The gluteus minimus, the smallest of the three gluteal muscles, is situated beneath the gluteus medius. It is fan-shaped, arising from the outer surface of the ilium, between the anterior and inferior gluteal lines, behind, from the margin of the greater sciatic notch; the fibers converge to the deep surface of a radiated aponeurosis, this ends in a tendon, inserted into an impression on the anterior border of the greater trochanter, gives an expansion to the capsule of the hip joint. It is a local stabilizer for the hip. A bursa is interposed between the greater trochanter. Between the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus are the deep branches of the superior gluteal vessels and the superior gluteal nerve; the deep surface of the gluteus minimus is in relation with the reflected tendon of the rectus femoris and the capsule of the hip joint. The gluteus medius and gluteus minimus abduct the thigh, when the limb is extended, are principally called into action in supporting the body on one limb, in conjunction with the tensor fasciæ latæ.
Their anterior fibers flex the hip, by drawing the greater trochanter forward, rotate the thigh inward, in which action they are assisted by the Tensor fasciæ latæ. Additionally, with the hip flexed, the gluteus minimus internally rotate the thigh. With the hip extended, the gluteus gluteus minimus externally rotate the thigh; the attachment to the superior capsule of the hip may serve to retract the capsule away from the joint during motion. This mechanism may prevent capsular impingement similar to the role of the articularis genus in the knee; the muscle may be divided into an anterior and a posterior part, or it may send slips to the piriformis, the superior gemellus or the outer part of the origin of the vastus lateralis. Paralysis of this muscle or gluteus medius, such as may be caused by the superior gluteal nerve palsy, can lead to difficulty abducting the leg. Patients will compensate for their difficulty walking by adopting a Trendelenburg gait; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 475 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy PTCentral Anatomy photo:13:st-0406 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center
The femoral sheath is formed by a prolongation downward, behind the inguinal ligament, of the abdominal fascia, the transverse fascia being continued down in front of the femoral vessels and the iliac fascia behind them. The femoral sheath is contained within the femoral triangle; the sheath assumes the form of a short funnel, the wide end of, directed upward, while the lower, narrow end fuses with the fascial investment of the vessels, about 4 cm. below the inguinal ligament. It is strengthened in front by a band termed the iliopubic tract; the lateral wall of the sheath is perforated by the lumboinguinal nerve. The sheath is divided by two vertical partitions which stretch between its anterior and posterior walls; the lateral compartment contains the femoral artery and femoral branch of genitofemoral nerve, the intermediate the femoral vein, while the medial and smallest compartment is named the femoral canal, contains some lymphatic vessels and a lymph gland embedded in a small amount of areolar tissue.
The femoral canal is conical and measures about 1.25 cm. in length. Its base, directed upward and named the femoral ring, is oval in form, its long diameter being directed transversely and measuring about 1.25 cm. The spermatic cord in the male and the round ligament of the uterus in the female lie above the anterior margin of the ring, while the inferior epigastric vessels are close to its upper and lateral angle; the femoral ring is closed by a somewhat condensed portion of the extraperitoneal fatty tissue, named the septum femorale, the abdominal surface of which supports a small lymph gland and is covered by the parietal peritoneum. The septum femorale is pierced by numerous lymphatic vessels passing from the deep inguinal to the external iliac lymph glands, the parietal peritoneum above it presents a slight depression named the femoral fossa; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 625 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Photo and overview at gla.ac.uk antthigh at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman Diagram at washington.edu
The iliacus is a flat, triangular muscle which fills the iliac fossa. It forms the lateral portion of iliopsoas, providing flexion of the thigh and lower limb at the acetabulofemoral joint; the iliacus arises from the iliac fossa on the interior side of the hip bone, from the region of the anterior inferior iliac spine. It joins the psoas major to form the Iliopsoas as which it proceeds across the iliopubic eminence through the muscular lacuna to its insertion on the lesser trochanter of the femur, its fibers are inserted in front of those of the psoas major and extend distally over the lesser trochanter. The iliopsoas is innervated by direct branches from the lumbar plexus. In open-chain exercises, as part of the iliopsoas, the iliacus is important for lifting the femur forward. In closed-chain exercises, the iliopsoas bends the trunk forward and can lift the trunk from a lying posture because the psoas major crosses several vertebral joints and the sacroiliac joint. From its origin in the lesser pelvis the iliacus acts on the hip joint.
