Latin music is a genre used by the music industry as a catch-all term for music that comes from Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking areas of the world, namely Ibero America and Iberian Peninsula, as well as music sung in either language. In the United States, the music industry defines Latin music as any recording sung in Spanish regardless of its genre or the artist's nationality; the Recording Industry Association of America and Billboard magazine use this definition of Latin music to track sales of Spanish-language records in the US. Spain, Brazil and the United States are the largest Latin music markets in the world. Since the late 1990s, the US has had a rising population of "Latinos", a term popularized since the 1960s due to the wrong and confusing use of the term "Spanish" and the more proper but less popular term "Hispanic". A great part of the English-speaking media started to refer to any kind of music featuring Spanish vocals as "Latin music". Major record labels such as Universal Music Group, Sony Music, Warner Music have two divisions dedicated to the Latin market: one which focuses on Latin America and the Iberian Peninsula, the other for the Hispanic market in the United States.
Since 1990, Billboard has held the Latin Music Conference every year. The week-long conference features speakers including key personnel such as executives and producers from the Latin music industry and notable artists in the Latin music scene; the conference concludes with the annual Billboard Latin Music Awards. In 2000, the Latin Recording Academy inaugurated the Latin Grammy Awards to recognize musicians who perform in Spanish or Portuguese; the awards encompass music from Latin America, Spain and the United States. The Latin Songwriters Hall of Fame was established in 2012 to recognize songwriters from Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking regions around the world; the term "Latin music" originated from the US due to the growing influence of Hispanic and Latino Americans in the American music market, with notable pioneers including Xavier Cugat and Tito Puente and accelerating in decades. As one author explained the rising popularity from the 1940s: "Latin America, the one part of the world not engulfed in World War II, became a favorite topic for songs and films for Americans who wanted momentarily to forget about the conflagration."
Wartime propaganda for America's "Good Neighbor Policy" further enhanced the cultural impact. The Brazilian bossa nova became widespread in Latin America and became an international trend, led by Antônio Carlos Jobim. Rock en español became popular with the younger generation of Latinos in Latin America, notably including Argentine bands such as Almendra. Mexican-American Latin rock guitarist Carlos Santana began his decades of popularity. Salsa music became the dominant genre of tropical music in the 1970s. Fania Records was credited for popularizing salsa music, with acts such as Rubén Blades, Héctor Lavoe, Celia Cruz expanding the audience. In the late 1970s, an influx of balladeers from Spain such as Julio Iglesias, Camilo Sesto, Raphael established their presence on the music charts both in Latin America and the US Latin market. In 1972, OTI Festival was established by the Organización de Telecomunicaciones de Iberoamérica as a songwriting contest to connect the Ibero-American countries together.
Ramiro Burr of Billboard noted that the contest was considered to be the "largest and most prestigious songwriting festival in the Latin music world". In the 1980s, the Latin ballad continued to be the main form of Latin pop music, with Juan Gabriel, José José, Julio Iglesias, Roberto Carlos, José Luis Rodríguez dominating the charts. Salsa music lost some traction, its musical style changed to a slower rhythm with more emphasis on romantic lyrics; this became known as the salsa romantica era. Bolero music saw a resurgence of popularity with the younger audience. Mexican singer Luis Miguel was credited for the renewed interest due to the success of his album, Romance, a collection of classics covered by the artist. By the mid-1990s, Latin pop music was dominated by younger artists such as Menudo alumnus Ricky Martin, Colombian teen Shakira, Julio's son Enrique Iglesias. Around the same time, artists from Italy such as Eros Ramazzotti, Laura Pausini, Nek crossed over to the Latin music field by recording Spanish-language versions of their songs.
