John Baptist Nosardy Zino
John Baptist Nosardy Zino was a 19th-century Roman Catholic priest. He was appointed the Vicar Apostolic of Gibraltar by Pope Pius VII on 25 January 1816. After holding the post for twenty-three years, he resigned the position in 1839
Carmelo Zammit is a Maltese Roman Catholic prelate, Bishop of Gibraltar. Bishop Zammit was born in Gudja, Malta, in 1949 and was ordained a priest in 1974, he holds a bachelor's degree in philosophy and economics, a licentiate in theology from the University of Malta, a licentiate in canon law from the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome. Before his appointment, he served in a number of pastoral roles in Gibraltar, including judicial vicar, episcopal delegate for Catholic education, school chaplain and parish priest. Upon returning to Malta in 1998, he became chancellor of the archdiocese and judge in the ecclesiastical tribunal, he served as Canon of the Metropolitan Chapter, as President of the St. John's Co-Cathedral Foundation, Judicial Vicar in the Archdiocese of Malta, he was consecrated bishop on 8 September 2016 by Vincent Cardinal Nichols in St. Paul's Cathedral, Mdina. Archbishop Charles Scicluna of Malta and Bishop Ralph Heskett of Gibraltar acted as co-consecrators
British Overseas Territories
The British Overseas Territories or United Kingdom Overseas Territories are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom. They are remnants of the British Empire that have not been granted independence or have voted to remain British territories; these territories do not form part of the United Kingdom and, with the exception of Gibraltar, are not part of the European Union. Most of the permanently inhabited territories are internally self-governing, with the UK retaining responsibility for defence and foreign relations. Three are inhabited only by a transitory population of scientific personnel, they all share the British monarch as head of state. As of April 2018 the Minister responsible for the Territories excluding the Falkland Islands and the Sovereign Base Areas on Cyprus, is the Minister of State for the Commonwealth and the UN; the other three territories are the responsibility of the Minister of State for Europe and the Americas. The fourteen British Overseas Territories are: The term "British Overseas Territory" was introduced by the British Overseas Territories Act 2002, replacing the term British Dependent Territory, introduced by the British Nationality Act 1981.
Prior to 1 January 1983, the territories were referred to as British Crown Colonies. Although the Crown dependencies of Jersey and the Isle of Man are under the sovereignty of the British monarch, they are in a different constitutional relationship with the United Kingdom; the British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are themselves distinct from the Commonwealth realms, a group of 16 independent countries each having Elizabeth II as their reigning monarch, from the Commonwealth of Nations, a voluntary association of 53 countries with historic links to the British Empire. With the exceptions of the British Antarctic Territory and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands and the British Indian Ocean Territory, the Territories retain permanent civilian populations. Permanent residency for the 7,000 civilians living in the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia is limited to citizens of the Republic of Cyprus. Collectively, the Territories encompass a population of about 250,000 people and a land area of about 1,727,570 square kilometres.
The vast majority of this land area, 1,700,000 square kilometres, constitutes the uninhabited British Antarctic Territory, while the largest territory by population, accounts for a quarter of the total BOT population. At the other end of the scale, three territories have no civilian population. Pitcairn Islands, settled by the survivors of the Mutiny on the Bounty, is the smallest settled territory with 49 inhabitants, while the smallest by land area is Gibraltar on the southern tip of the Iberian peninsula; the United Kingdom participates in the Antarctic Treaty System and, as part of a mutual agreement, the British Antarctic Territory is recognised by four of the six other sovereign nations making claims to Antarctic territory. Early colonies, in the sense of English subjects residing in lands hitherto outside the control of the English government, were known as "Plantations"; the first, colony was Newfoundland, where English fishermen set up seasonal camps in the 16th century. It is now a province of Canada known as Labrador.
It retains strong cultural ties with Britain. English colonisation of North America began in 1607 with the settlement of Jamestown, the first successful permanent colony in Virginia, its offshoot, was settled inadvertently after the wrecking of the Virginia company's flagship there in 1609, with the Virginia Company's charter extended to include the archipelago in 1612. St. George's town, founded in Bermuda in that year, remains the oldest continuously inhabited British settlement in the New World. Bermuda and Bermudians have played important, sometimes pivotal, but underestimated or unacknowledged roles in the shaping of the English and British trans-Atlantic Empires; these include maritime commerce, settlement of the continent and of the West Indies, the projection of naval power via the colony's privateers, among other areas. The growth of the British Empire in the 19th century, to its territorial peak in the 1920s, saw Britain acquire nearly one quarter of the world's land mass, including territories with large indigenous populations in Asia and Africa.
