The Miljacka is a river in Bosnia and Herzegovina that passes through Sarajevo. The Miljacka river originates from the confluence of the Paljanska Miljacka and Mokranjska Miljacka rivers; the Miljacka is a rather small river, only 21 kilometres long from the confluence, or 34 kilometres and 42 kilometres depending on source, with an average discharge of 5.7 m³/s into the Bosna river in Sarajevo. The Miljacka river flows from east to west general direction; the Paljanska Miljacka, 13 kilometres in length, begins Gornje Pale, 10 kilometres eastward in the town of Pale, under the slopes of Jahorina, near Begovina), at the elevation of 1,025 metres. The Mokranjska Miljacka, 21 kilometres in length, springs from a large cave, yet to be explored, near the village of Kadino Selo at an elevation of 1,135 metres near the base of Romanija mountain; the cave at the spring of Mokranjska Miljacka, located about 7 kilometres from the village of Mokro, near Pale, is the longest cave in Bosnia and Herzegovina, with length of mapped caverns so far at 7.2 kilometres, as of August 2015.
The Miljacka runs out of the cave as an underground flow, a subterranean river, where its temperature is measured as low as 5 degrees and temperature of air as low as 8 degrees Celsius. The exact location of the cave is not yet mapped out for the public, but local authorities have released a map which can be used to find its location as well as a gallery of discoveries within the cave. New species of spiders, named Nemanela Lade, along with at least five more species of spider, as well as certain species of bats, have been found there. A skeleton head of a cave bear has been found at the location. Paleontological finds, traces of human habitation and stalagmites, as well as pisolite rocks, the river Miljacka wellspring, all makes this cave among most valuable speleological objects in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Researchers believe to have discovered bubbles of a possible sign of tectonic activity; because of its poor discharge, the Miljacka is known for brown waters. Miljacka river cascades, which regulate the waterbed and enrich the water with oxygen, trap plastic scraps, stranded balls, car tires, various other waste.
The main collector that drains fecal matter is parallel to the flow of the river up to its mouth at the river Bosna. The sewer system is not connected to the main collector, causing leakage of fecal matter directly into the waters of the Miljacka in several places. During the Bosnian War, water treatment was stopped and plant equipment was looted, preventing the local government from dealing with the issue. Estimations of the cost to repair the wastewater plant range from 50 to 60 million euros. In April 2015, a project called; the aim of the project is to bring the river status to category A, which would make the water clean enough for swimming. In August 2015, Sarajevo Grad signed a contract with ER Project d.o.o. company to clean up 48 river cascades from Šeher-Ćehaja bridge to Dolac Malta suburb bridge. There are over a dozen bridges over the river Miljacka; some of the better known ones are: Goat's Bridge Šeher-Ćehaja Bridge Careva ćuprija Latin Bridge. Famous assassination carried out by Princip, which lead to World War I, took place at the entrance on this bridge.
Gavrilo's co-conspirator Nedeljko Čabrinović, another member of the Bosnia-Herzegovinian Mlada Bosna movement, just seconds after throwing a grenade toward the archduke's car jumped into the river Miljacka from the bridge, in attempt to hide underneath and thus buying enough time so that he can take and swallow a cyanide powder wrapped into piece of paper. But this plan failed him as poison got so wet from the fall into the shallow the Miljacka that it not only dissolved but lost its effectiveness, he was dragged out alive and arrested. Ćumurija Bridge Drvenija Bridge Čobanija Bridge Festina lente bridge Skenderija Bridge Suada and Olga bridge Bosmal Bridge, a.k.a. "Malezijski most" and "Bosmalov most". and number of unnamed modern bridges. Karl Baedeker. Austria-Hungary, Including Dalmatia and Bosnia. Original from the University of Michigan: K. Baedeker. P. 431
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina, known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe, located within the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is largest city. Bosnia and Herzegovina is an landlocked country – it has a narrow coast at the Adriatic Sea, about 20 kilometres long surrounding the town of Neum, it is bordered by Croatia to the north and south. In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, the northeast is predominantly flatland; the inland, Bosnia, is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip, has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography. Bosnia and Herzegovina traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally and the country has a rich history, having been first settled by the Slavic peoples that populate the area today from the 6th through to the 9th centuries.