In the Regional Mexican field, Tejano became the most prominent genre. Selena helped push Tejano music into the mainstream market with her albums Entre a Mi Mundo and Amor Prohibido, although the genre's popularity declined following her death in 1995. In the tropical music field, which gained attention in the 1980s, rivaled salsa in popularity. In the mid-2000s, reggaeton became popular in the mainstream market, with Daddy Yankee, Don Omar, Wisin & Yandel considered to be the frontiers of the genre. In the tropical music scene, bachata music became popular in the field, with artists such as Monchy & Alexandra and Aventura finding success in the urban areas of Latin America. Banda was the dominant genre in the Regional Mexican music field. By the turn of the decade, the Latin music field became dominated by up-tempo rhythms, including electropop, urban and contemporary bachata music, as Latin ballads and crooners fell out of favor among U. S. Latin radio programmers. Streaming has become the dominant form of revenue in the Latin music industry in the United States, Latin America and Spain.
Latin trap gained mainstream attention in the mid-2010s with notable artists such as Ozuna, Bad Bunny, Anuel AA, Karol G, Bryant Myers, Arcangel and Noriel. Categ
The Frankokratia known as Latinokratia and, for the Venetian domains, Venetokratia or Enetokratia, was the period in Greek history after the Fourth Crusade, when a number of French and Italian Crusader states were established on the territory of the dissolved Byzantine Empire. The term derives from the name given by the Orthodox Greeks to the Western European Latin Church Catholics: "Latins". Most Latins had Norman, or Venetian origins; the span of the Frankokratia period differs by region: the political situation proved volatile, as the Frankish states fragmented and changed hands, the Greek successor states re-conquered many areas. With the exception of the Ionian Islands and some isolated forts which remained in Venetian hands until the turn of the 19th century, the final end of the Frankokratia in the Greek lands came with the Ottoman conquest, chiefly in the 14th to 16th centuries, which ushered in the period known as "Tourkokratia"; the Latin Empire, centered in Constantinople and encompassing Thrace and Bithynia, while exercising nominal suzerainty over the other Crusader states.
Its territories were reduced to little more than the capital, captured by the Empire of Nicaea in 1261. Duchy of Philippopolis, fief of the Latin Empire in northern Thrace, until its capture by the Bulgarians. Lemnos formed a fief of the Latin Empire under the Venetian Navigajoso family from 1207 until conquered by the Byzantines in 1278, its rulers bore the title of megadux of the Latin Empire. The Kingdom of Thessalonica, encompassing Thessaly; the brief existence of the Kingdom was continuously troubled by warfare with the Second Bulgarian Empire. The County of Salona, centred at Salona, like Bodonitsa, was formed as a vassal state of the Kingdom of Thessalonica, came under the influence of Achaea, it came under Catalan and Navarrese rule in the 14th century, before being sold to the Knights Hospitaller in 1403. It was conquered by the Ottomans in 1410; the Marquisate of Bodonitsa, like Salona, was created as a vassal state of the Kingdom of Thessalonica, but came under the influence of Achaea.
In 1335, the Venetian Giorgi family took control, ruled until the Ottoman conquest in 1414. The Principality of Achaea, encompassing the Peloponnese peninsula, it emerged as the strongest Crusader state, prospered after the demise of the Latin Empire. Its main rival was the Byzantine Despotate of the Morea, which succeeded in conquering the Principality, it exercised suzerainty over the Lordship of Argos and Nauplia. The Duchy of Athens, with its two capitals Thebes and Athens, encompassing Attica and parts of southern Thessaly. In 1311, the Duchy was conquered by the Catalan Company, in 1388, it passed into the hands of the Florentine Acciaiuoli family, which kept it until the Ottoman conquest in 1456; the Duchy of Naxos or of the Archipelago, founded by the Sanudo family, it encompassed most of the Cyclades. In 1383, it passed under the control of the Crispo family; the Duchy became an Ottoman vassal in 1537, was annexed to the Ottoman Empire in 1579. The Triarchy of Negroponte, encompassing the island of Negroponte a vassal of Thessalonica of Achaea.
