Titus Livius – rendered as Livy in English – was a Roman historian. He wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people – Ab Urbe Condita Libri – covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditional foundation in 753 BC through the reign of Augustus in Livy's own lifetime, he was on familiar terms with members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and in friendship with Augustus, whose young grandnephew, the future emperor Claudius, he exhorted to take up the writing of history. Livy was born in Patavium in northern Italy, now modern Padua. There is a debate about the year of his birth- either in 64 BC, or more in 59 BC. At the time of his birth, his home city of Patavium was the second wealthiest on the Italian peninsula, the largest in the province of Cisalpine Gaul. Cisalpine Gaul was merged in Italia during his lifetime and its inhabitants were given Roman citizenship by Julius Caesar. In his works, Livy expressed his deep affection and pride for Patavium, the city was well known for its conservative values in morality and politics.
"He was by nature a recluse, mild in averse to violence. The governor of Cisalpine Gaul at the time, Asinius Pollio, tried to sway Patavium into supporting Marcus Antonius, the leader of one of the warring factions; the wealthy citizens of Patavium refused to contribute money and arms to Asinius Pollio, went into hiding. Pollio attempted to bribe the slaves of those wealthy citizens to expose the whereabouts of their masters, it is therefore that the Roman civil wars prevented Livy from pursuing a higher education in Rome or going on a tour of Greece, common for adolescent males of the nobility at the time. Many years Asinius Pollio derisively commented on Livy's "patavinity", saying that Livy's Latin showed certain "provincialisms" frowned on at Rome. Pollio's dig may have been the result of bad feelings he harboured toward the city of Patavium from his experiences there during the civil wars. Livy went to Rome in the 30s BC, it is that he spent a large amount of time in the city after this, although it may not have been his primary home.
During his time in Rome, he held a government position. His writings contain elementary mistakes on military matters, indicating that he never served in the Roman army. However, he was educated in rhetoric, it seems that Livy had the financial resources and means to live an independent life, though the origin of that wealth is unknown. He devoted a large part of his life to his writings, which he was able to do because of his financial freedom. Livy was known to give recitations to small audiences, but he was not heard of to engage in declamation a common pastime, he was familiar with the imperial family. Augustus was considered by Romans to have been the greatest Roman emperor, benefiting Livy's reputation long after his death. Suetonius described how Livy encouraged the future emperor Claudius, born in 10 BC, to write historiographical works during his childhood. Livy's most famous work was his history of Rome. In it he narrates a complete history of the city of Rome, from its foundation to the death of Augustus.
Because he was writing under the reign of Augustus, Livy's history emphasizes the great triumphs of Rome. He wrote his history with embellished accounts of Roman heroism in order to promote the new type of government implemented by Augustus when he became emperor. In Livy's preface to his history, he said that he did not care whether his personal fame remained in darkness, as long as his work helped to "preserve the memory of the deeds of the world’s preeminent nation"; because Livy was writing about events that had occurred hundreds of years earlier, the historical value of his work was questionable, although many Romans came to believe his account to be true. Livy had at least one daughter and one son, he produced other works, including an essay in the form of a letter to his son, numerous dialogues, most modelled on similar works by Cicero. Titus Livius died in his home city of Patavium in either AD 12 or 17. Livy's only surviving work is the "History of Rome", his career from his mid-life 32, until he left Rome for Padua in old age in the reign of Tiberius after the death of Augustus.
