A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record. "Documentary" has been described as a "filmmaking practice, a cinematic tradition, mode of audience reception", continually evolving and is without clear boundaries. Documentary films were called'actuality' films and were only a minute or less in length. Over time documentaries have evolved to be longer in length and to include more categories, such as educational and even'docufiction'. Documentaries are educational and used in schools to teach various principles. Social media platforms such as YouTube, have allowed documentary films to improve the ways the films are distributed and able to educate and broaden the reach of people who receive the information. Polish writer and filmmaker Bolesław Matuszewski was among those who identified the mode of documentary film, he wrote two of the earliest texts on cinema Une nouvelle source de l'histoire and La photographie animée.
Both were published in 1898 in French and among the early written works to consider the historical and documentary value of the film. Matuszewski is among the first filmmakers to propose the creation of a Film Archive to collect and keep safe visual materials. In popular myth, the word documentary was coined by Scottish documentary filmmaker John Grierson in his review of Robert Flaherty's film Moana, published in the New York Sun on 8 February 1926, written by "The Moviegoer". Grierson's principles of documentary were that cinema's potential for observing life could be exploited in a new art form. In this regard, Grierson's definition of documentary as "creative treatment of actuality" has gained some acceptance, with this position at variance with Soviet film-maker Dziga Vertov's provocation to present "life as it is" and "life caught unawares"; the American film critic Pare Lorentz defines a documentary film as "a factual film, dramatic." Others further state that a documentary stands out from the other types of non-fiction films for providing an opinion, a specific message, along with the facts it presents.
Documentary practice is the complex process of creating documentary projects. It refers to what people do with media devices, content and production strategies in order to address the creative and conceptual problems and choices that arise as they make documentaries. Documentary filmmaking can be used as a form of advocacy, or personal expression. Early film was dominated by the novelty of showing an event, they were single-shot moments captured on film: a train entering a station, a boat docking, or factory workers leaving work. These short films were called "actuality" films. Many of the first films, such as those made by Auguste and Louis Lumière, were a minute or less in length, due to technological limitations. Films showing many people were made for commercial reasons: the people being filmed were eager to see, for payment, the film showing them. One notable film clocked in at over an hour and The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight. Using pioneering film-looping technology, Enoch J. Rector presented the entirety of a famous 1897 prize-fight on cinema screens across the United States.
In May 1896, Bolesław Matuszewski recorded on film few surigical operations in Warsaw and Saint Petersburg hospitals. In 1898, French surgeon Eugène-Louis Doyen invited Bolesław Matuszewski and Clément Maurice and proposed them to recorded his surigical operations, they started in Paris a series of surgical films sometime before July 1898. Until 1906, the year of his last film, Doyen recorded more than 60 operations. Doyen said that his first films taught him how to correct professional errors he had been unaware of. For scientific purposes, after 1906, Doyen combined 15 of his films into three compilations, two of which survive, the six-film series Extirpation des tumeurs encapsulées, the four-film Les Opérations sur la cavité crânienne; these and five other of Doyen's films survive. Between July 1898 and 1901, the Romanian professor Gheorghe Marinescu made several science films in his neurology clinic in Bucharest: Walking Troubles of Organic Hemiplegy, The Walking Troubles of Organic Paraplegies, A Case of Hysteric Hemiplegy Healed Through Hypnosis, The Walking Troubles of Progressive Locomotion Ataxy, Illnesses of the Muscles.
All these short films have been preserved. The professor called his works "studies with the help of the cinematograph," and published the results, along with several consecutive frames, in issues of "La Semaine Médicale" magazine from Paris, between 1899 and 1902. In 1924, Auguste Lumiere recognized the merits of Marinescu's science films: "I've seen your scientific reports about the usage of the cinematograph in studies of nervous illnesses, when I was still receiving "La Semaine Médicale," but back I had other concerns, which left me no spare time to begin biological studies. I must say I am thankful to you that you reminded them to me. Not many scientists have followed your way." Travelogue films were popular in the early part of the 20th century. They were referred to by distributors as "scenics." Scenics were among the most popu
A movie projector is an opto-mechanical device for displaying motion picture film by projecting it onto a screen. Most of the optical and mechanical elements, except for the illumination and sound devices, are present in movie cameras; the first movie projector was the Zoopraxiscope, invented by British photographer Eadweard Muybridge in 1879. The zoopraxiscope projected images from rotating glass disks in rapid succession to give the impression of motion; the stop-motion images were painted onto the glass, as silhouettes. A second series of discs, made in 1892–94, used outline drawings printed onto the discs photographically colored by hand. Kazimierz Prószyński, born in Warsaw, was a Polish inventor active in the field of cinema, he patented his first film camera, called Pleograph, before the Lumière brothers, went on to improve the cinema projector for the Gaumont company, as well as invent the used hand-held Aeroscope camera. A more sophisticated movie projector was invented by Frenchman Louis Le Prince while working in Leeds.