It was fragmented into three baronies run each by two barons. This fragmentation enabled Venice to gain influence acting as mediators. By 1390 Venice had established direct control of the entire island, which remained in Venetian hands until 1470, when it was captured by the Ottomans; the County palatine of Cephalonia and Zakynthos. It encompassed the Ionian Islands of Cephalonia, Ithaca, from ca. 1300 Lefkas. Created as a vassal to the Kingdom of Sicily, it was ruled by the Orsini family from 1195 to 1335, after a short interlude of Anjou rule the county passed to the Tocco family in 1357; the county was split between Venice and the Ottomans in 1479. Rhodes became the headquarters of the military monastic order of the Knights Hospitaller of Saint John in 1310, the Knights retained control of the island until ousted by the Ottomans in 1522. Various Genoese domains in the northeastern Aegean: The fiefs of the Gattilusi family, under nominal Byzantine suzerainty, over the island of Lesbos and also the islands of Lemnos and Samothrace, as well as the Thracian town of Ainos.
The Lordship of Chios with the port of Phocaea. In 1304–1330 under the Zaccaria family, after a Byzantine interlude, from 1346 and until the Ottoman conquest in 1566 under the Maona di Chio e di Focea company; the Republic of Venice accumulated several possessions in Greece, which formed part of its Stato da Màr. Some of them survived until the end of the Republic itself in 1797: Crete known as Candia, one of the Republic's most important overseas possessions, despite frequent revolts by the Greek population, it was retained until captured by the Ottomans in the Cretan War. Corfu, was captured by Venice from its Genoese ruler shortly after the Fourth Crusade; the island was soon retaken by the Despota
New Latin was a revival in the use of Latin in original and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900. Modern scholarly and technical nomenclature, such as in zoological and botanical taxonomy and international scientific vocabulary, draws extensively from New Latin vocabulary. In such use, New Latin is viewed as still existing and subject to new word formation; as a language for full expression in prose or poetry, however, it is distinguished from its successor, Contemporary Latin. Classicists use the term "Neo-Latin" to describe the Latin that developed in Renaissance Italy as a result of renewed interest in classical civilization in the 14th and 15th centuries. Neo-Latin describes the use of the Latin language for any purpose, scientific or literary and after the Renaissance; the beginning of the period cannot be identified. The end of the New Latin period is indeterminate, but Latin as a regular vehicle of communicating ideas became rare after the first few decades of the 19th century, by 1900 it survived in international scientific vocabulary and taxonomy.
The term "New Latin" came into widespread use towards the end of the 1890s among linguists and scientists. New Latin was, at least in its early days, an international language used throughout Catholic and Protestant Europe, as well as in the colonies of the major European powers; this area consisted including Central Europe and Scandinavia. Russia's acquisition of Kiev in the 17th century introduced the study of Latin to Russia; the use of Latin in Orthodox eastern Europe did not reach high levels due to their strong cultural links to the cultural heritage of Ancient Greece and Byzantium, as well as Greek and Old Church Slavonic languages. Though Latin and New Latin are considered extinct, large parts of their vocabulary have seeped into English and several Germanic languages. In the case of English, about 60% of the lexicon can trace its origin to Latin, thus many English speakers can recognize New Latin terms with relative ease as cognates are quite common. New Latin was inaugurated by the triumph of the humanist reform of Latin education, led by such writers as Erasmus and Colet.
Medieval Latin had been the practical working language of the Roman Catholic Church, taught throughout Europe to aspiring clerics and refined in the medieval universities. It was a flexible language, full of neologisms and composed without reference to the grammar or style of classical authors; the humanist reformers sought both to purify Latin grammar and style, to make Latin applicable to concerns beyond the ecclesiastical, creating a body of Latin literature outside the bounds of the Church. Attempts at reforming Latin use occurred sporadically throughout the period, becoming most successful in the mid-to-late 19th century; the Protestant Reformation, though it removed Latin from the liturgies of the churches of Northern Europe, may have advanced the cause of the new secular Latin. The period during and after the Reformation, coinciding with the growth of printed literature, saw the growth of an immense body of New Latin literature, on all kinds of secular as well as religious subjects; the heyday of New Latin was its first two centuries, when in the continuation of the Medieval Latin tradition, it served as the lingua franca of science, to some degree diplomacy in Europe.