When he began this work he was past his youth. Seneca the Younger gives brief mention that he was known as an orator and philosopher and had written some treatises in those fields from a historical point of view. Livy's History of Rome was in high demand from the time it was published and remained so during the early years of the empire. Pliny the Younger reported that Livy's celebrity was so widespread, a man from Cadiz travelled to Rome and back for the sole purpose of meeting him. Livy's work was a source for the works of Aurelius Victor, Eutropius, Florus, Granius Licinianus and Orosius. Julius Obsequens used Livy, or a source with access to Livy, to compose his De Prodigiis, an account of supernatural e
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
The Volsci were an Italic tribe, well known in the history of the first century of the Roman Republic. At the time they inhabited the hilly marshy district of the south of Latium, bounded by the Aurunci and Samnites on the south, the Hernici on the east, stretching from Norba and Cora in the north to Antium in the south. Rivals of Rome for several hundred years, their territories were taken over by and assimilated into the growing republic by 300 BCE. Strabo says, it was placed in the Pomentine plain, between the Latins and the Pontine marshes, which took their name from the plain. The Volsci spoke Volscian, a Sabellic Italic language, related to Oscan and Umbrian, more distantly to Latin. In the Volscian territory lay the little town of Velitrae, home of the ancestors of Caesar Augustus. From this town comes an inscription dating from early in the 3rd century BCE; the Volsci were among the most dangerous enemies of ancient Rome, allied with the Aequi, whereas their neighbors the Hernici from 486 BCE onwards were the allies of Rome.
According to Rome's early semi-legendary history, Rome's seventh and last king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus was the first to go to war against the Volsci, commencing two centuries of a relationship of conflict between the two states. The legendary Roman warrior Gaius Marcius Coriolanus earned his cognomen after taking the Volscian town of Corioli in 493 BCE; the reputed rise and fall of this hero is chronicled in Plutarch's Parallel Lives, which served as the basis for Shakespeare's play Coriolanus. However, if Livy's account of the war between Rome and Clusium is accurate, it can be seen that the relationship between Rome and the Volsci was not always hostile. Livy writes that, at the approach of the Clusian army in 508 BCE, with the prospect of a siege, the Roman senate arranged for the purchase of grain from the Volsci to feed the lower classes of Rome. Attius Tullus Aufidius. Camilla in Virgil's Aeneid, a Volscian Warrior Maiden. Virgil says, she fights on the side of the Latins and kills many of the Trojan refugees before being killed herself by the Etruscan hero Arruns
Tusculum is a ruined Roman city in the Alban Hills, in the Latium region of Italy. Tusculum was one of the largest Roman cities in the Alban Hills and today is amongst the largest ruins of a Roman city in the region; the Tusculum is located on Tuscolo hill on the northern edge of the outer crater rim of the Alban volcano. The volcano itself is located in the Alban Hills 6 kilometres south of the present-day town of Frascati. Tuscolo Hills' summit is 670 metres above sea level and affords a view of the Roman Campagna, with Rome lying 25 kilometres to the north-west. Rome was reached by the Via Labicana to the north. Tusculum was most famous in Roman times for the many great and luxurious patrician country villas sited close to the city, yet a comfortable distance from Rome. Strabo wrote about Tusculum in Geography, V 3 § 12.: But still closer to Rome than the mountainous country where these cities lie, there is another ridge, which leaves a valley between them and is high as far as Mount Albanus.
It is on this chain, a city with no mean equipment of buildings. According to legend, the city was founded either by Telegonus, the son of Odysseus and Circe, or by the Latin king Latinus Silvius, a descendant of Aeneas, who according to Titus Livius was the founder of most of the towns and cities in Latium; the geographer Filippo Cluverio discounts these legends, asserting that the city was founded by Latins about three hundred years before the Trojan War. Funerary urns datable to the 8th–7th centuries B. C. demonstrate a human presence in the late phases of Latin culture in this area. Tusculum is first mentioned in history as an independent city-state with a king, a constitution and gods of its own; when Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the last King of Rome, was expelled from the city in 509 B. C. he sought military help from his son-in-law Octavius Mamilius, one of the leading men of Tusculum. After the war between Clusium and Rome failed to win back the throne for Tarquinius, he sought refuge with Mamilius in Tusculum.
The Mamilii claimed to be descended from the founder of the city. Mamilius commanded the army of the Latins against the Romans at the Battle of Lake Regillus, where he was killed in 498 B. C; this is the point. According to some accounts Tusculum subsequently became an ally of Rome, incurring the frequent hostilities of the other Latin cities. In 460 B. C. the Sabines occupied the Capitol. Of the Latin cities, only Tusculum sent troops, commanded by the dictator Lucius Mamilius, to help the Romans. Together with the forces of the consul Publius Valerius Poplicola they were able to quash the revolt. Poplicola was thankful to the Tusculans for their help, conferred on Lucius Mamilius the honour of Roman citizenship. In 459 B. C. the Aequi captured its citadel. Because of the assistance given Rome the previous year, the Romans came to their defense, helped regain the citadel, with soldiers under the command of Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus, who defeated the Aequi at the battle of Mount Algidus. In 381 BC, after an expression of complete submission to Rome, the people of Tusculum received a franchise from Rome.