From the mid-nineteenth century to the early twentieth century, the larger settler colonies – in Canada, New Zealand and South Africa – first became self-governing colonies and achieved independence in all matters except foreign policy and trade. Separate self-governing colonies federated to become Canada, South Africa, Rhodesia; these and other large self-governing colonies had become known as Dominions by the 1920s. The Dominions achieved full independence with the Statute of Westminster. Through a process of decolonisation following the Second World War, most of the British colonies in Africa and the Caribbean gained independence; some colonies becam
An episcopal conference, sometimes called a conference of bishops, is an official assembly of the bishops of the Catholic Church in a given territory. Episcopal conferences have long existed as informal entities; the first assembly of bishops to meet with its own legal structure and ecclesial leadership function, is the Swiss Bishops' Conference, founded in 1863. More than forty episcopal conferences existed before the Second Vatican Council, their status was confirmed by the Second Vatican Council and further defined by Pope Paul VI's 1966 motu proprio, Ecclesiae sanctae. Episcopal conferences are defined by geographic borders national ones, with all the bishops in a given country belonging to the same conference, although they may include neighboring countries. Certain authority and tasks are assigned to episcopal conferences with regard to setting the liturgical norms for the Mass. Episcopal conferences receive their authority under particular mandates. In certain circumstances, as defined by canon law, the decisions of an episcopal conference are subject to ratification from the Holy See.
Individual bishops do not relinquish their immediate authority for the governance of their respective dioceses to the conference. The operation and responsibilities of episcopal conferences are governed by the 1983 Code of Canon Law In addition, there are assemblies of bishops which include the bishops of different rites in a nation, both Eastern Catholic and Latin Catholic; the nature of episcopal conferences, their magisterial authority in particular, was subsequently clarified by Pope John Paul II in his 1998 motu proprio, Apostolos suos, which stated that the declarations of such conferences "constitute authentic magisterium" when approved unanimously by the conference. In the 2013 apostolic exhortation, Evangelii Gaudium, Pope Francis expressed his concern that the intent of the Second Vatican Council, which would give episcopal conferences "genuine doctrinal authority, has not yet been sufficiently elaborated." On September 9, 2017, Pope Francis modified canon law, granting episcopal conferences specific authority "to faithfully prepare … approve and publish the liturgical books for the regions for which they are responsible after the confirmation of the Apostolic See."
The Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, which had primary responsibility for translations, was ordered to "help the Episcopal Conferences to fulfil their task." On October 22, 2017, the Holy See released a letter that Pope Francis had sent to the Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, Cardinal Robert Sarah, clarifying that the Holy See and its departments would have only limited authority to confirm liturgical translations recognized by a local episcopal conference. In late February, 2018, the Council of Cardinals and Pope Francis undertook a consideration of the theological status of episcopal conferences, re-reading Pope John Paul II's Apostolos Suos in the light of Pope Francis's Evangelii Gaudium. Episcopal Conference of Angola and São Tomé Episcopal Conference of Benin Conference of Bishops of Burkina Faso and of Niger Conference of Catholic Bishops of Burundi National Episcopal Conference of Cameroon Central African Episcopal Conference Episcopal Conference of Chad Episcopal Conference of the Congo Episcopal Conference of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Episcopal Conference of the Côte d'Ivoire Episcopal Conference of Equatorial Guinea Assembly of Catholic Hierarchs