Miami the City of Miami, is the cultural and financial center of South Florida. Miami is the seat of the most populous county in Florida; the city covers an area of about 56.6 square miles, between the Everglades to the west and Biscayne Bay on the east. The Miami metropolitan area is home to 6.1 million people and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Miami's metro area is the second-most populous metropolis in the southeastern United States and fourth-largest urban area in the U. S. Miami has the third tallest skyline in the United States with over 300 high-rises, 80 of which stand taller than 400 feet. Miami is a major center, a leader in finance, culture, entertainment, the arts, international trade; the Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. In 2012, Miami was classified as an Alpha − level world city in the World Cities Study Group's inventory. In 2010, Miami ranked seventh in the United States and 33rd among global cities in terms of business activity, human capital, information exchange, cultural experience, political engagement.
In 2008, Forbes magazine ranked Miami "America's Cleanest City", for its year-round good air quality, vast green spaces, clean drinking water, clean streets, citywide recycling programs. According to a 2009 UBS study of 73 world cities, Miami was ranked as the richest city in the United States, the world's seventh-richest city in terms of purchasing power. Miami is nicknamed the "Capital of Latin America" and is the largest city with a Cuban-American plurality. Greater Downtown Miami has one of the largest concentrations of international banks in the United States, is home to many large national and international companies; the Civic Center is a major center for hospitals, research institutes, medical centers, biotechnology industries. For more than two decades, the Port of Miami, known as the "Cruise Capital of the World", has been the number one cruise passenger port in the world, it accommodates some of the world's largest cruise ships and operations, is the busiest port in both passenger traffic and cruise lines.
Metropolitan Miami is a major tourism hub in the southeastern U. S. for international visitors, ranking number two in the country after New York City. The Miami area was inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous Native American tribes; the Tequestas occupied the area for a thousand years before encountering Europeans. An Indian village of hundreds of people dating to 500–600 B. C. was located at the mouth of the Miami River. In 1566 admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Florida's first governor, claimed the area for Spain. A Spanish mission was constructed one year in 1567. Spain and Great Britain successively ruled Florida. Spain ceded it to the United States in 1821. In 1836, the US built Fort Dallas as part of its development of the Florida Territory and attempt to suppress and remove the Seminole; the Miami area subsequently became a site of fighting during the Second Seminole War. Miami is noted as "the only major city in the United States conceived by a woman, Julia Tuttle", a local citrus grower and a wealthy Cleveland native.
The Miami area was better known as "Biscayne Bay Country" in the early years of its growth. In the late 19th century, reports described the area as a promising wilderness; the area was characterized as "one of the finest building sites in Florida." The Great Freeze of 1894–95 hastened Miami's growth, as the crops of the Miami area were the only ones in Florida that survived. Julia Tuttle subsequently convinced Henry Flagler, a railroad tycoon, to expand his Florida East Coast Railway to the region, for which she became known as "the mother of Miami." Miami was incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896, with a population of just over 300. It was derived from Mayaimi, the historic name of Lake Okeechobee. Black labor played a crucial role in Miami's early development. During the beginning of the 20th century, migrants from the Bahamas and African-Americans constituted 40 percent of the city's population. Whatever their role in the city's growth, their community's growth was limited to a small space.
When landlords began to rent homes to African-Americans in neighborhoods close to Avenue J, a gang of white men with torches visited the renting families and warned them to move or be bombed. During the early 20th century, northerners were attracted to the city, Miami prospered during the 1920s with an increase in population and infrastructure; the legacy of Jim Crow was embedded in these developments. Miami's chief of police, H. Leslie Quigg, did not hide the fact that he, like many other white Miami police officers, was a member of the Ku Klux Klan. Unsurprisingly, these officers enforced social codes far beyond the written law. Quigg, for example, "personally and publicly beat a colored bellboy to death for speaking directly to a white woman."The collapse of the Florida land boom of the 1920s, the 1926 Miami Hurricane, the Great Depression in the 1930s slowed development. When World War II began, well-situated on the southern coast of Florida, became a base for US defense against German submarines.