Tusculum became self-governing city. The Tusculum citizens were therefore recorded in the "Tribus Papiria". Other accounts, speak of Tusculum as allied with Rome's enemies, the last being the Samnites in 323 BC. Several of the chief Roman families were of Tusculan origin, e.g. the gentes Mamilia, Fonteia, Oppia, Quinctia, Javonelia, Manlia and Porcia. In 54 BC, in his Orationes Pro Cn. Plancio, Marcus Tullius Cicero said: "You are from the most ancient municipium of Tusculum, from which so many consular families are originating, among which the gens Iuventia—all other municipia do not have so many coming from them". Varro wrote about the laws of Tusculum in De Lingua Latina, Volume 5: "New wine shall not be taken into the town before the Vinalia are proclaimed"; the town council kept the name of senate. Notwithstanding this, the fact that a special college of Roman equites was formed to take charge of the cults of the gods at Tusculum, of the Dioscuri, the citizens resident there were neither numerous nor men of distinction.
The villas of the neighbourhood had indeed acquired greater importance than the town itself, not accessible. By the end of the Republic, still more during the imperial period, the territory of Tusculum was a favorite place of residence for wealthy Romans. Seneca wrote: "Nobody who wants to acquire a home in Tusculum or Tibur for health reasons or as a summer residence, will calculate how much yearly payments are". In 45 BC Cicero wrote a series of books in his Roman villa in the Tusculanae Quaestiones. In his times there were eighteen owners of villas there. An example is the so-called villa of Lucullus, which belonged to Flavia gens, built in terraces on the slope of Tusculum facing Rome: the vast terrace now houses all the
The Roman–Latin wars were a series of wars fought between ancient Rome and the Latins, from the earliest stages of the history of Rome until the final subjugation of the Latins to Rome in the aftermath of the Latin War. The Latins first went to war with Rome in the 7th century BC during the reign of the Roman king Ancus Marcius. According to Livy the war was commenced by the Latins who anticipated Ancus would follow the pious pursuit of peace adopted by his grandfather, Numa Pompilius; the Latins made an incursion on Roman lands. When a Roman embassy sought restitution for the damage, the Latins gave a contemptuous reply. Ancus accordingly declared war on the Latins; the declaration is notable since, according to Livy, it was the first time that the Romans had declared war by means of the rites of the fetials. Ancus Marcius marched from Rome with a newly levied army and took the Latin town of Politorium by storm, its residents were removed to settle on the Aventine Hill in Rome as new citizens, following the Roman traditions from wars with the Sabines and Albans.
When the other Latins subsequently occupied the empty town of Politorium, Ancus took the town again and demolished it. Further citizens were removed to Rome when Ancus conquered the Latin towns of Ficana; the war focused on the Latin town of Medullia. The town was well fortified. Several engagements took place outside the town and the Romans were victorious. Ancus returned to Rome with much loot. More Latins were brought to Rome as citizens and were settled at the foot of the Aventine near the Palatine Hill, by the temple of Murcia; when Rome was ruled by Lucius Tarquinius Priscus the Latins went to war with Rome on two occasions. On the first, which according to the Fasti Triumphales occurred prior to 588 BC, Tarquinius took the Latin town of Apiolae by storm, from there brought back a great amount of loot to Rome. On the second occasion, Tarquinius subdued the entirety of Latium, took a number of towns that belonged to the Latins or which had revolted to them: Corniculum, old Ficulea, Crustumerium, Ameriola and Nomentum, before agreeing to peace.