In the 12th century the Banate of Bosnia was established, which evolved into the Kingdom of Bosnia in the 14th century, after which it was annexed into the Ottoman Empire, under whose rule it remained from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The Ottomans brought Islam to the region, altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country; this was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I. In the interwar period and Herzegovina was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and after World War II, it was granted full republic status in the newly formed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic proclaimed independence in 1992, followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995. Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina has grown at double digit rates in recent years. Bosnia and Herzegovina is regionally and internationally renowned for its natural environment and cultural heritage inherited from six historical civilizations, its cuisine, winter sports, its eclectic and unique music and its festivals, some of which are the largest and most prominent of their kind in Southeastern Europe.
The country is home to three main ethnic groups or constituent peoples, as specified in the constitution. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second, Croats third. A native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is identified in English as a Bosnian. Minorities, defined under the constitutional nomenclature "Others", include Jews, Poles and Turks. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. However, the central government's power is limited, as the country is decentralized and comprises two autonomous entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, with a third unit, the Brčko District, governed under local government; the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 10 cantons. Bosnia and Herzegovina ranks in terms of human development, has an economy dominated by the industry and agriculture sectors, followed by the tourism and service sectors; the country has a social security and universal healthcare system, primary- and secondary-level education is tuition-free.
It is a member of the UN, OSCE, Council of Europe, PfP, CEFTA, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean upon its establishment in July 2008. The country is a potential candidate for membership to the European Union and has been a candidate for NATO membership since April 2010, when it received a Membership Action Plan; the first preserved acknowledged mention of Bosnia is in De Administrando Imperio, a politico-geographical handbook written by the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII in the mid-10th century describing the "small land" of "Bosona". The name is believed to have derived from the hydronym of the river Bosna coursing through the Bosnian heartland. According to philologist Anton Mayer the name Bosna could derive from Illyrian *"Bass-an-as"), which would derive from the Proto-Indo-European root "bos" or "bogh"—meaning "the running water". According to English medievalist William Miller the Slavic settlers in Bosnia "adapted the Latin designation Basante, to their own idiom by calling the stream Bosna and themselves Bosniaks ".
The name Herzegovina originates from Bosnian magnate Stjepan Vukčić Kosača's title, "Herceg of Hum and the Coast". Hum Zahumlje, was an early medieval principality, conquered by the Bosnian Banate in the first half of the 14th century; the region was administered by the Ottomans as the Sanjak of Herzegovina within the Eyalet of Bosnia up until the formation of the short-lived Herzegovina Eyalet in the 1830s, which remerged in the 1850s, after which the entity became known as Bosnia and Herzegovina. On initial proclamation of independence in 1992, the country's official name was the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina but following the 1995 Dayton Agreement and the new constitution that accompanied it the official name was changed to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia has been inhabited by humans since at least the Neolithic age; the earliest Neolithic population became known in the Antiquity as the Illyrians. Celtic migrations in the 4th century BC were notable. Concrete historical e
The Skenderija Bridge is a footbridge located in Sarajevo and Herzegovina opposite the Skenderija Centre which crosses the River Miljacka. It was designed by Gustave Eiffel; the bridge is home to a small number of love locks, a phenomenon practiced by lovers on various European and Australian bridges
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, occurred on 28 June 1914 in Sarajevo when they were mortally wounded by Gavrilo Princip. Princip was one of a group of six assassins coordinated by Danilo Ilić, a Bosnian Serb and a member of the Black Hand secret society; the political objective of the assassination was to break off Austria-Hungary's South Slav provinces so they could be combined into a Yugoslavia. The assassins' motives were consistent with the movement that became known as Young Bosnia; the assassination led directly to World War I when Austria-Hungary subsequently issued an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia, rejected. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, triggering actions leading to war between most European states. In charge of these Serbian military conspirators was Chief of Serbian Military Intelligence Dragutin Dimitrijević, his right-hand man Major Vojislav Tankosić, the spy Rade Malobabić.