The war brought an increase in Miami's population. After Fidel Castro rose to power in Cuba in 1959, many wealthy Cubans sought refuge in Miami, further increasing the population; the city developed cultural amenities as part of the New South. In the 1980s and 1990s
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Jorge Abner Drexler Prada is a Uruguayan musician and doctor specializing in otolaryngology. In 2004, Drexler won wide acclaim after becoming the first Uruguayan to win an Academy Award, which he won for composing the song "Al Otro Lado del Río" from The Motorcycle Diaries. Drexler was born in Montevideo. In 1939 his father, a German Jew, fled to Uruguay with his family at the age of four to escape anti-Semitism, his family fled to Bolivia and lived there. At the time, only Bolivia among South American countries was open to Jewish immigrants, and over six decades as his gratitude to Bolivia he made a song, included in Bailar en la Cueva. His mother is a Christian of mixed Spanish and Portuguese descent. Drexler does not follow any organized religion. Like much of his family, he studied medicine and became an otolaryngologist—an ear and throat specialist. Drexler began playing piano before attending guitar and composition classes. Although he had an interest in music, he became a doctor like both of his parents.
He attended medical school in Montevideo. During his time in medical school, Drexler took a break to hitchhike through Brazil, he studied music and recorded two albums, which were only released in Uruguay. In 1995 he was invited to Madrid by well-known Spanish songwriter Joaquín Sabina, who introduced him to other important Spanish singers. Drexler went to Spain to record the album Vaivén in 1996 with Spanish musicians. Vaivén included some old songs from his previous releases mixed with new compositions, he moved to Spain and recorded another four albums: Llueve, Frontera and Eco. In 2001, Drexler co-wrote two songs for Spanish singer Rosario Flores for her album Muchas Flores. Drexler's song "Al Otro Lado del Río" appeared in the internationally acclaimed film The Motorcycle Diaries. Though Drexler himself sang the song on the movie soundtrack, he was not allowed to perform the song at the 2005 Academy Awards, since "he was not popular enough," according to Spanish newspaper El País. Upon winning, Drexler recited two verses of the song at the podium.
Drexler became the first Uruguayan to win an Academy Award. After that, he released 12 Segundos de Oscuridad. Although he lives most of the year in Spain, his albums were recorded in Uruguay with Uruguayan musicians. Juan Campodónico and Carlos Casacuberta, former members of rock band El Peyote Asesino, had produced Drexler's albums from Frontera to 12 Segundos De Oscuridad. In 2008, he released a double live album, recorded in diverse concerts in Spain: Cara B filled with songs unreleased. During 2009, Drexler worked with Colombian performer Shakira on the Spanish-language versions of her singles "She Wolf", "Did it Again" and "Waka Waka. Drexler recorded Amar la Trama from November 1–4, 2009 in Madrid, Spain in just four days, with musicians playing live on studio. Drexler described the album without "the melancholy and anguish" of 12 Segundos. Amar la Trama was recorded in a television studio in front of a small audience who were selected in an online contest, he chose this format to avoid the "coldness" of the recording studio.
His album "Bailar en la cueva", released in 2014, shows a new facet of the artist leaning towards rhythm and dance, a contrast to his previous albums which he describes as more introspective and nostalgic. In particular, he has pointed out that it is a different album to the last one, describing it as the opposite pole to "Amar la Trama", his music is a combination of Uruguayan traditional music, bossa nova, pop and electronic music, which results in personal compositions with original arrangements. The words play an important role in his songs. Apart from love, reflections about identity and religions are a constant in his work. Drexler was married to singer-songwriter Ana Laan, his girlfriend is Spanish actress/singer Leonor Watling. Watling is in the band Marlango, his cousin is the scientist Alejandra Melfo. Aside from his Academy Award for Best Original Song, Drexler has been nominated five times at the Grammy Awards, for the albums Eco, 12 Segundos de Oscuridad, Cara B, Bailar en la Cueva, Salvavidas de Hielo.