Platzer, Werner. Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. 1: Locomotor System. Thieme. ISBN 3-13-533305-1. Thieme Atlas of Anatomy: General Anatomy and Musculoskeletal System. Thieme. 2006. ISBN 1-58890-419-9. PTCentral Anatomy figure: 40:07-05 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Muscles and nerves of the posterior abdominal wall." Pelvis at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman
Adductor magnus muscle
The adductor magnus is a large triangular muscle, situated on the medial side of the thigh. It consists of two parts; the portion which arises from the ischiopubic ramus is called the pubofemoral portion, adductor portion, or adductor minimus, the portion arising from the tuberosity of the ischium is called the ischiocondylar portion, extensor portion, or "hamstring portion". Due to its common embryonic origin and action the ischiocondylar portion is considered part of the hamstring group of muscles; the ischiocondylar portion of the adductor magnus is considered a muscle of the posterior compartment of the thigh while the pubofemoral portion of the adductor magnus is considered a muscle of the medial compartment. Those fibers which arise from the ramus of the pubis are short, horizontal in direction, are inserted into the rough line of the femur leading from the greater trochanter to the linea aspera, medial to the gluteus maximus; those fibers from the ramus of the ischium are directed downward and laterally with different degrees of obliquity, to be inserted, by means of a broad aponeurosis, into the linea aspera and the upper part of its medial prolongation below.
The medial portion of the muscle, composed principally of the fibers arising from the tuberosity of the ischium, forms a thick fleshy mass consisting of coarse bundles which descend vertically, end about the lower third of the thigh in a rounded tendon, inserted into the adductor tubercle on the medial condyle of the femur, is connected by a fibrous expansion to the line leading upward from the tubercle to the linea aspera. By its anterior surface the adductor magnus is in relation with the pectineus, adductor brevis, adductor longus, femoral artery and vein, profunda artery and vein, with their branches, with the posterior branches of the obturator artery, obturator vein and obturator nerve. By its posterior surface with the semitendinosus, semimembranosus and gluteus maximus muscle. By its inner border with the gracilis and sartorius. By its upper border with the obturator externus, quadratus femoris, it is a composite muscle as the adductor and hamstring portions of the muscle are innervated by two different nerves.
The adductor portion is innervated by the posterior division of the obturator nerve while the hamstring portion is innervated by the sciatic nerve. At the insertion of the muscle, there is a series of osseoaponeurotic openings, formed by tendinous arches attached to the bone; the upper four openings are small, give passage to the perforating branches of the profunda femoris artery. The lowest is large, transmits the femoral vessels to the popliteal fossa; the upper, lateral part of the adductor magnus is an incompletely separated division considered a separate muscle — the adductor minimus. These two muscles are separated by a branch of the superior perforating branch of the profunda femoris artery; the adductor magnus is a powerful adductor of the thigh, made active when the legs are moved from a wide spread position to one in which the legs parallel each other. The part attached to the linea aspera acts as a lateral rotator; the part which reaches the medial epicondyle acts as a medial rotator when the leg is rotated outwards and flexed, acts to extend the hip joint.
