6th arrondissement of Paris
The 6th arrondissement of Paris is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as sixième; the arrondissement, called Luxembourg, is situated on the left bank of the River Seine. It includes world-famous educational institutions such as the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts and the Académie française, the seat of the French Senate as well as a concentration of some of Paris's most famous monuments such as Saint-Germain Abbey and square, St. Sulpice Church and square, the Pont des Arts, the Jardin du Luxembourg; this central arrondissement, which includes the historic districts of Saint-Germain-des-Prés and Luxembourg, has played a major role throughout Paris history and is well known for its café culture and the revolutionary intellectualism and literature it has hosted. With its world-famous cityscape rooted intellectual tradition, prestigious history, beautiful architecture, central location, the arrondissement has long been home to French intelligentsia.
It is a major locale for art galleries, fashion stores and one of the most fashionable districts of Paris as well as Paris' most expensive area. The arrondissement is one of France's richest district in terms of average income, it is part of Paris Ouest alongside the 7th, 8th, 16th arrondissements, Neuilly, but has a much more bohemian and intellectual reputation than the others; the current 6th arrondissement, dominated by the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés—founded in the 6th century—was the heart of the Catholic Church power in Paris for centuries, hosting many religious institutions. In 1612, Queen Marie de Médicis bought an estate in the district and commissioned architect Salomon de Brosse to transform it into the outstanding Luxembourg Palace surrounded by extensive royal gardens; the new Palace turned the neighborhood into a fashionable district for French nobility. Since the 1950s, the arrondissement, with its many higher education institutions, world-famous cafés and publishing houses has been the home of much of the major post-war intellectual and literary movements and some of most influential in history such as surrealism and modern feminism.
The land area of the arrondissement is 2.154 km². Académie française French Senate Jardin du Luxembourg Medici Fountain Pont des Arts Pont Neuf Pont Saint-Michel Saint-Germain-des-Prés Quarter and former abbey Latin Quarter Saint-Sulpice church Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe Théâtre du Vieux-Colombier Café de Flore Les Deux Magots Polidor Hôtel de Chimay Hôtel Lutetia Café Procope Fondation Jean Dubuffet Maison d'Auguste Comte Monnaie de Paris Musée d'Anatomie Delmas-Orfila-Rouvière Musée Edouard Branly Musée Hébert Musée – Librairie du Compagnonnage Musée de Minéralogie Musée Zadkine École nationale des ponts et chaussées École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts École des hautes études en sciences sociales Pantheon-Assas University Lycée Montaigne Lycée Saint-Louis Lycée Stanislas Lycée Fénelon Institut Catholique de Paris Cherche-Midi prison Hôtel de Condé Hôtel de Bourbon-Condé Comédie-Française Arcade du Pont-Neuf The arrondissement attained its peak population in 1911 when the population density reached nearly 50,000 inhabitants per km².
In 1999, the population was 44,919 inhabitants. Toei Animation Europe has its head office in the arrondissement; the company, which opened in 2004, serves France, Italy and the United Kingdom. The 6th and 7th arrondissements are the most expensive districts of Paris, the most expensive parts of the 6th arrondissement being Saint-Germain-des-Prés quarter, the River side districts and the areas nearby the Luxembourg Garden. 6th arrondissement travel guide from Wikivoyage
PSL Research University
Université PSL is a French collegiate university organized as a ComUE. PSL is made up of 9 members, it receives support from 3 national research entities. PSL is located in Paris, with its main sites in the Latin Quarter, at the Jourdan campus, at Porte Dauphine, in northern Paris, at Carré Richelieu. PSL awards Bachelor’s, Master’s, PhD diplomas for its member schools & institutes, it offers an education based on research and interdisciplinary instruction, its 20,000 students have access to a broad range of disciplines in science, engineering and social science, the arts. Three of PSL University’s programs, from Bachelor's through PhD level, include CPES multidisciplinary undergraduate degree, ICFP-ENS, SACRe doctoral program. PSL has 181 laboratories and 101 ERC grants, runs cross-cutting flagship programs such as the Scripta Interdisciplinary and Strategic Research Initiative, the PSL Mathematics program, the Q-Life Institut. PSL students and researchers have access to 92 specialized and general libraries and photo libraries as well as online databases and journals.