of Ethiopia and Eritrea Episcopal Conference of Gabon Inter-territorial Catholic Bishops' Conference of The Gambia and Sierra Leone Ghana Bishops' Conference Episcopal Conference of Guinea Episcopal Conference of the Indian Ocean Kenya Conference of Catholic Bishops Lesotho Catholic Bishops' Conference Catholic Bishops' Conference of Liberia Episcopal Conference of Madagascar Episcopal Conference of Malawi Episcopal Conference of Mali Episcopal Conference of Mozambique Namibian Catholic Bishops' Conference Catholic Bishops' Conference of Nigeria Regional Episcopal Conference of North Africa Conference of Catholic Bishops of Rwanda Conference of Bishops of Senegal, Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau Southern African Catholic Bishops' Conference Sudan Catholic Bishops' Conference Tanzania Episcopal Conference Episcopal Conference of Togo Uganda Episcopal Conference Zambia Episcopal Conference Zimbabwe Catholic Bishops' Conference Conference of the Latin Bishops of the Arab Regions Catholic Bishops' Conference of Bangladesh Chinese Regional Bishops' Conference Conference of Catholic Bishops of India Bishops' Conference of Indonesia Catholic Bishops' Conference of Japan Conference of Catholic Bishops of Kazakhstan Catholic Bishops' Conference of Korea Episcopal Conference of Laos and Cambodia Bishops' Conference of Malaysia and Brunei Catholic Bishops' Conference of Myanmar Catholic Bishops' Conference of Pakistan Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines Catholic Bishops' Conference of Thailand Episcopal Conference of Turkey Catholic Bishops' Conference of Sri Lanka Catholic Bishops' Conference of Vietnam Episcopal Conference of Albania Austrian Bishops' Conference Conference of Catholic Bishops of Belarus Episcopal Conference of Belgium Bishops' Conference of Bosnia and Herzegovina Episcopal Conference of Bulgaria Croatian Bishops' Conference Czech Bishops' Conference Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales
Roman Catholic Diocese of Cádiz y Ceuta
The Roman Catholic diocese of Cádiz y Ceuta is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in Spain. The diocese is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Seville, its jurisdiction covers nearly all the civil province of Cádiz. Cádiz is the residence of the bishop. Cádiz was raised by Urban IV to episcopal rank in 1263 at the request of king Alfonso X, a year after its Reconquista on the Moors, its first bishop was Fray Juan Martinez. After the Christians had won from the Moors the Plaza de Algeciras, the ordinaries of Cádiz bore the title of Bishop of Cádiz and Algeciras, granted by Clement VI in 1352; the see counted amongst its prelates in 1441 Cardinal Juan de Torquemada, an eminent Dominican theologian jurisconsult, who took a leading part in the Council of Basle and Council of Florence, defended in his "Summe de Ecclesiâ" the direct power of the pope in temporal matters. On 1816.01.25, the bishopric lost territory to establish the Apostolic Vicariate of Gibraltar, which had become a British colony.
By the Concordat of 1851, the diocese of Ceuta suffragan of Seville, was joined with that of Cádiz, whose bishop was Apostolic Administrator of Ceuta until the present dual name was adopted at the incorporation of Ceuta in 1933. Bishops of CádizJuan de Torquemada, O. P.... Pedro Fernández de Solís... Luigi d'Aragona Pietro de Accolti de Aretio Benedetto de Accolti Jerónimo Teodoli Luis García Haro de Sotomayor Antonio Zapata y Cisneros Maximiliano de Austria Gómez Suárez Figueroa Juan Cuenca Plácido Pacheco de Haro, O. S. B. Domingo Cano de Haro, O. P. Juan Dionisio Fernández Portocarrero Francisco Guerra, O. F. M. Fernando de Quesada Alfonso Pérez de Humanares, O. Cist. Alfonso Vázquez de Toledo, O. F. M. Diego de Castrillo Juan de Isla Antonio Ibarra José de Barcia y Zambrana Ildefonso de Talavera, O. S. Io. Hieros. Lorenzo Armengual del Pino de la Mota Tomás del Valle, O. P. Juan Bautista Cervera, O. F. M. Disc. José Escalzo y Miguel, O. S. B. Antonio Martínez de la Plaza Francisco Javier Utrera Juan Acisclo de Vera y Delgado Francisco Javier de Cienfuegos y Jovellanos Domingo de Silos Santiago Apollinario Moreno, O.