For his work writing Spanish-language versions of singles by Colombian singer-songwriter Shakira, he has received five ASCAP Latin Awards. Drexler received a Goya Award in 2010 with the song "Que El Soneto Nos Tome Por Sorpresa", written for the Spanish film Lope. Overall, Drexler has received 13 awards from 46 nominations. In November 2018, Drexler took home record of the year and the song of the year for "Telefonia" and the best singer-songwriter album for "Salvavidas de hielo" at the Latin Grammys 2018 La Luz Que Sabe Robar Radar Vaivén Llueve Frontera Sea Eco 12 Segundos de Oscuridad La Edad del Cielo Cara B Amar la Trama Bailar en la Cueva Salvavidas de Hielo
Latin music is a genre used by the music industry as a catch-all term for music that comes from Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking areas of the world, namely Ibero America and Iberian Peninsula, as well as music sung in either language. In the United States, the music industry defines Latin music as any recording sung in Spanish regardless of its genre or the artist's nationality; the Recording Industry Association of America and Billboard magazine use this definition of Latin music to track sales of Spanish-language records in the US. Spain, Brazil and the United States are the largest Latin music markets in the world. Since the late 1990s, the US has had a rising population of "Latinos", a term popularized since the 1960s due to the wrong and confusing use of the term "Spanish" and the more proper but less popular term "Hispanic". A great part of the English-speaking media started to refer to any kind of music featuring Spanish vocals as "Latin music". Major record labels such as Universal Music Group, Sony Music, Warner Music have two divisions dedicated to the Latin market: one which focuses on Latin America and the Iberian Peninsula, the other for the Hispanic market in the United States.
Since 1990, Billboard has held the Latin Music Conference every year. The week-long conference features speakers including key personnel such as executives and producers from the Latin music industry and notable artists in the Latin music scene; the conference concludes with the annual Billboard Latin Music Awards. In 2000, the Latin Recording Academy inaugurated the Latin Grammy Awards to recognize musicians who perform in Spanish or Portuguese; the awards encompass music from Latin America, Spain and the United States. The Latin Songwriters Hall of Fame was established in 2012 to recognize songwriters from Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking regions around the world; the term "Latin music" originated from the US due to the growing influence of Hispanic and Latino Americans in the American music market, with notable pioneers including Xavier Cugat and Tito Puente and accelerating in decades. As one author explained the rising popularity from the 1940s: "Latin America, the one part of the world not engulfed in World War II, became a favorite topic for songs and films for Americans who wanted momentarily to forget about the conflagration."
Wartime propaganda for America's "Good Neighbor Policy" further enhanced the cultural impact. The Brazilian bossa nova became widespread in Latin America and became an international trend, led by Antônio Carlos Jobim. Rock en español became popular with the younger generation of Latinos in Latin America, notably including Argentine bands such as Almendra. Mexican-American Latin rock guitarist Carlos Santana began his decades of popularity. Salsa music became the dominant genre of tropical music in the 1970s. Fania Records was credited for popularizing salsa music, with acts such as Rubén Blades, Héctor Lavoe, Celia Cruz expanding the audience. In the late 1970s, an influx of balladeers from Spain such as Julio Iglesias, Camilo Sesto, Raphael established their presence on the music charts both in Latin America and the US Latin market. In 1972, OTI Festival was established by the Organización de Telecomunicaciones de Iberoamérica as a songwriting contest to connect the Ibero-American countries together.
Ramiro Burr of Billboard noted that the contest was considered to be the "largest and most prestigious songwriting festival in the Latin music world". In the 1980s, the Latin ballad continued to be the main form of Latin pop music, with Juan Gabriel, José José, Julio Iglesias, Roberto Carlos, José Luis Rodríguez dominating the charts. Salsa music lost some traction, its musical style changed to a slower rhythm with more emphasis on romantic lyrics; this became known as the salsa romantica era. Bolero music saw a resurgence of popularity with the younger audience. Mexican singer Luis Miguel was credited for the renewed interest due to the success of his album, Romance, a collection of classics covered by the artist. By the mid-1990s, Latin pop music was dominated by younger artists such as Menudo alumnus Ricky Martin, Colombian teen Shakira, Julio's son Enrique Iglesias. Around the same time, artists from Italy such as Eros Ramazzotti, Laura Pausini, Nek crossed over to the Latin music field by recording Spanish-language versions of their songs.