In 508 BC, Lars Porsena king of Clusium departed Rome after ending his war against Rome by peace treaty. Porsena split his forces, sent part of the Clusian army with his son Aruns to besiege the Latin city of Aricia; the Aricians sent for assistance from the Latin League, from the Greek city of Cumae. When support arrived, the Arician army ventured beyond the walls of the city, the combined armies met the Clusian forces in battle. According to Livy, the Clusians routed the Arician forces, but the Cumaean troops allowed the Clusians to pass by attacked from the rear, gaining victory against the Clusians. Livy says. In 503 BC two Latin towns and Cora, said by Livy to be colonies of Rome, revolted against Rome, they had the assistance of the southern Aurunci tribe. Livy says that a Roman army led by the consuls Agrippa Menenius Lanatus and Publius Postumius Tubertus met the enemy on the frontiers and was victorious, after which Livy says the war was confined to Pometia. Livy says. Livy says that the consuls celebrated a triumph, however the Fasti Triumphales record that an ovation was celebrated by Postumius and a triumph by Menenius, both over the Sabines.
In the following year the consuls were Sp.. Cassius. Livy says that they attempted to take Pometia by storm, but resorted to siege engines; however the Aurunci launched a successful sally, destroying the siege engines, wounding many, nearly killing one of the consuls. The Romans retreated to Rome, recruited additional troops, returned to Pometia, they rebuilt the siege engines and when they were about to take the town, the Pometians surrendered. The Aurunci leaders were beheaded, the Pometians sold into slavery, the town razed and the land sold. Livy says; the Fasti Triumphales record only one triumph, by Cassius. In 501 BC word reached Rome that thirty of the Latin cities had joined in league against Rome, at the instigation of Octavius Mamilius of Tusculum; because of this, Titus Lartius was appointed as Rome's first dictator, with Spurius Cassius as his magister equitum. However war with the Latins did not come to pass until at least two years later. In 499 BC, or 496 BC, war broke out. At first Fidenae was besieged, Crustumerium was captured, Praeneste defected to the Romans.
Aulus Postumius was appointed dictator, with Titus Aebutius Elva as his magister equitum. With the Roman army, they marched into the Latin territory and were victorious at the Battle of Lake Regillus. Shortly afterwards, in 495 BC, the Latins resisted calls from the Volsci to join with them to attack Rome, went so far as to deliver the Volscian ambassadors to Rome; the Roman senate, in gratitude, granted freedom to 6,000 Latin prisoners, in return the Latins sent a crown of gold to the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus in Rome. A great crowd formed, including the freed Latin prisoners. Great bonds of friendship were said to have arisen between the Romans and the Latins as a result of this event; the Latins warned Rome of the Volscian invasion which occurred shortly after in the same yearIn 493 a treaty, the Foedus Cassianum, was concluded, establishing a mutual military alliance betw
Ardea is an ancient town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome, 35 kilometres south of Rome and about 4 kilometres from today's Mediterranean coast. The economy is based on agriculture, starting from the 1970s, industry has had an important role. Ardea is one of the most ancient towns in western Europe, founded during the 8th century BC. According to tradition it was the capital of the Rutuli, it is described as such in the Aeneid. In 509 BC Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the king of Rome sought unsuccessfully to take the town by storm, commenced a siege of the town; however the siege was interrupted by the revolution which resulted in the overthrow of the king and the establishment of the Roman republic. One of the leaders of the revolution, Lucius Junius Brutus, came to the camp of the Roman army at Ardea and won the army's support for the revolution. In 443 BC the Volscians laid siege to Ardea; the siege was soon broken by Roman troops under the leadership of Marcus Geganius Macerinus. After the Roman conquest, Ardea was most mentioned in connection with the Via Ardeatina, one of the consular roads, to which it gave its name.
During the Second Punic War, it was one of the few cities that refused military support to Rome, after the Roman victory, was deprived of its autonomy. In the 3rd-2nd centuries BC it decayed; the 1st century agricultural writer Columella possessed estates there. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Ardea was abandoned, it returned to grow only after the 9th century AD. Its castle in 1118 housed Pope Gelasius II and was contended among various feudal barons of the area. In 1419 Pope Martin V assigned it to his kinsmen, the Colonna family, who sold it in 1564 to the Cesarini. In 1816 it became a frazione of Genzano. Starting from 1932, the surrounding area was drained and Ardea began to flourish again, becoming a frazione of Pomezia starting from its foundation around 1948 and an independent municipality in 1970. Remains of the ancient city include the old defensive agger, dating to the 7th century BC and updated to larger walls. Archaeological excavations have brought to light four temples, of unknown dedication.