S. B. Juan José Arbolí y Acaso Félix María Arrieta y Llano, O. F. M. Cap. Jaime Catalá y Albosa Vicente Calvo y Valero José María Rancés y Villanueva Marcial López y Criado Bishops of Cádiz y CeutaRamón Pérez y Rodríguez Tomás Gutiérrez Díez Antonio Añoveros Ataún Antonio Dorado Soto Antonio Ceballos Atienza Rafael Zornoza Boy Auxiliary Bishops of CádizPedro Xague Appointed, Diocese of Nisyros Jerónimo Clavijo Appointed, Diocese of Nisyros This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. GCatholic.org
Lystra was a city in central Anatolia, now part of present-day Turkey. It is mentioned five times in the New Testament. Lystra was visited several times by the Paul the Apostle, along with Silas. There Paul met Timothy; the site of Lystra is believed to be located 30 kilometres south of the city of Konya, north of the village of Hatunsaray and some 15 kilometres north of a small town called Akoren. A small museum within the village of Hatunsaray displays artifacts from ancient Lystra. Lystra is the ancient name of the village visited by Paul the Apostle. There is a present-day village called "Klistra" near Gökyurt, a village of the Meram district of Konya province. Ancient ruins can be seen near Klistra, including a church with a big cross marked on the wall, a winery, house-like buildings, the ruins of a city located over the top of a hill, locally called "Alusumas", where another church ruin can be seen. According to local people, the less-visible city was constructed over the hill to hide from enemies of ancient Anatolia.
This site is still awaiting excavation. Lystra is located on an ancient road which ran from Ephesus to Sardis to Antioch in Pisidia to Iconium and Lystra, to Derbe, through the Cilician Gates, to Tarsus, to Antioch in Syria, to points east and south; the Roman Empire made Lystra a colony in 6 BC to gain better control of the tribes in the mountains to the west. It was incorporated into the Roman province of Galatia, soon afterwards the Romans built a road connecting Lystra to Iconium to the north. Paul the Apostle visited here to preach the Christian gospel in 48 AD and again in 51 AD on his first and second missionary journeys coming after persecution drove him away from Iconium. According to Acts 14:8–10, Paul healed a man, lame from birth; the man leaped up and began to walk and thus so impressed the crowd that they took Paul for Hermes, because he was the "chief speaker," and his companion Barnabas for Zeus. The crowd spoke in the local Lycaonian language and wanted to offer sacrifices to them, but Paul and Barnabas tore their clothes in dismay and shouted that they were men.
They used this opportunity to tell the Lystrans of the Creator God citing'the rain from heaven and fruitful seasons' as evidence of God's activity and generosity. Soon, through the influence of the Jewish leaders from Antioch and Iconium, the Lystrans stoned Paul and left him for dead; as the disciples gathered around him, Paul went back into the town. The next day, he and Barnabas left for Derbe. Paul visited this city again on his second missionary tour. Timothy, a young disciple there, was among those who on the previous occasion at Lystra witnessed Paul's persecution and courage. Timothy left Lystra to become the companion of Paul and Silas on the rest of the Second Missionary Journey, it is possible that Paul revisited Lystra near the beginning of his Third Missionary Journey. Unlike other cities Paul visited, Lystra had no synagogue, although Timothy and his mother and grandmother were Jewish. Lystra appears to have been the first location where the apostles reached the Gentiles with the gospel of Christ without approaching them through the common ground of Judaism.
Theologian John Gill linked Paul's reference to'the rain from heaven and fruitful seasons' to the words of the Jewish prophet Jeremiah: Do any of the worthless idols of the nations bring rain? In Christian times Lystra had a bishop, it is included in the Roman Catholic Church's list of titular sees, the most recent titular bishop having been Bishop Enrique A. Angelelli Carletti in the 1960s Bishop of La Rioja, Argentina. Archaeologist and New Testament Scholar Sir William Mitchell Ramsay wrote in 1907: "Excavation at Lystra is urgently needed in the interests of history and New Testament study", he wrote in 1941: "One hopes that some enthusiast will spend the money needed to clear up the topography of Lystra. Map of Asia Minor which shows Lystra in the province of Lycaonia Photos from Lystra Satellite-based map of First Missionary Journey BIAA – Site.638'Hatunsaray' Coins of the Ancient city of Lystra
Heliopolis (ancient Egypt)
Heliopolis was a major city of ancient Egypt. The ancient Egyptian name of the city was Iunu, it was Heliopolite Nome of Lower Egypt and a major religious center. It is now located in a northeastern suburb of Cairo. Heliopolis was one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt, it expanded under the Old and Middle Kingdoms but is today destroyed, its temples and other buildings having been scavenged for the construction of medieval Cairo. Most information about the ancient city comes from surviving records; the major surviving remnant of Heliopolis is the obelisk of the Temple of Ra-Atum erected by Senusret I of Dynasty XII. It still stands in its original position, now within Al-Masalla in Cairo; the 21 m high red granite obelisk weighs 120 tons. Heliopolis is the latinized form of the Greek name Hēlioúpolis, meaning "City of the Sun". Helios, the personified and deified form of the sun, was identified by the Greeks with the native Egyptian gods Ra and Atum, whose principal cult was located in the city.