In 1888 Le Prince took out a patent for a 16-lens device that combined a motion picture camera with a projector. In 1888, he used an updated version of his camera to film the first motion picture, the Roundhay Garden Scene; the pictures were exhibited in Hunslet. The Lumière brothers invented the first successful movie projector, they made their first film, Sortie de l'usine Lumière de Lyon, in 1894, publicly screened at L'Eden, La Ciotat a year later. The first commercial, public screening of cinematographic films happened in Paris on 28 December 1895; the cinematograph was exhibited at the Paris Exhibition of 1900. At the Exhibition, films made by the Lumière Brothers were projected onto a large screen measuring 16 by 21 meters. In 1999, digital cinema projectors were being tried out in some movie theatres; these early projectors played the movie stored on a computer, sent to the projector electronically. Due to their low resolution compared to digital cinema systems, the images at the time had visible pixels.
By 2006, the advent of much higher 4K resolution digital projection reduced pixel visibility. The systems became more compact over time. By 2009, movie theatres started replacing film projectors with digital projectors. In 2013, it was estimated that 92% of movie theatres in the United States had converted to digital, with 8% still playing film. In 2015, numerous popular filmmakers—including Quentin Tarantino and Christopher Nolan—lobbied large studios to commit to purchase a minimum amount of 35 mm film from Kodak; the decision ensured. Although more expensive than film projectors, high-resolution digital projectors offer many advantages over traditional film units. For example, digital projectors contain no moving parts except fans, can be operated remotely, are compact and have no film to break, scratch or change reels of, they allow for much easier, less expensive, more reliable storage and distribution of content. All-electronic distribution eliminates all physical media shipments. There is the ability to display live broadcasts in theaters so equipped.
In 1912 Max Wertheimer discovered the phi phenomenon. In each the brain constitutes an experience of apparent movement when presented with a sequence of near-identical still images; this theory is said to account for the illusion of motion which results when a series of film images is displayed in quick succession, rather than the perception of the individual frames in the series. Persistence of vision should be compared with the related phenomena of beta movement and phi movement. A critical part of understanding these visual perception phenomena is that the eye is not a camera, i.e.: there is no frame rate for the human eye or brain. Instead, the eye/brain system has a combination of motion detectors, detail detectors and pattern detectors, the outputs of all of which are combined to create the visual experience; the frequency at which flicker becomes invisible is called the flicker fusion threshold, is dependent on the level of illumination. The frame rate of 16 frames per second is regarded as the lowest frequency at which continuous motion is perceived by humans.
This threshold varies across different species. Because the eye and brain have no fixed capture rate, this is an elastic limit, so different viewers can be more or less sensitive in perceiving frame rates, it is possible to view the black space between frames and the passing of the shutter by blinking ones eyes at a certain rate. If done fast enough, the viewer will be able to randomly "trap" the image between frames, or during shutter motion; this will not work with cathode ray tube displays due to the persistence of the phosphors nor with LCD or DLP light projectors because they refresh the image with no blackout intervals as with film projectors. Silent films were not projected at constant speeds, but rather were varied throughout the show at the discretion of the projectionist with some notes provided by the distributor; this was more a function of hand-cranked projectors than the silence. When the electric motor supplanted hand cranking in both movie cameras and projectors, a more uniform frame rate became possible.