PSL has framework agreements with the University of Cambridge, UCL, EPFL, New York University, Beijing University, Tsinghua University, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. In the early 2000s, after the Shanghai rankings were published in 2003 and the French secretary of state for science research and development took stock of the state of research in France. In 2004, institutions in the Latin Quarter began thinking of how to join forces to boost their international visibility; the French law on research enacted in 2006, which encouraged the formation of research networks, paved the way for new projects such as Paris Universitas, PRES ParisTech and an early version of the PSL project. This new organization combined five institutions of higher education in the Latin Quarter: Chimie ParisTech, Collège de France, École normale supérieure, École Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielles de la ville de Paris, the Observatoire de Paris. Together, they adopted the status of a scientific cooperation foundation.
The new entity, called “Paris Sciences et Lettres - Quartier Latin,” was conceived as a scientific alliance. In 2011, the five institutions submitted a joint application for the Initiatives for Excellence as part of France’s Investments for the Future program, causing the project to evolve into a new form of French university; this university would have 70% of its students at the Master’s and PhD level and offer a Bachelor's program, with an emphasis on equal opportunity students. In 2011, the five institutions submitted a joint application for a government funding opportunity among higher education institutions. Between 2011 and 2012, ten new institutions joined the foundation: Conservatoire National Supérieur d’Art Dramatique, Conservatoire National Supérieur de Musique et de Danse de Paris, École Nationale Supérieure des Arts Décoratifs, École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts, La Fémis, Pierre-Gilles de Gennes Foundation for Research, Institut Curie, Institut Louis-Bachelier, MINES ParisTech and Université Paris-Dauphine · ·.
Their arrival reinforced PSL’s scientific potential in the fields of engineering, the arts, management. In 2014, another four institutions specializing in humanities and social science joined the association: École Française d'Extrême-Orient, École des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, École Nationale des Chartes, École Pratique des Hautes Etudes. In 2015, PSL organized itself into a university community. PSL began awarding PhDs at that point. In 2010, the French government launched a call for proposals to boost higher education: the Investing for the Future program. PSL has responded to several calls for proposals. In 2011, with the Initiatives for Excellence call for proposals, PSL was one of the first three projects selected, along with Université de Bordeaux and Université de Strasbourg. Although the project’s diverse participants have sometimes been cited as a weakness, PSL’s proponents emphasize the complementary nature of its institutions and the potential for collaboration; this funding has supported the creation of 11 Laboratories of excellence within PSL: CelTisPhyBio, DCBIOL, DEEP, DYNAMO, ENS-ICFP, ESEP, IEC, IPGG, MemoLife, TransferS, WIFI.
In 2014, the Corail, HaStec, TEPSIS Labex laboratories joined the list with EHESS and EPHE becoming members of PSL. In 2011, PSL’s institutions presented projects under the "Equipped with excellence" program. Of the 10 initial submissions, they were granted 8 Equipex facilities: BEDOFIH, D-FIH, Equip@Meso, ICGex, IPGG, Paris-en-Resonnance, Ultrabrain; these projects received funding in amounts ranging from €2 to €10 million. In 2017, PSL was awarded funding for two university research schools. In 2017, after a detailed process of consideration, 9 institutions agreed to set up an integrated budget and a multi-year strategy for academic recruitment, as well as to create a number of shared platforms and services. Chimie ParisTech, École Nationale des Chartes, École Normale Supérieure, École Pratique des Hautes Etudes, ESPCI Paris, Institut Curie, Observatoire de Paris, MINES ParisTech, Université Paris-Dauphine decided to jointly form PSL U
Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel
The Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel is a triumphal arch in Paris, located in the Place du Carrousel. It is an example of Corinthian style architecture, it was built between 1806 and 1808 to commemorate Napoleon's military victories of the previous year. The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile, at the far end of the Champs Élysées, was designed in the same year; the monument is 63 feet high, 75 feet wide, 24 feet deep. The 21 feet high central arch is flanked by two smaller ones, 14 feet high, 9 feet wide. Around its exterior are eight Corinthian columns of marble, topped by eight soldiers of the Empire. On the pediment, between the soldiers, bas-reliefs depict: the Arms of the Kingdom of Italy with figures representing History and the Arts the Arms of the French Empire with Victory, Fame and Abundance Wisdom and Strength holding the arms of the Kingdom of Italy, accompanied by Prudence and Victory. Napoleon's diplomatic and military victories are commemorated by bas-reliefs executed in rose marble, they depict: the Peace of Pressburg Napoleon entering Munich Napoleon entering Vienna, sculptor Louis-Pierre Deseine the Battle of Austerlitz, sculptor Jean-Joseph Espercieux the Tilsit Conference the surrender of Ulm, sculptor Pierre CartellierThe arch is derivative of the triumphal arches of the Roman Empire, in particular that of Septimius Severus in Rome.