Classic works such as Newton's Principia Mathematica were written in the language. Throughout this period, Latin was a universal school subject, indeed, the pre-eminent subject for elementary education in most of Europe and other places of the world that shared its culture. All universities required Latin proficiency to obtain admittance as a student. Latin was an official language of Poland—recognised and used between the 9th and 18th centuries used in foreign relations and popular as a second language among some of the nobility. Through most of the 17th century, Latin was supreme as an international language of diplomatic correspondence, used in negotiations between nations and the writing of treaties, e.g. the peace treaties of Osnabrück and Münster. As an auxiliary language to the local vernaculars, New Latin appeared in a wide variety of documents, legal, diplomatic and scientific. While a text written in English, French, or Spanish at this time might be understood by a significant cross section of the learned, only a Latin text could be certain of finding someone to interpret it anywhere between Lisbon and Helsinki.
As late as the 1720s, Latin was still used conversationally, was serviceable as an international auxiliary language between people of different countries who had no other language in common. For instance, the Hanoverian king George I of Great Britain, who had no command of spoken English, communicated in Latin with his Prime Minister Robert Walpole, who knew neither German nor French. By about 1700, the growing movement for the use of national languages had reached academia, an example of the transition is Newton's writing career, which began in New Latin and ended in Eng
Portuguese people are a Romance ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese. Their predominant religion is Christianity Roman Catholicism, though vast segments of the population the younger generations, have no religious affiliation; the Portuguese people's heritage includes the pre-Celts and Celts. A number of Portuguese descend from converted Jewish and North Africans as a result of the Moorish occupation of the Iberian Peninsula; the Romans, Scandinavians, migratory Germanic tribes like the Suebi, Vandals and Buri who settled in what is today's Portugal The Roman Republic conquered the Iberian Peninsula during the 2nd and 1st centuries B. C. from the extensive maritime empire of Carthage during the series of Punic Wars. As a result of Roman colonization, the majority of local languages stem from the Vulgar Latin. Due to the large historical extent from the 16th century of the Portuguese Empire and the subsequent colonization of territories in Asia and the Americas, as well as historical and recent emigration, Portuguese communities can be found in many diverse regions around the globe, a large Portuguese diaspora exists.
Portuguese people began and led the Age of Exploration which started in 1415 with the conquest of Ceuta and culminated in an empire with territories that are now part of over 50 countries. The Portuguese Empire lasted nearly 600 years, seeing its end when Macau was returned to China in 1999; the discovery of several lands unknown to the Europeans in the Americas, Africa and Oceania, helped pave the way for modern globalization and domination of Western civilization. The Portuguese are a Southwestern European population, with origins predominantly from Southern and Western Europe; the earliest modern humans inhabiting Portugal are believed to have been Paleolithic peoples that may have arrived in the Iberian Peninsula as early as 35,000 to 40,000 years ago. Current interpretation of Y-chromosome and mtDNA data suggests that modern-day Portuguese trace a significant amount of these lineages to the paleolithic peoples who began settling the European continent between the end of the last glaciation around 45,000 years ago.