Part of the pavement of a basilica have been found in the area of the ancient Forum. Other sights include: The Church of Santa Marina, erected in 1191 by Cencio Savelli, the future Pope Honorius III; the interior, on a single nave, was entirely frescoed. Romanesque Church of San Pietro Apostolo, a possession of the monks of San Paolo Fuori le Mura of Rome, it incorporates a former watchtower used to counter Saracen attacks, now turned into a bell tower. It has a 16th-century wooden crucifix; the Giardini della Landriana, designed by Russell Page. Giacomo Manzù Museum, housing some 400 works of the artist. Tor San Lorenzo, a tower in the eponymous seaside frazione, it was rebuilt in 1570 after a design by Michelangelo, in the area of a former Palaeo-Christian church devoted to St. Lawrence. Ardea is twinned with: Argos, Greece Rielasingen-Worblingen, Germany Livy, Ab urbe condita 4.9 Official website Quilici, L.. "Places: 422843". Pleiades. Retrieved March 8, 2012
Battle of Lake Regillus
The Battle of Lake Regillus was a legendary Roman victory over the Latin League shortly after the establishment of the Roman Republic and as part of a wider Latin War. The Latins were led by an elderly Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the seventh and last King of Rome, expelled in 509 BC, his son-in-law, Octavius Mamilius, the dictator of Tusculum; the battle marked the final attempt of the Tarquins to reclaim their throne. According to legend and Pollux fought on the side of the Romans; the threat of invasion by Rome's former allies in Latium led to the appointment of Aulus Postumius Albus as dictator. The year in which the battle occurred is unclear, has been since ancient times. Livy places the battle in 499 BC, but says some of his sources suggest the battle occurred during Postumius' consulship in 496 BC; the other major source for this historical period, Dionysius of Halicarnassus places the battle in 496 BC. Modern authors have suggested 493 BC or 489 BC. Lake Regillus was located in the relic of a volcanic crater between Tusculum.
The lake was drained in the fourth century BC. According to Livy, the Volsci had raised troops to send to the aid of the Latins against Rome, however the haste of the Roman dictator in joining battle meant that the Volscian forces did not arrive in time; the dictator Postumius led the Roman infantry. Tarquin was accompanied by last remaining son, Titus, it was said that the presence of the Tarquinii caused the Romans to fight more passionately than in any previous battle. Early in the battle, the king was injured attacking Postumius; the magister equitum charged at Mamilius, both were wounded: Aebutius in the arm, the Latin dictator in the chest. The magister equitum had to withdraw from the field, direct his troops from a distance; the king's soldiers, including many exiled Romans, began to overpower the republican forces, the Romans suffered a setback when Marcus Valerius Volusus was killed by a spear while attacking Titus Tarquinius, but Postumius brought fresh troops from his own bodyguard, halted the exiles' progress.
Meanwhile, Titus Herminius Aquilinus, who had won fame fighting alongside Horatius at the Sublician bridge, served as consul in 506 BC, engaged Mamilius and slew him. As the outcome of the battle seemed in doubt, Postumius ordered the cavalry to dismount and attack on foot, forcing the Latins to retreat and capturing the Latin camp. Tarquin and the Latin army abandoned the field. Postumius returned to Rome with his army, celebrated a triumph. A popular legend reported that the Dioscuri and Pollux, fought alongside the Romans, transfigured as two young horsemen. Postumius ordered a temple built in their honour in the Roman Forum, in the place where they had watered their horses. In the nineteenth century, the battle was celebrated in Thomas Macaulay's Lays of Ancient Rome. Primary sourcesLivy. From the Founding of the City. Translated by Canon Roberts – via Wikisource. Secondary sourcesGrant, Michael; the History of Rome. Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-11461-X. Livy: Ab urbe condita Book II cap. 19. Ab Urbe Condita The Battle of Lake Regillus poem from Macaulay's "Lays of Ancient Rome".
Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars, C.1000-263 BC, Routledge, 1995. ISBN 0-415-01596-0