The subjects of the bas-reliefs devoted to the battles were selected by the director of the Napoleon Museum, Vivant Denon, designed by Charles Meynier. The upper frieze on the on entablement has sculptures of soldiers: Auguste Marie Taunay's cuirassier, Charles-Louis Corbet's dragoon, Joseph Chinard's horse grenadier and Jacques-Edme Dumont's sapper; the quadriga atop the entablement is a copy of the so-called Horses of Saint Mark that adorn the top of the main door of the St Mark's Basilica in Venice but during both French empires the originals were brought up for special occasions. Designed by Charles Percier and Pierre François Léonard Fontaine, the arch was built between 1806 and 1808 by the Emperor Napoleon I, on the model of the Arch of Constantine in Rome, as a gateway of the Tuileries Palace, the Imperial residence; the destruction of the Tuileries Palace during the Paris Commune in 1871, allowed an unobstructed view west towards the Arc de Triomphe. It was surmounted by the Horses of Saint Mark from Saint Mark's Cathedral in Venice, captured in 1798 by Napoleon.
In 1815, following the Battle of Waterloo and the Bourbon restoration, France ceded the quadriga to the Austrian Empire which had annexed Venice under the terms of the Congress of Vienna. The Austrians returned the statuary to Venice; the horses of Saint Mark were replaced in 1828 by a quadriga sculpted by Baron François Joseph Bosio, depicting Peace riding in a triumphal chariot led by gilded Victories on both sides. The composition commemorates the Restoration of the Bourbons following Napoleon's downfall; the Arc du Carrousel inspired the design of Marble Arch, constructed in London between 1826 and 1833. The Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel is at the eastern end of Paris Axe historique, a nine-kilometre-long linear route which dominates much of the northwestern quadrant of the city. Looking west, the arch is aligned with the obelisk in the Place de la Concorde, the centerline of the grand boulevard Champs-Élysées, the Arc de Triomphe at the Place de l'Étoile, although it is not directly visible from the Place du Carrousel, the Grande Arche de la Défense.
Thus, the axis ends with an arch. When the Arc du Carrousel was built, however, an observer in the Place du Carrousel was impeded from any view westward; the central part of the Palais des Tuileries intervened to block the line of sight to the west. When the Tuileries was burned down during the Paris Commune in 1871, its ruins were swept away, the great axis, as it presently exists, was opened all the way to the Place du Carrousel and the Louvre
Panthéon-Assas University referred to as Assas, Paris II, or Sorbonne-Assas, is a public university in Paris, France. Panthéon-Assas is renowned for excellence in law and described as the top law school in France, it is considered as the direct inheritor of the Paris Law School since most of the latter’s law professors went to Panthéon-Assas and its main campuses are the same ones of those of the Paris Law Faculty, from which its name comes. It provides law courses for the Sorbonne University and may become its faculty of law. Since its founding in 1971, it has produced two presidents, four prime ministers, the holders of thirty-seven other ministerships in France and around the world. Forty alumni of the university have been members of various parliaments as well; the majority of the nineteen campuses of Panthéon-Assas are located in the Latin Quarter, with the main campuses on place du Panthéon and rue d'Assas. The university is composed of five departments specializing in law and media, economics and private management, political science and hosts twenty-four research centres and five specialized doctoral schools.
Every year, the university enrolls 18,000 students, including 3,000 international students. When the University of Paris, founded in the middle of the 12th century, which ceased to exist on 31 December 1970, following the student protests of 1969, the Faculty of Law and Economics of Paris professors had to choose the future of the university. Most of the law professors of the faculty of law and economics wished only to restructure their faculty into a new university. In pursuit of this, they founded with one professors of economics founded the "University of law and social sciences of Paris" or "Paris II". Hence, it is considered as its direct inheritors; some law professors went to other universities inherited from the Sorbonne. The official name of the university was changed to "Panthéon-Assas" in 1990; the name Panthéon Assas is a reference to the main addresses of the pre-1968 faculty of law of Paris, which are now part of the university. The university is referred to as "Assas" or "Paris II" and "Sorbonne Law School".