In the Regional Mexican field, Tejano became the most prominent genre. Selena helped push Tejano music into the mainstream market with her albums Entre a Mi Mundo and Amor Prohibido, although the genre's popularity declined following her death in 1995. In the tropical music field, which gained attention in the 1980s, rivaled salsa in popularity. In the mid-2000s, reggaeton became popular in the mainstream market, with Daddy Yankee, Don Omar, Wisin & Yandel considered to be the frontiers of the genre. In the tropical music scene, bachata music became popular in the field, with artists such as Monchy & Alexandra and Aventura finding success in the urban areas of Latin America. Banda was the dominant genre in the Regional Mexican music field. By the turn of the decade, the Latin music field became dominated by up-tempo rhythms, including electropop, urban and contemporary bachata music, as Latin ballads and crooners fell out of favor among U. S. Latin radio programmers. Streaming has become the dominant form of revenue in the Latin music industry in the United States, Latin America and Spain.
Latin trap gained mainstream attention in the mid-2010s with notable artists such as Ozuna, Bad Bunny, Anuel AA, Karol G, Bryant Myers, Arcangel and Noriel. Categ
"Despacito" is a song by Puerto Rican singer Luis Fonsi featuring Puerto Rican rapper Daddy Yankee from Fonsi's 2019 studio album Vida. On January 12, 2017, Universal Music Latin released "Despacito" and its music video, which shows both artists performing the song in La Perla neighborhood of Old San Juan, Puerto Rico and the local bar La Factoría; the song was written by Fonsi, Erika Ender, Daddy Yankee, was produced by Mauricio Rengifo and Andrés Torres. A remix version featuring Canadian singer Justin Bieber was released on April 17, 2017, which helped to improve the song's chart performance in numerous countries, including various number-one positions. "Despacito" has been credited by music journalists as being instrumental in popularizing Spanish-language pop music in the mainstream market again. The worldwide increase of Latin pop music consumption throughout 2017 and 2018 has been referred to as "the'Despacito' effect." It is a reggaeton and Latin pop song composed in common time with lyrics about having a sexual relationship, performed in a smooth and romantic way.
Commercially, the song topped the charts of 47 countries and reached the top 10 of six others, making it both Fonsi's and Daddy Yankee's most successful single to date. In the United States, it became the first song in Spanish to top the Billboard Hot 100 since "Macarena" in 1996, subsequently tying the longest-reigning number one on the Billboard Hot 100 with 16 weeks, as well as becoming the longest-running number one on the Hot Latin Songs chart with 56 weeks, it became the first Latin song to receive a diamond certification by the Recording Industry Association of America. Internationally, it broke the record for most weeks at number one in Switzerland and Germany and became the longest-reigning foreign language number-one in the United Kingdom. In August 2017, the official music video for "Despacito" became the most-viewed YouTube video of all-time after receiving its three billionth view, it became the first video on the site to reach the milestones of three, four and six billion views.
Upon its release, "Despacito" received favourable reviews from music critics, who praised the fusion between Latin and urban rhythms, its catchiness, its text painting. It has received Latin Grammy Awards for Record of the Year, Song of the Year, Best Urban Fusion/Performance, Best Short Form Music Video at the 18th Latin Grammy Awards; the remix version has received three Grammy Awards nominations for Record of the Year, Song of the Year, Best Pop Duo/Group Performance at the 60th Grammy Awards. "Despacito" has been ranked among the best Latin songs of all-time and the best songs of 2017 by various publications, which referred to it as one of the most successful Spanish-language tracks in pop music history. After two years without releasing new music, Luis Fonsi wanted to create "a fun track that had that Latin feel with a melody that I feel comfortable singing and that will make people just dance." The lyrics were born in late 2015 in Fonsi's house after he expressed his desire to record a "swinging song" for his new album.
