refused to meet with them. Hodge refused to recognize the newly formed People's Republic of Korea and its People's Committees, outlawed it on 12 December. A year an interim legislature and interim government were established, headed by Kim Kyu-shik and Syngman Rhee respectively. Political and economic chaos - arising from a variety of causes - plagued the country in this period; the after-effects of the Japanese exploitation remained in the South, as in the North. In addition, the U. S. military was unprepared for the challenge of administering the country, arriving with no knowledge of the language, culture or political situation.
Thus many of their policies had unintended destabilizing effects. Waves of refugees from North Korea and returnees from abroad added to the turmoil. In December 1945 a conference convened in Moscow to discuss the future of Korea. A 5-year trusteeship was discussed, a US-Soviet joint commission was established; the commission met intermittently in Seoul but deadlocked over the issue of establishing a national government. In September 1947, with no solution in sight, the United States submitted the Korean question to the UN General Assembly; the resolution from the UN General Assembly called for a UN-supervised general election in Korea, but after the North rejected this proposition, a general election for a Constitutional Assembly took place in the South only, in May 1948. A constitution was adopted, setting forth a presidential form of government and specifying a four-year term for the presidency. According to the provisions of the Constitution, an indirect presidential election took place in July.
Rhee Syngman, as head of the new assembly, assumed the presidency and proclaimed the Republic of Korea on August 15, 1948. On August 15, 1948, the Republic of Korea was formally established, with Rhee Syngman as the first president. With the establishment of Rhee's government, de jure sovereignty passed into the new government. On September 9, 1948, a communist regime