Speeds ranged from about 18 frame/s on up - sometimes faster than modern sound film speed. 16 frame/s - though sometimes used as a camera shooting speed - was inadvisable for projection, due to the high risk of the nitrate-base pri
The Biograph Company known as the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, was a motion picture company founded in 1895 and active until 1916. It was the first company in the United States devoted to film production and exhibition, for two decades was one of the most prolific, releasing over 3000 short films and 12 feature films. During the height of silent film as a medium, Biograph was America's most prominent film studio and one of the most respected and influential studios worldwide, only rivaled by Germany's UFA, Sweden's Svensk Filmindustri and France's Pathé; the company was home to pioneering director D. W. Griffith and such actors as Mary Pickford, Lillian Gish and Lionel Barrymore. An unrelated company, with the same name, was incorporated in California in 1991; as of 2012 its operations were suspended. The company was started by William Kennedy Dickson, an inventor at Thomas Edison's laboratory who helped pioneer the technology of capturing moving images on film. Dickson left Edison in April 1895, joining with inventors Herman Casler, Henry Marvin and businessman Elias Koopman to incorporate the American Mutoscope Company in New Jersey on December 30, 1895.
The firm manufactured the Mutoscope and made flip-card movies for it as a rival to Edison’s Kinetoscope for individual “peep shows”, making the company Edison’s chief competitor in the nickelodeon market. In the summer of 1896 the Biograph projector was released, offering superior image quality to Edison’s Vitascope projector; the company soon became a leader in the film industry, with distribution and production subsidiaries around the world, including the British Mutoscope Co. In 1899 it changed its name to the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, in 1908 to the Biograph Company. To avoid violating Edison’s motion picture patents, Biograph cameras from 1895-1902 used a large-format film, measuring 2-23/32 inches wide, with an image area of 2×2½ inches, four times that of Edison’s 35mm format; the camera used friction feed instead of Edison’s sprocket feed to guide the film to the aperture. The camera itself punched a sprocket hole on each side of the frame as the film was exposed at 30 frames per second.
A patent case victory in March 1902 allowed Biograph and other producers and distributors to use the less expensive 35 mm format without an Edison license, although Biograph did not phase out 68 mm production until autumn of 1903. Biograph offered prints in both formats to exhibitors until 1905, when it discontinued the larger format. Biograph films before 1903, were "actualities," documentary film footage of actual persons and events, each film less than two minutes long, such as the one of the Empire State Express, which premiered on October 12, 1896 in New York City; the occasional narrative film a comedy, was shot in one scene, with no editing. Spurred on by competition from Edison and British and European producers, Biograph production from 1903 onward was dominated by narratives; as the stories became more complex the films became longer, with multiple scenes to tell the story, although an individual scene was still presented in one shot without editing. Biograph's production of actualities ended by 1908 in favor of the narrative film.
The company's first studio was located on the roof of 841 Broadway at 13th St. in Manhattan, known as the Hackett Carhart Building and today as the Roosevelt Building. The set-up was similar to Thomas Edison's "Black Maria" in West Orange, NJ, with the studio itself being mounted on circular tracks to be able to get the best possible sunlight; the company moved in 1906 to a converted brownstone mansion at 11 East 14th St. near Union Square, a building, razed in the 1960s. This was Biograph's first indoor studio, the first movie studio in the world to rely on artificial light. Biograph moved again in 1913, as it entered feature film production, to a new state-of-the-art studio on 175th Street in the Bronx. There was the problem of the underground "duping" business, where people would illegally duplicate a copyrighted movie and remove the title screen with the company and copyright notice and sell it to theaters. In order to make the theater audience aware that they were watching an American Biograph movie the AB logo would be prominently placed in random parts of the movie.
Director D. W. Griffith joined Biograph in 1908 as a writer and actor, but within months became its principal director. In 1908 the company's head director Wallace McCutcheon grew ill, his son Wallace McCutcheon Jr. took his place but was not able to make a successful film for the company. As a result of these failed productions, studio head Henry Marvin gave the position of head director to Griffith, whose first film was The Adventures of Dollie. Griffith helped establish many of the conventions of narrative film, including cross-cutting to show events occurring in different places, the flashback, the fade-in/fade-out, the interposition of closeups within a scene, a moderated acting style more suitable for film. Although Griffith did not invent these techniques, he made them a regular part of the film vocabulary, his prolific output--often one new film a week--and willingness to experiment in many different genres helped the company become a major commercial success. Many early movie stars were Biograph performers, including Mary Pickford, Lionel Barrymore, Lillian Gish, Dorothy Gish, Robert Harron, Arthur V. Johnson, Florence Auer, Robert G. Vignola, Owen Moore, Alan Hale, Sr. Florence Lawrence, Blanche Sweet, Harry Carey, James Kirkwood Sr. Mabel Normand, Henry B.