Tankosić trained them. The assassins were given access to the same clandestine network of safe-houses and agents that Malobabić used for the infiltration of weapons and operatives into Austria-Hungary; the assassins, the key members of the clandestine network, the key Serbian military conspirators who were still alive were arrested, tried and punished. Those who were arrested in Bosnia were tried in Sarajevo in October 1914; the other conspirators were arrested and tried before a Serbian court on the French-controlled Salonika Front in 1916–1917 on unrelated false charges. Much of what is known about the assassinations comes from related records. Under the 1878 Treaty of Berlin, Austria-Hungary received the mandate to occupy and administer the Ottoman Vilayet of Bosnia, while the Ottoman Empire retained official sovereignty. Under this same treaty, the Great Powers gave official recognition to the Principality of Serbia as a sovereign state, which four years transformed into a kingdom under Prince Milan IV Obrenović who thus became King Milan I of Serbia.
Serbia's monarchs, at the time from the royal House of Obrenović that maintained close relations with Austria-Hungary, were content to reign within the borders set by the treaty. This changed in May 1903, when Serbian military officers led by Dragutin Dimitrijević stormed the Serbian Royal Palace. After a fierce battle in the dark, the attackers captured General Laza Petrović, head of the Palace Guard, forced him to reveal the hiding place of King Alexander I Obrenović and his wife Queen Draga; the King and Queen opened the door from their hiding place. The King was shot thirty times. MacKenzie writes that "the royal corpses were stripped and brutally sabred." The attackers threw the corpses of King Alexander and Queen Draga out of a palace window, ending any threat that loyalists would mount a counterattack." General Petrović was killed too. The conspirators installed Peter I of the House of Karađorđević as the new king; the new dynasty was friendlier to Russia and less friendly to Austria-Hungary.
Over the next decade, disputes between Serbia and its neighbors erupted, as Serbia moved to build its power and reclaim its 14th century empire. These conflicts included a customs dispute with Austria-Hungary beginning in 1906. Serbia's military successes and Serbian outrage over the Austro-Hungarian annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina emboldened Serbian nationalists in Serbia and Serbs in Austria-Hungary who chafed under Austro-Hungarian rule and whose nationalist sentiments were stirred by Serb "cultural" organizations. In the five years leading up to 1914, lone assassins – Serb citizens of Austria-Hungary – made a series of unsuccessful assassination attempts in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina against Austro-Hungarian officials; the assassins received sporadic support from Serbia. On 15 June 1910, Bogdan Žerajić attempted to kill the iron-fisted Governor of Bosnia and Herzegovina, General Marijan Varešanin. Žerajić was a 22-year-old Orthodox Serb from Nevesinje, a student at the Faculty of Law at the University of Zagreb and made frequent trips to Belgrade..
The five bullets Žerajić fired at Varešanin and the fatal bullet he put in his own brain made Žerajić an inspiration to future assassins, including Princip and Princip's accomplice Čabrinović. Princip said; when I was seventeen I passed whole nights at his grave, reflecting on our wretched condition and thinking of him. It is there that I made up my mind sooner or to perpetrate an outrage."In 1913, Emperor Franz Joseph commanded Archduke Franz Ferdinand to observe the military maneuvers in Bosnia scheduled for June 1914. Following the maneuvers and his wife planned to visit Sarajevo to open the state museum in its new premises there. Duchess Sophie, according to their eldest son, Duke Maximili
The Čobanija Bridge is an iron bridge, located in Sarajevo and Herzegovina, which crosses the River Miljacka. It was erected in 1887; the bridge stands on a site occupied by a wooden bridge, known as the Šejhanija bridge, built in the 16th century
The Drvenija Bridge is a bridge located in Sarajevo and Herzegovina. The bridge was built during the Austro-Hungarian reign in 1898 and crosses the River Miljacka
A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below. In other words, a column is a compression member; the term column applies to a large round support with a capital and a base or pedestal, made of stone, or appearing to be so. A small wooden or metal support is called a post, supports with a rectangular or other non-round section are called piers. For the purpose of wind or earthquake engineering, columns may be designed to resist lateral forces. Other compression members are termed "columns" because of the similar stress conditions. Columns are used to support beams or arches on which the upper parts of walls or ceilings rest. In architecture, "column" refers to such a structural element that has certain proportional and decorative features. A column might be a decorative element not needed for structural purposes. All significant Iron Age civilizations of the Near East and Mediterranean made some use of columns.