Northern Iberia is believed to have been a major Ice-age refuge from which Paleolithic humans colonized Europe. Migrations from what is now Northern Iberia during the Paleolithic and Mesolithic, links modern Iberians to the populations of much of Western Europe and the British Isles and Atlantic Europe. Recent books published by geneticists Bryan Sykes, Stephen Oppenheimer and Spencer Wells have emphasized the large Paleolithic and Mesolithic Iberian influence in the modern day Irish and Scottish gene-pool as well as parts of the English. Indeed, Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b is the most common haplogroup in all of the Iberian peninsula and western Europe. Within the R1b haplogroup there are modal haplotypes. One of the best-characterized of these haplotypes is the Atlantic Modal Haplotype; this haplotype reaches the highest frequencies in the British Isles. In Portugal it reckons 65% in the South summing 87% northwards, in some regions 96%; the Neolithic colonization of Europe from Western Asia and the Middle East beginning around 10,000 years ago reached Iberia, as most of the rest of the continent although, according to the demic diffusion model, its impact was most in the southern and eastern regions of the European continent.
Starting in the 3rd millennium BC as well as in the Bronze Age, the first wave of migrations into Iberia of speakers of Indo-European languages occurred. These were followed by others that can be identified as Celts. Urban cultures developed in southeastern Iberia, such as Tartessos, influenced by the Phoenician colonization of coastal Mediterranean Iberia, which shifted to Greek colonization. There is little or no evidence of settlements in Portugal by either Greeks or Phoenicians despite some statements to the contrary; these two processes defined Iberia's, Portugal's, cultural landscape—Continental in the northwest and Mediterranean towards the southeast, as historian José Mattoso describes it. Given the origins from Paleolithic and Neolithic settlers as well as Indo-European migrations, one can say that the Portuguese ethnic origin is a mixture of pre-Roman, pre-Indo-Europeans, pre-Celtics or para-Celts such as the Lusitanians of Lusitania, Celtic peoples such as Calaicians or Gallaeci of Gallaecia, the Celtici and the Cynetes of the Alentejo and the Algarve.
The Romans were an important influence on Portuguese culture. Other minor influences included the Phoenicians/Carthaginians, the Vandals and the Sarmatian Alans, the Visigoths and Suebi; the ruled from 711 until the Reconquista of the Algarve in 1249. In the 9th and 10th centuries small Viking settlements were established in the North coastal regions of Douro and Minho. For the Y-chromosome and MtDNA lineages of the Portuguese and other peoples see this map and this one. Portuguese have maintained a certain degree of ethnic and cultural specific characteristics-ratio with the Basques, since ancient times; the results of the present HLA stu
Latin (Holy Fuck album)
Latin is the third album from improvisational electronic band Holy Fuck. It was placed on the Long List for the 2010 Polaris Music Prize. In the United States, the album reached #14 on the Billboard Dance charts and #40 on the Heatseekers chart. "1MD" - 4:09 "Red Lights" - 3:49 "Latin America" - 4:49 "Stay Lit" - 3:20 "Silva & Grimes" - 5:14 "SHT MTN" - 2:52 "Stilettos" - 3:56 "Lucky" - 4:11 "P. I. G. S." - 6:03iTunes bonus tracks "Jungles - 3:40 "Grease Fire" - 4:43 Brian Borcherdt - Keyboards, composer Graham Walsh - Keyboards effects, recording engineer Matt "Punchy" McQuaid - Bass, composer Matt Schulz - Drums, composer Shaun Brodie - Trumpet Eli Janney - Mixing Dave Newfeld - Mixing D. Sardy - Mixing Ryan Jenning - Mixing engineer Paul Epworth - Mixing Mandy Parnell - Mastering Bjorn Copeland - Artwork Mikael Gregorsky - Photography James Mejia - Art, design
Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of late antiquity. English dictionary definitions of Late Latin date this period from the 3rd to the 6th centuries AD, continuing into the 7th century in the Iberian Peninsula; this somewhat ambiguously defined version of Latin was used between the eras of Classical Latin and Medieval Latin. There is no scholarly consensus about when Classical Latin should end or Medieval Latin should begin. However, Late Latin is characterized by an identifiable style. Being a written language, Late Latin is not the same as Vulgar Latin; the latter served as ancestor of the Romance languages. Although Late Latin reflects an upsurge of the use of Vulgar Latin vocabulary and constructs, it remains classical in its overall features, depending on the author who uses it; some Late Latin writings are more literary and classical, but others are more inclined to the vernacular. Late Latin is not identical to Christian patristic Latin, used in the theological writings of the early Christian fathers.