Walthall, Mae Marsh, Dorothy Davenport. Mack Sennett h
The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight
The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight is an 1897 documentary film directed by Enoch J. Rector depicting the 1897 boxing match between James J. Corbett and Bob Fitzsimmons in Carson City, Nevada on St. Patrick's Day. Running for more than 100 minutes, it was the longest film released to date; the technology that allowed this is known as the Latham loop, Rector was a rival for claiming the invention of the device. He used three such equipped cameras filming on 63 mm nitrate film. Only fragments of the film survive; the known fragments were transferred in the 1980s from a print owned by Jean A. LeRoy of New York City, the transfer done on a specially built optical printer to convert the film to 35mm film; the film was the first to be shot in widescreen, with an aspect ratio of about 1.65:1. According to Dan Streible, The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight is "one of the earliest individual productions to sustain public commentary on the cinema." The film is so important to film history that Luke McKernan declared, "it was boxing that created the cinema."In 2012, the film was added to the National Film Registry at the Library of Congress as a "culturally or aesthetically significant film".
The film no longer exists in its entirety. This was not unusual for a boxing film, although each round would have been presented as a separate attraction. What made this film exceptional is a five-minute introduction that showed former champion John L. Sullivan and his manager, Billy Madden, introducing the event, the introduction of referee George Siler, both boxers entering the ring in their robes; the one-minute rests between each round were captured on film and when it was reissued it included a ten-minute epilogue of the empty ring at the end of the fight, into which members of the audience stormed. With these approximate timings, the film ran a minimum of 71 minutes, sources report that it exceeded 90 or 100 minutes; the film climaxes with Fitzsimmons hitting Corbett in the solar plexus for a knockout and Corbett crawling outside the space of the camera so that he is not visible above the waist. Enoch J. Rector had been an employee of the Kinetoscope Exhibition Company, which filmed Corbett and Courtney Before the Kinetograph in six one minute rounds, each exhibited via the Edison Kinetoscope as a separate peep show for a separate fee.
Some time after leaving the company, Rector arranged for the film with boxing promoter Dan Stuart. Stuart offered $10,000 to the winner of the bout in an agreement signed by both boxers on 4 January 1897. Corbett, along with his fans, was eager to win back the title that he had lost to Fitzsimmons in Mexico. Producer William Aloysius Brady got an agreement from Rector that 25% of the proceeds of the film would go to him and Corbett. Fitzsimmons was outraged upon learning of the deal, the terms were renegotiated. Under the new terms, each boxer and his manager would take 25%, with Rector and Samuel J. Tilden Jr dividing the remaining 50%; the film was shot in widescreen format on 2 3/16 gauge film stock. Rector brought 48,000 feet of film stock, the largest amount, brought on location, exposed 11,000 feet of it; the night before the match, Stuart cut the ring down from 24 feet to 22 feet for the sake of the camera, but the referee noticed this and Stuart was forced to change it back. Wyatt Earp was a reporter for The New York World at the time, which published his commentaries on the fight on March 14 and March 18.
He disagreed with referee George Siler's decision when Fitzsimmons hit Corbett in the jaw, which should have resulted in a foul, coming after a knockout blow to Corbett's solar plexus. The World promoted the film, the day after the film's release, printed a statement from Fitzsimmons, "I don't believe there is a single picture in it that will substantiate those published in The World." The film premiered on May 22 at the New York Academy of Music and played into June, where it was presented with live running commentary. In total, eleven companies toured with the film. Local debuts: May 31, 1897 June 6, 1897 June 7, 1897 June 26, 1897 July 3, 1897 July 13, 1897 July 27, 1897 September 27, 1897 December 26, 1897 April 1898 When the film was shown in Coney Island, it was advertised under the title Corbett's Last Fight. Brady estimated the film's net profit at $750,000. Film scholar Charles Musser claims that the film made a more modest $100,000; the film is notable because that, at the time, women were prohibited from viewing boxing matches, which were seen as a "stag" activity, but they were not prohibited from viewing this film.