In Ancient Egyptian architecture as early as 2600 BC the architect Imhotep made use of stone columns whose surface was carved to reflect the organic form of bundled reeds, like papyrus and palm. Their form is thought to derive from archaic reed-built shrines. Carved from stone, the columns were decorated with carved and painted hieroglyphs, ritual imagery and natural motifs. Egyptian columns are famously present in the Great Hypostyle Hall of Karnak, where 134 columns are lined up in 16 rows, with some columns reaching heights of 24 metres. One of the most important type are the papyriform columns; the origin of these columns goes back to the 5th Dynasty. They are composed of lotus stems which are drawn together into a bundle decorated with bands: the capital, instead of opening out into the shape of a bellflower, swells out and narrows again like a flower in bud; the base, which tapers to take the shape of a half-sphere like the stem of the lotus, has a continuously recurring decoration of stipules.
Some of the most elaborate columns in the ancient world were those of the Persians the massive stone columns erected in Persepolis. They included double-bull structures in their capitals; the Hall of Hundred Columns at Persepolis, measuring 70 × 70 metres, was built by the Achaemenid king Darius I. Many of the ancient Persian columns are standing, some being more than 30 metres tall. Tall columns with bull's head capitals were used for porticoes and to support the roofs of the hypostylehall inspired by the ancient Egyptian precedent. Since the columns carried timber beams rather than stine, they could be taller and more widerly spaced than Egyptian ones; the Minoans used whole tree-trunks turned upside down in order to prevent re-growth, stood on a base set in the stylobate and topped by a simple round capital. These were painted as in the most famous Minoan palace of Knossos; the Minoans employed columns to create large open-plan spaces, light-wells and as a focal point for religious rituals.
These traditions were continued by the Mycenaean civilization in the megaron or hall at the heart of their palaces. The importance of columns and their reference to palaces and therefore authority is evidenced in their use in heraldic motifs such as the famous lion-gate of Mycenae where two lions stand each side of a column. Being made of wood these early columns have not survived, but their stone bases have and through these we may see their use and arrangement in these palace buildings; the Egyptians and other civilizations used columns for the practical purpose of holding up the roof inside a building, preferring outside walls to be decorated with reliefs or painting, but the Ancient Greeks, followed by the Romans, loved to use them on the outside as well, the extensive use of columns on the interior and exterior of buildings is one of the most characteristic features of classical architecture, in buildings like the Parthenon. The Greeks developed the classical orders of architecture, which are most distinguished by the form of the column and its various elements.
Their Doric and Corinthian orders were expanded by the Romans to include the Tuscan and Composite orders. Columns, or at least large structural exterior ones, became much less significant in the architecture of the Middle Ages; the classical forms were abandoned in both Byzantine architecture and the Romanesque and Gothic architecture of Europe in favour of more flexible forms, with capitals using various types of foliage decoration, in the West scenes with figures carved in relief. Furing the Romanesque period, builders continued to reuse and imitate ancient Roman columns wherever possible. Where new, the emphasis was as illustrated by twisted columns, they were decorated with mosaics. Renaissance architecture was keen to revive the classical vocabulary and styles, the informed use and variation of the classical orders remained fundamental to the training of architects throughout Baroque and Neo-classical architecture. Early columns were constructed of some out of a single piece of stone. Monolithic columns are among the heaviest stones used in architecture.
Other stone columns are created out of multiple sections of mortared or dry-fit together. In many classical sites, sectioned columns were carved with a centre hole or depression so that they could be pegged together, using stone or metal pins; the design of