Brazilian-Panamanian singer and songwriter Erika Ender, a Latin Grammy Award-winner, went to Luis Fonsi's house in Miami, who said to her that he woke up mulling about "writing a song called'Despacito'." Fonsi sang the lines "Vamos a hacerlo en una playa en Puerto Rico", Ender replied "Hasta que las olas griten'Ay Bendito'" and they began to build the song. The Puerto Rico line was moved to the end of the song in order to not sound "so regional" and they started writing a story. Fonsi composed "Despacito" as a cumbia and pop song with lyrics written as a ballad, but began to consider giving it an "urban injection" and contacted reggaeton artist Daddy Yankee through WhatsApp, who agreed to collaborate on the song after Fonsi played him the demo. Prior to collaborating on "Despacito", Fonsi and Daddy Yankee had worked together on "Una Oportunidad", released digitally in 2010. Daddy Yankee improvised his verse while thinking about his father playing bongos at his house, citing that as "percussion attacks," and wrote the post-chorus or hook.
They recorded the song at Noisematch Studios in Miami, United States in 2016. It was produced by Andrés Torres, it was mixed by American engineer Jaycen Joshua at Larrabee Sound Studios in North Hollywood, Los Angeles, United States. Luis Fonsi focused on other songs of his album after making the demo of "Despacito". Andrés Torres said that the track "kept getting postponed" because "there was always some issue with." After showing the demo to his producers and Fonsi decided to focus on "Despacito" and leave the other works aside. Sometime in October or November 2016, Fonsi called Miami-based Noisematch Studios' CEO Alex J. Campos in order to record the track there, where he had worked his 2012 song "Nunca Digas Siempre" with Spanish singer Merche. Campos stated that the first recording session consisted on "working the music," including the Puerto Rican cuatro. Daddy Yankee's vocals were recorded on the second day of work, he asked for a Shure SM58 and recorded his verse and the post-chorus in a corner of the studio's control room.
Luis Fonsi stated that both Daddy Yankee and he were surprised after hearing the final song because it sounded "powerful and different." Luis Fonsi said that he does not consider it a reggaeton song but feels that "it does have a reggaeton energy and an subtle urban beat." He affirmed that Daddy Yankee's work was a plus to the song because "it need
CBS is an American English language commercial broadcast television and radio network, a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major production facilities and operations in New York City and Los Angeles. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the company's iconic symbol, in use since 1951, it has been called the "Tiffany Network", alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley, it can refer to some of CBS's first demonstrations of color television, which were held in a former Tiffany & Co. building in New York City in 1950. The network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations, purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paley's guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, one of the Big Three American broadcast television networks.
In 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known as CBS, Inc. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired the network in 1995, renamed its corporate entity to the current CBS Broadcasting, Inc. in 1997, adopted the name of the company it had acquired to become CBS Corporation. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971. In late 2005, Viacom split itself into two separate companies and re-established CBS Corporation – through the spin-off of its broadcast television and select cable television and non-broadcasting assets – with the CBS television network at its core. CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom. CBS operated the CBS Radio network until 2017, when it merged its radio division with Entercom. Prior to CBS Radio provided news and features content for its portfolio owned-and-operated radio stations in large and mid-sized markets, affiliated radio stations in various other markets.
While CBS Corporation owns a 72% stake in Entercom, it no longer owns or operates any radio stations directly, though CBS still provides radio news broadcasts to its radio affiliates and the new owners of its former radio stations. The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated television stations throughout the United States; the company ranked 197th on the 2018 Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. The origins of CBS date back to January 27, 1927, with the creation of the "United Independent Broadcasters" network in Chicago by New York City talent-agent Arthur Judson; the fledgling network soon needed additional investors though, the Columbia Phonograph Company, manufacturers of Columbia Records, rescued it in April 1927. Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18, 1927, with a presentation by the Howard L. Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, by the end of 1927, Columbia Phonograph wanted out.