Its native name was I͗wnw, whose exact pronunciation is uncertain because ancient Egyptian recorded only consonantal values. Its traditional Egyptological transcription is Iunu but it appears in biblical Hebrew as Ôn and Āwen, leading some scholars to reconstruct its pronunciation as *Āwanu. Variant transcriptions include Annu; the city appears in the Old Kingdom Pyramid Texts as the "House of Ra". In ancient Egypt, Heliopolis was a regional center from predynastic times, it was principally notable as the cult center of the sun god Atum, who came to be identified with Ra and Horus. The primary temple of the city was known as the Great House of Atum, its priests maintained that Atum or Ra was the first being, rising self-created from the primeval waters. A decline in the importance of Ra's cult during Dynasty V led to the development of the Ennead, a grouping of nine major Egyptian gods which placed the others in subordinate status to Ra–Atum; the high priests of Ra are not as well documented as those of other deities, although the high priests of Dynasty VI have been discovered and excavated.
During the Amarna Period of Dynasty XVIII, Pharaoh Akhenaten introduced a kind of henotheistic worship of Aten, the deified solar disc. As part of his construction projects, he built a Heliopolitan temple named "Elevating Aten", whose stones can still be seen in some of the gates of Cairo's medieval city wall; the cult of the Mnevis bull, another embodiment of the Sun, had its altar here as well. Their personal formal burial ground was situated north of the city; the store-city Pithom is mentioned once in the Hebrew Bible, according to one theory, this was Heliopolis. Alexander the Great, on his march from Pelusium to Memphis, halted at this city. Heliopolis flourished as a seat of learning during the Greek period. Ichonuphys was lecturing there in 308 BC, the Greek mathematician Eudoxus, one of his pupils, learned from him the true length of the year and month, upon which he formed his octaeterid, or period of 8 years or 99 months. Ptolemy II had Manetho, the chief priest of Heliopolis, collect his history of the ancient kings of Egypt from its archives.
The Ptolemies took little interest in their "father" Ra, Alexandria had eclipsed the learning of Heliopolis. By the 1st century BC, in fact, Strabo found the temples deserted, the town itself uninhabited, although priests were still present. Heliopolis was well known to the ancient Greeks and Romans, being noted by most major geographers of the period, including Ptolemy and others, down to the Byzantine geographer Stephanus of Byzantium. In Roman Egypt, Heliopolis belonged to the province Augustamnica, causing it to appear as Heliopolis in Augustamnica when it needed to be distinguished from Baalbek, its population contained a considerable Arabian element. Many of the city's obelisks were removed to adorn more northern cities of the Rome. Two of these became London's Cleopatra's Needle and its twin in New York's Central Park. During the Middle Ages, the growth of Fustat and Cairo only a few kilometres away caused its ruins to be massively scavenged for building materials, including for their city walls.
The site became known as the "Well of the Sun" and ʻArab al-Ḥiṣn. The importance of the solar cult at Heliopolis is reflected in both ancient pagan and current monotheistic beliefs. Egyptian and Greco-Roman mythology held that the bennu or phoenix brought the ashes of its predecessor to the altar of the sun god at Heliopolis each time it was reborn. In the Hebrew's scriptures, Heliopolis is referenced directly and obliquely in reference to its prominent pagan cult. In his prophesies against Egypt, Isaiah claimed the "City of the Sun" would be one of the five Egyptian cities to follow the Lord of Heaven's army and speak Hebrew. Jeremiah and Ezekiel mention the "House of the Sun" and Ôn, claiming