Much attention was given to the fact that Rose Julian Fitzsimmons, Bob's wife, viewed the live match from a box with other female companions, such as dancers Loïe Eiler and Ida Eiler, while women otherwise did not mix with the crowd. As much as 60% of the Chicago audience was composed of women; as Miriam Hansen put it, "it afforded women the forbidden sight of male bodies in seminudity, engaged in intimate and intense physical action." She argues a connection between the female reception of this film and the large female audience for Rudolph Valentino two decades, shown stripped to the waist and beaten in his films. Streible calls this into debate, and
Thomas Alva Edison was an American inventor and businessman, described as America's greatest inventor. He is credited with developing many devices in fields such as electric power generation, mass communication, sound recording, motion pictures; these inventions, which include the phonograph, the motion picture camera, the long-lasting, practical electric light bulb, had a widespread impact on the modern industrialized world. He was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production and teamwork to the process of invention, working with many researchers and employees, he is credited with establishing the first industrial research laboratory. Edison was raised in the American Midwest and early in his career he worked as a telegraph operator, which inspired some of his earliest inventions. In 1876, he established his first laboratory facility in Menlo Park, New Jersey, where many of his early inventions would be developed, he would establish a botanic laboratory in Fort Myers, Florida in collaboration with businessmen Henry Ford and Harvey Firestone, a laboratory in West Orange, New Jersey that featured the world's first film studio, the Black Maria.
He was a prolific inventor, holding 1,093 US patents in his name, as well as patents in other countries. Edison fathered six children, he died in 1931 of complications of diabetes. Thomas Edison was born, in 1847, in Milan and grew up in Port Huron, Michigan, he was the last child of Samuel Ogden Edison Jr. and Nancy Matthews Elliott. His father, the son of a Loyalist refugee, had moved as a boy with the family from Nova Scotia, settling in southwestern Ontario, in a village known as Shrewsbury Vienna, by 1811. Samuel Jr. fled Ontario, because he took part in the unsuccessful Mackenzie Rebellion of 1837. His father, Samuel Sr. had earlier fought in the War of 1812 as captain of the First Middlesex Regiment. By contrast, Samuel Jr.'s struggle found him on the losing side, he crossed into the United States at Sarnia-Port Huron. Once across the border, he found his way to Ohio, his patrilineal family line was Dutch by way of New Jersey. Much of his education came from reading R. G. Parker's The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art.
Edison developed hearing problems at an early age. The cause of his deafness has been attributed to a bout of scarlet fever during childhood and recurring untreated middle-ear infections. Around the middle of his career, Edison attributed the hearing impairment to being struck on the ears by a train conductor when his chemical laboratory in a boxcar caught fire and he was thrown off the train in Smiths Creek, along with his apparatus and chemicals. In his years, he modified the story to say the injury occurred when the conductor, in helping him onto a moving train, lifted him by the ears. Edison's family moved to Port Huron, Michigan after the canal owners kept the railroad out of Milan Ohio in 1854 and business declined. Edison sold candy and newspapers on trains running from Port Huron to Detroit, sold vegetables, he became a telegraph operator after he saved three-year-old Jimmie MacKenzie from being struck by a runaway train. Jimmie's father, station agent J. U. MacKenzie of Mount Clemens, was so grateful that he trained Edison as a telegraph operator.
Edison's first telegraphy job away from Port Huron was at Stratford Junction, Ontario, on the Grand Trunk Railway. He was held responsible for a near collision, he studied qualitative analysis and conducted chemical experiments on the train until he left the job. Edison obtained the exclusive right to sell newspapers on the road, with the aid of four assistants, he set in type and printed the Grand Trunk Herald, which he sold with his other papers; this began Edison's long streak of entrepreneurial ventures, as he discovered his talents as a businessman. These talents led him to found 14 companies, including General Electric, still one of the largest publicly traded companies in the world. In 1866, at the age of 19, Edison moved to Louisville, where, as an employee of Western Union, he worked the Associated Press bureau news wire. Edison requested the night shift, which allowed him plenty of time to spend at his two favorite pastimes—reading and experimenting; the latter pre-occupation cost him his job.