In early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the network's Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, their partner Jerome Louchheim. None of the three were interested in assuming day-to-day management of the network, so they installed wealthy 26-year-old William S. Paley, son of a Philadelphia cigar family and in-law of the Levys, as president. With the record company out of the picture, Paley streamlined the corporate name to "Columbia Broadcasting System", he believed in the power of radio advertising since his family's "La Palina" cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchhheim share of CBS and became its majority owner with 51% of the business. During Louchheim's brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H. Grebe's Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the network's flagship station. WABC was upgraded, the signal relocated to 860 kHz.
The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, where much of CBS's programming would originate. By the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a firmer financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered into talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures, who planned to move into radio in response to RCA's forays into motion pictures with the advent of talkies; the deal came to fruition in September 1929: Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time. The agreement specified that Paramount would buy that same stock back by March 1, 1932 for a flat $5 million, provided CBS had earned $2 million during 1931 and 1932. For a brief time there was talk that the network might be renamed "Paramount Radio", but it only lasted a month – the 1929 stock market crash sent all stock value tumbling, it galvanized Paley and his troops, who "had no alternative but to turn the network around and earn the $2,000,000 in two years....
This is the atmosphere in which the CBS of today was born." The near-bankrupt movie studio sold its CBS shares back to CBS in 1932. In the first year of Paley's wa
Latin Grammy Award for Song of the Year
The Latin Grammy Award for Song of the Year is an honor presented annually at the Latin Grammy Awards, a ceremony that recognizes excellence, creates a wider awareness of cultural diversity and contributions of Latin recording artists in the United States and internationally. The award is given to the songwriters of new songs containing at least 51% of lyrics in Spanish or Portuguese language. Instrumental songs or a new version of a recorded track are not eligible. Due to the increasing musical changes in the industry, from 2012 the category includes 10 nominees, according to a restructuration made by the academy for the four general categories: Album of the Year, Record of the Year, Best New Artist and Song of the Year. Eleven of the thirteen awarded songs have earned the Latin Grammy for Record of the Year, which unlike this category, is given to songs that were released on a promotional level, the prize is given to the performer and audio engineer; the exceptions to this were in 2000, 2009 and 2013 when "Corazón Espinado" by Santana featuring Maná, "No Hay Nadie Como Tú" by Calle 13 featuring Café Tacvba and "Vivir Mi Vida" by Marc Anthony received the award without a nomination for Song of the Year.
In 2014, "Universos Paralelos" by Jorge Drexler featuring Anita tijoux won the Latin Grammy Award for Record of The Year, but not Song of The Year, despite it received a nomination for the award. Alejandro Sanz is the most awarded songwriter in the category with four wins out of eight nominations. Andrés Castro and Carlos Vives have received the award twice. In 2017, Colombian artist Maluma became the first songwriter to have three nominated songs in the same year, with "Chantaje", "Felices los 4", "Vente Pa' Ca". Pedro Capó, Juan Luis Guerra, Jorge Luis Piloto and Jorge Villamizar have been nominated twice the same year: Capó in 2015 for songs performed by Ricky Martin and himself, Guerra in 2012 for songs performed by Juanes featuring Joaquín Sabina and himself, Piloto in 2009 for songs performed by Andrés Cepeda and Luis Enrique, while Villamizar wrote songs for the band Bacilos. Claudia Brant, Angie Chirino, Joy Huerta, Natalia Lafourcade, Mónica Vélez are the only female writers to be awarded.
The current holder, as of the 2018 ceremony is Jorge Drexler for the song "Telefonía". An asterisk indicates this recording won Record of the Year. ^ Each year is linked to the article about the Latin Grammy Awards held that year. ^ The performing artist does not receive the award. ^ in parentheses the performer's name. Grammy Award for Song of the Year Official site of the Latin Grammy Awards