While Christian writings used a subset of Late Latin, pagans wrote extensively in Late Latin in the early part of the period. Late Latin formed when mercenaries from non-Latin-speaking peoples on the borders of the empire were being subsumed and assimilated in large numbers, the rise of Christianity was introducing a heightened divisiveness in Roman society, creating a greater need for a standard language for communicating between different socioeconomic registers and separated regions of the sprawling empire. A new and more universal speech evolved from the main elements: Classical Latin, Christian Latin, which featured sermo humilis in which the people were to be addressed, all the various dialects of Vulgar Latin; the linguist Antoine Meillet wrote, "Without the exterior appearance of the language being much modified, Latin became in the course of the imperial epoch a new language", and, "Serving as some sort of lingua franca to a large empire, Latin tended to become simpler, to keep above all what it had of the ordinary".
Neither Late Latin nor Late Antiquity are modern concepts. A notice in Harper's New Monthly Magazine of the publication of Andrews' Freund's Lexicon of the Latin Language in 1850 mentions that the dictionary divides Latin into ante-classic, quite classic, Augustan, post-Augustan and post-classic or late Latin, which indicates the term was in professional use by English classicists in the early 19th century. Instances of English vernacular use of the term may be found from the 18th century; the term Late Antiquity meaning post-classical and pre-medieval had currency in English well before then. Wilhelm Sigismund Teuffel's first edition of History of Roman Literature defined an early period, the Golden Age, the Silver Age and goes on to define other ages first by dynasty and by century. In subsequent editions he subsumed all periods under three headings: the First Period, the Second Period and the Third Period, "the Imperial Age", subdivided into the Silver Age, the 2nd century, Centuries 3–6 together, a recognition of Late Latin, as he sometimes refers to the writings of those times as "late."
Imperial Latin went on into English literature. There are, insoluble problems with the beginning and end of Imperial Latin. Politically the excluded Augustan Period is the paradigm of imperiality, yet the style cannot be bundled with either the Silver Age or with Late Latin. Moreover, in 6th century Italy, the Roman Empire no longer existed. Subsequently the term Imperial Latin was dropped by historians of Latin literature, although it may be seen in marginal works; the Silver Age was extended the final four centuries represent Late Latin. Low Latin is a vague and pejorative term that might refer to any post-classical Latin from Late Latin through Renaissance Latin depending on the author, its origins are obscure but the Latin expression media et infima Latinitas sprang into public notice in 1678 in the title of a Glossary by Charles du Fresne, sieur du Cange. The multi-volume set had many expansions by other authors subsequently; the title varies somewhat. It has been translated by expressions of different meanings.
The uncertainty is understanding what media, "middle", infima, "low", mean in this context. The media is securely connected to Medieval Latin by Cange's own terminology expounded in the Praefatio, such as scriptores mediae aetatis, "writers of the middle age." Cange's Glossary takes words from authors ranging from the Christian period to the Renaissance, dipping into the classical period if a word originated there. Either media et infima Latinitas refers to one age, which must be the middle age covering the entire post-classical range, or it refers to two consecutive periods, infima Latinitas and media Latinitas. Both interpretations have their adherents. In the former case the infimae appears extraneous; the two-period case postulates a second unity of style, infima Latinitas, translated into English as "Low Latin". Cange in the glossarial part of his Glossary identifies some words as being used by purioris Latinitatis scriptores, such as Cicero, he has said in the Preface that he rejects the a
Latin or Roman script, is a set of graphic signs based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet. This is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet used by the Etruscans. Several Latin-script alphabets exist, which differ in graphemes and phonetic values from the classical Latin alphabet; the Latin script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Latin script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system and is the most adopted writing system in the world. Latin script is used as the standard method of writing in most Western, Central, as well as in some Eastern European languages, as well as in many languages in other parts of the world; the script is either called Roman script or Latin script, in reference to its origin in ancient Rome. In the context of transliteration, the term "romanization" or "romanisation" is found. Unicode uses the term "Latin".