In other tetrapods, the adductor magnus crosses the knee joint and inserts into the tibia. In humans, the distal part of the tendon detaches and becomes the medial collateral ligament of the knee; because of this, the medial collateral ligament of the knee in humans may contain a few muscle fibres as an atavistic variation. Adductor hiatus This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 473 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:14:st-0401 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center PTCentral
Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists and health professionals such as doctors. Anatomical terminology uses many unique terms and prefixes deriving from Ancient Greek and Latin; these terms can be confusing to those unfamiliar with them, but can be more precise, reducing ambiguity and errors. Since these anatomical terms are not used in everyday conversation, their meanings are less to change, less to be misinterpreted. To illustrate how inexact day-to-day language can be: a scar "above the wrist" could be located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand or at the base of the hand. By using precise anatomical terminology such ambiguity is eliminated. An international standard for anatomical terminology, Terminologia Anatomica has been created. Anatomical terminology has quite regular morphology, the same prefixes and suffixes are used to add meanings to different roots; the root of a term refers to an organ or tissue. For example, the Latin names of structures such as musculus biceps brachii can be split up and refer to, musculus for muscle, biceps for "two-headed", brachii as in the brachial region of the arm.
The first word describes what is being spoken about, the second describes it, the third points to location. When describing the position of anatomical structures, structures may be described according to the anatomical landmark they are near; these landmarks may include structures, such as the umbilicus or sternum, or anatomical lines, such as the midclavicular line from the centre of the clavicle. The cephalon or cephalic region refers to the head; this area is further differentiated into the cranium, frons, auris, nasus and mentum. The neck area is called cervical region. Examples of structures named according to this include the frontalis muscle, submental lymph nodes, buccal membrane and orbicularis oculi muscle. Sometimes, unique terminology is used to reduce confusion in different parts of the body. For example, different terms are used when it comes to the skull in compliance with its embryonic origin and its tilted position compared to in other animals. Here, Rostral refers to proximity to the front of the nose, is used when describing the skull.
Different terminology is used in the arms, in part to reduce ambiguity as to what the "front", "back", "inner" and "outer" surfaces are. For this reason, the terms below are used: Radial referring to the radius bone, seen laterally in the standard anatomical position. Ulnar referring to the ulna bone, medially positioned when in the standard anatomical position. Other terms are used to describe the movement and actions of the hands and feet, other structures such as the eye. International morphological terminology is used by the colleges of medicine and dentistry and other areas of the health sciences, it facilitates communication and exchanges between scientists from different countries of the world and it is used daily in the fields of research and medical care. The international morphological terminology refers to morphological sciences as a biological sciences' branch. In this field, the form and structure are examined as well as the changes or developments in the organism, it is functional.
It covers the gross anatomy and the microscopic of living beings. It involves the anatomy of the adult, it includes comparative anatomy between different species. The vocabulary is extensive and complex, requires a systematic presentation. Within the international field, a group of experts reviews and discusses the morphological terms of the structures of the human body, forming today's Terminology Committee from the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, it deals with the anatomical and embryologic terminology. In the Latin American field, there are meetings called Iberian Latin American Symposium Terminology, where a group of experts of the Pan American Association of Anatomy that speak Spanish and Portuguese and studies the international morphological terminology; the current international standard for human anatomical terminology is based on the Terminologia Anatomica. It was developed by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists and was released in 1998.
It supersedes Nomina Anatomica. Terminologia Anatomica contains terminology for about 7500 human gross anatomical structures. For microanatomy, known as histology, a similar standard exists in Terminologia Histologica, for embryology, the study of development, a standard exists in Terminologia Embryologica; these standards specify accepted names that can be used to refer to histological and embryological structures in journal articles and other areas. As of September 2016, two sections of the Terminologia Anatomica, including central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, were merged to form the Terminologia Neuroanatomica; the Terminologia Anatomica has been perceived with a considerable criticism regarding its content including coverage and spelling mistakes and errors. Anatomical terminology is chosen to highlight the relative location of body structures. For instance, an anatomist might describe one band of tissue as "inferior to" another or a physician might describe a tumor as "superficial to" a deeper body structure.
Anatomical terms used to describe location
The semimembranosus is the most medial of the three hamstring muscles. It is so named, it lies posteromedially in the thigh, deep to the semitendinosus. The semimembranosus, so called from its membranous tendon of origin, is situated at the back and medial side of the thigh, its origin is the superolateral aspect of the ischial tuberosity and it inserts on the medial condyle and nearby margin of tibia. It arises by a thick tendon from the upper and outer impression on the ischial tuberosity and medial to the biceps femoris and semitendinosus; the tendon of origin expands into an aponeurosis, which covers the upper part of the anterior surface of the muscle. It is inserted into the horizontal groove on the posterior medial aspect of the medial condyle of the tibia; the semimembranosus is wider and deeper than the semitendinosus. The tendon of insertion gives off certain fibrous expansions: one, of considerable size, passes upward and laterally to be inserted into the posterior lateral condyle of the femur, forming part of the oblique popliteal ligament of the knee-joint.