One night in 1867, he was working with a lead–acid battery when he spilled sulfuric acid onto the floor. It ran onto his boss's desk below; the next morning Edison was fired. His first patent was for the electric vote recorder, U. S. Patent 90,646, granted on June 1, 1869. Finding little demand for the machine, Edison moved to New York City shortly thereafter. One of his mentors during those early years was a fellow telegrapher and inventor named Franklin Leonard Pope, who allowed the impoverished youth to live and work in the basement of his Elizabeth, New Jersey, while Edison worked for Samuel Laws at the Gold Indicator Company. Pope and Edison founded their own company in October 1869, working as electrical engineers and inventors. Edison began developing a multiplex telegraphic system, which could send two messages in 1874. Edison's major innovation was the establishment of an industrial research lab in 1876, it was built in Menlo Park, a part of Raritan Township in Middlesex County, New Jersey, with the funds from the sale of Edison's qua
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher. Founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts, it was a literary and cultural commentary magazine that published leading writers' commentary on abolition and other major issues in contemporary political affairs, its founders included Francis H. Underwood, along with prominent writers Ralph Waldo Emerson, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Harriet Beecher Stowe, John Greenleaf Whittier. James Russell Lowell was its first editor, it was known for publishing literary pieces by leading writers. After financial hardship and ownership changes in the late 20th century, the magazine was purchased by businessman David G. Bradley, he refashioned it as a general editorial magazine aimed at a target audience of serious national readers and "thought leaders." In 2010, The Atlantic posted its first profit in a decade. In 2016 the periodical was named Magazine of the Year by the American Society of Magazine Editors.
In July 2017, Bradley sold a majority interest in the publication to Laurene Powell Jobs's Emerson Collective. Its website, TheAtlantic.com, provides daily coverage and analysis of breaking news and international affairs, technology, health and culture. The editor of the website is Adrienne LaFrance; the Atlantic houses an editorial events arm, AtlanticLIVE. The Atlantic's president is Bob Cohn; the magazine, subscribed to by over 500,000 readers, publishes ten times a year. It was a monthly magazine for 144 years until 2001, it dropped "Monthly" from the cover beginning with the January/February 2004 issue, changed the name in 2007. The Atlantic features articles in the fields of politics, foreign affairs and the economy and the arts and science. On January 22, 2008, TheAtlantic.com dropped its subscriber wall and allowed users to browse its site, including all past archives. By 2011 The Atlantic's web properties included TheAtlanticWire.com, a news- and opinion-tracking site launched in 2009, TheAtlanticCities.com, a stand-alone website started in 2011, devoted to global cities and trends.
According to a Mashable profile in December 2011, "traffic to the three web properties surpassed 11 million uniques per month, up a staggering 2500% since The Atlantic brought down its paywall in early 2008."In December 2011, a new Health Channel launched on TheAtlantic.com, incorporating coverage of food, as well as topics related to the mind, sex and public health. Its launch was overseen by Nicholas Jackson, overseeing the Life channel and joined TheAtlantic.com to cover technology. TheAtlantic.com has expanded to visual storytelling, with the addition of the "In Focus" photo blog, curated by Alan Taylor. In 2011 it created its Video Channel. Created as an aggregator, The Atlantic's Video component, Atlantic Studios, has since evolved in an in-house production studio that creates custom video series and original documentaries. In 2015, TheAtlantic.com launched a dedicated Science section and in January 2016 it redesigned and expanded its politics section in conjunction with the 2016 U. S. presidential race.
A leading literary magazine, The Atlantic has published many significant authors. It was the first to publish pieces by the abolitionists Julia Ward Howe, William Parker, whose slave narrative, "The Freedman's Story" was published in February and March 1866, it published Charles W. Eliot's "The New Education", a call for practical reform, that led to his appointment to presidency of Harvard University in 1869. For example, Emily Dickinson, after reading an article in The Atlantic by Thomas Wentworth Higginson, asked him to become her mentor. In 2005, the magazine won a National Magazine Award for fiction; the magazine published many of the works of Mark Twain, including one, lost until 2001. Editors have recognized major cultural movements. For example, of the emerging writers of the 1920s, Ernest Hemingway had his short story "Fifty Grand" published in the July 1927 edition. In the midst of civil rights activism in the 20th century, the magazine published Martin Luther King, Jr.'s defense of civil disobedience in "Letter from Birmingham Jail" in August 1963.
The magazine has published speculative articles. The classic example is Vannevar Bush's essay "As We May Think", which inspired Douglas Engelbart and Ted Nelson to develop the modern workstation and hypertext technology; the Atlantic Monthly founded the Atlantic Monthly Press in 1917. Its published book included Drums Along the Blue Highways; the press was sold in 1986. In addition to publishing notable fiction and poetry, The Atlantic has emerged in the 21st century as an influential platform for longform storytelling and newsmaker interviews. Influential cover stories have included Anne Marie Slaughter's "Why Women Still Can't Have It All" and Ta-Nehisi Coates's "Case for Reparations". In 2015, Jeffrey Goldberg's "Obama Doctrine" was discussed by American media and prompted response by many world leaders; as of 2017, writers and frequent contributors to the print magazine include James F