The numeral system is called the Roman numeral system. The numbers 1, 2, 3... are Latin/Roman script numbers for the Hindu–Arabic numeral system. The letter ⟨C⟩ was the western form of the Greek gamma, but it was used for the sounds /ɡ/ and /k/ alike under the influence of Etruscan, which might have lacked any voiced plosives. During the 3rd century BC, the letter ⟨Z⟩ – unneeded to write Latin properly – was replaced with the new letter ⟨G⟩, a ⟨C⟩ modified with a small vertical stroke, which took its place in the alphabet. From on, ⟨G⟩ represented the voiced plosive /ɡ/, while ⟨C⟩ was reserved for the voiceless plosive /k/; the letter ⟨K⟩ was used only in a small number of words such as Kalendae interchangeably with ⟨C⟩. After the Roman conquest of Greece in the 1st century BC, Latin adopted the Greek letters ⟨Y⟩ and ⟨Z⟩ to write Greek loanwords, placing them at the end of the alphabet. An attempt by the emperor Claudius to introduce three additional letters, thus it was during the classical Latin period that the Latin alphabet contained 23 letters: The use of the letters I and V for both consonants and vowels proved inconvenient as the Latin alphabet was adapted to Germanic and Romance languages.
W originated as a doubled V used to represent the sound found in Old English as early as the 7th century. It came into common use in the 11th century, replacing the runic Wynn letter, used for the same sound. In the Romance languages, the minuscule form of V was a rounded u. In the case of I, a word-final swash form, j, came to be used for the consonant, with the un-swashed form restricted to vowel use; such conventions were erratic for centuries. J was introduced into English for the consonant in the 17th century, but it was not universally considered a distinct letter in the alphabetic order until the 19th century. By the 1960s, it became apparent to the computer and telecommunications industries in the First World that a non-proprietary method of encoding characters was needed; the International Organization for Standardization encapsulated the Latin alphabet in their standard. To achieve widespread acceptance, this encapsulation was based on popular usage; as the United States held a preeminent position in both industries during the 1960s, the standard was based on the published American Standard Code for Information Interchange, better known as ASCII, which included in the character set the 26 × 2 letters of the English alphabet.
Standards issued by the ISO, for example ISO/IEC 10646, have continued to define the 26 × 2 letters of the English alphabet as the basic Latin alphabet with extensions to handle other letters in other languages. The Latin alphabet spread, along with Latin, from the Italian Peninsula to the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea with the expansion of the Roman Empire; the eastern half of the Empire, including Greece, the Levant, Egypt, continued to use Greek as a lingua franca, but Latin was spoken in the western half, as the western Romance languages evolved out of Latin, they continued to use and adapt the Latin alphabet. With the spread of Western Christianity during the Middle Ages, the Latin alphabet was adopted by the peoples of Northern Europe who spoke Celtic languages or Germanic languages or Baltic languages, as well as by the speakers of several Uralic languages, most notably Hungarian and Estonian; the Latin script came into use for writing the West Slavic languages and several South Slavic languages, as the people who spoke them adopted Roman Catholicism.
The speakers of East Slavic languages adopted Cyrillic along with Orthodox Christianity. The Serbian language uses both scripts, with Cyrillic predominating in official communication and Latin elsewhere, as determined by the Law on Official Use of the Language and Alphabet; as late as 1500, the Latin script was limited to the languages spoken in Western and Central Europe. The Orthodox Christian Slavs of Eastern and Southeastern Europe used Cyrillic, the Greek alphabet was in use by Greek-speakers around the eastern Mediterranean; the Arabic script was widespread within Islam, both among Arabs and non-Arab nations like the Iranians, Indonesians, M