The muscle overlaps the upper part of the popliteal vessels. The semimembranosus is innervated by the tibial part of the sciatic nerve; the sciatic nerve consists of the anterior divisions of ventral nerve roots from L4 through S3. These nerve roots are part of the larger nerve network–the sacral plexus; the tibial part of the sciatic nerve is responsible for innervation of semitendinosus and the long head of biceps femoris. It may be reduced or absent, or double, arising from the sacrotuberous ligament and giving a slip to the femur or adductor magnus; the semimembranosus helps to flex the knee joint. It helps to medially rotate the knee: the tibia medially rotates on the femur when the knee is flexed, it medially rotates the femur. The muscle can aid in counteracting the forward bending at the hip joint. Semitendinosus Biceps femoris This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 479 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:14:st-0408 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Anatomy figure: 14:01-07 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Muscles of the posterior compartment of the thigh."
Anatomy figure: 14:02-06 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Muscles that form the superficial boundaries of the popliteal fossa." Knee/surface/surface4 at the Dartmouth Medical School's Department of Anatomy PTCentral
Quadriceps femoris muscle
The quadriceps femoris is a large muscle group that includes the four prevailing muscles on the front of the thigh. It is the great extensor muscle of the knee, forming a large fleshy mass which covers the front and sides of the femur; the name derives from Latin four-headed muscle of the femur. It is subdivided into four separate portions or'heads', which have received distinctive names: Rectus femoris occupies the middle of the thigh, covering most of the other three quadriceps muscles, it originates on the ilium. It is named from its straight course; the other three lie deep to rectus femoris and originate from the body of the femur, which they cover from the trochanters to the condyles: Vastus lateralis is on the lateral side of the femur. Vastus medialis is on the medial side of the femur. Vastus intermedius lies between vastus lateralis and vastus medialis on the front of the femur, but deep to the rectus femoris, it cannot be seen without dissection of the rectus femoris. All four parts of the quadriceps muscle insert into the tuberosity of the tibia via the patella, where the quadriceps tendon becomes the patellar ligament.
There is a fifth muscle of the quadriceps complex, forgotten and taught called articularis genus. In addition, recent cadaver studies have confirmed the presence of a sixth muscle, the tensor vastus intermedius. While the muscle has variable presentations, it originates at the proximal femur, runs between the vastus lateralis and vastus intermedius muscles, inserts distally at the medial aspect of the patellar base. Considered a part of the vastus lateralis, the tensor vastus intermedius muscle is innervated by an independent branch of the femoral nerve and its tendinous belly can be separated from the vasti lateralis and intermedius muscles in most cases. Femoral nerve. All four quadriceps are powerful extensors of the knee joint, they are crucial in walking, running and squatting. Because the rectus femoris attaches to the ilium, it is a flexor of the hip; this action is crucial to walking or running as it swings the leg forward into the ensuing step. The quadriceps the vastus medialis, play the important role of stabilizing the patella and the knee joint during gait.
In strength training, the quadriceps are trained by several leg exercises. Effective exercises include the leg press; the isolation movement is the leg extension exercise. In body building communities, this muscle is colloquially referred to as the "leg triceps"; the proper Latin plural form of the adjective quadriceps would be quadricipites. In modern English usage, quadriceps is used in both plural; the singular form quadricep, produced by back-formation, is used. Hamstring Quadriceps_muscle at the Duke University Health System's Orthopedics program Muscles/Quadriceps at exrx.net "Anatomy diagram: 39960.000-1". Roche Lexicon - illustrated navigator. Elsevier. Archived from the original on 2014-01-01