Panthéon-Assas is providing law courses for the Sorbonne University and may become its faculty of law. The university has one in the city of Melun; the administration offices and postgraduate studies are located in the structure designed by Jacques-Germain Soufflot and built in the late eighteenth century for the faculty of law of the University of Paris, on the plaza that rings the Pantheon. It is registered among the national heritage sites of France; the largest campus of Panthéon-Assas is located on rue d'Assas and receives second-year to four-year law students. It was designed by Charles Lemaresquier, Alain le Normand and François Carpentier to accommodate the growing number of students at the University of Paris, it was built between 1963 on the former grounds of Société Marinoni. At the time of its inauguration, its main lecture theatre was the vastest in France, with 1,700 seats; the scene at the Cairo airport from OSS 117: Cairo, Nest of Spies was filmed in its entrance hall. The campus on rue de Vaugirard gathers first-year students.
It is located in the chapel wing of the defunct Jesuit College of the Immaculate Conception, where Charles de Gaulle had been a pupil. The structure is a national heritage site as well; the campus on rue Charcot receives master students of economics. South-east of Paris, the campus in Melun, which opened in 1987, gathers over a thousand first-cycle students who do not reside in Paris; the campus in Melun hosts local first-year students. It is located on Saint-Étienne Island, among Roman and Gothic remains; the Institute of Law and Economics of Pantheon-Assas University is located there. Assas building, going under renovation during the last ten years, has been redesigned and now hosts a modern learning center; the campus in Melun has an extension under work. The university houses five academic departments: one for private law and criminal sciences, one for public law and political science, one for Roman law and legal history, one for economics and management, one for journalism and communication.
In all, Panthéon-Assas comprises about two dozens of research centres, including the Institute of Higher International Studies, the Paris Institute of Comparative Law, the Paris Institute of Criminology. In July 2012, Panthéon-Assas became the first university in France to open preparatory classes for the bar school entrance examination, which were until this point the monopole of private preparatory schools. In 2013, the university set up a distance learning degree in law. Panthéon-Assas is governed by an administration council, a scientific council, a council for studies and university life. Members of these boards serve two year te
Arc de Triomphe
The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile is one of the most famous monuments in Paris, standing at the western end of the Champs-Élysées at the centre of Place Charles de Gaulle named Place de l'Étoile — the étoile or "star" of the juncture formed by its twelve radiating avenues. The location of the arc and the plaza is shared between 16th, 17th and 8th; the Arc de Triomphe honours those who fought and died for France in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, with the names of all French victories and generals inscribed on its inner and outer surfaces. Beneath its vault lies the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier from World War I; as the central cohesive element of the Axe historique, the Arc de Triomphe was designed by Jean Chalgrin in 1806, its iconographic program pits heroically nude French youths against bearded Germanic warriors in chain mail. It set the tone for public monuments with triumphant patriotic messages. Inspired by the Arch of Titus in Rome, the Arc de Triomphe has an overall height of 50 metres, width of 45 m and depth of 22 m, while its large vault is 29.19 m high and 14.62 m wide.
The smaller transverse vaults are 8.44 m wide. Three weeks after the Paris victory parade in 1919, Charles Godefroy flew his Nieuport biplane under the arch's primary vault, with the event captured on newsreel. Paris's Arc de Triomphe was the tallest triumphal arch until the completion of the Monumento a la Revolución in Mexico City in 1938, 67 metres high; the Arch of Triumph in Pyongyang, completed in 1982, is modelled on the Arc de Triomphe and is taller at 60 m. La Grande Arche in La Defense near Paris is 110 metres high. Although it is not named an Arc de Triomphe, it has been designed on the same model and in the perspective of the Arc de Triomphe, it qualifies as the world's tallest arch. The Arc de Triomphe is located on the right bank of the Seine at the centre of a dodecagonal configuration of twelve radiating avenues, it was commissioned in 1806 after the victory at Austerlitz by Emperor Napoleon at the peak of his fortunes. Laying the foundations alone took two years and, in 1810, when Napoleon entered Paris from the west with his bride Archduchess Marie-Louise of Austria, he had a wooden mock-up of the completed arch constructed.
The architect, Jean Chalgrin, died in 1811 and the work was taken over by Jean-Nicolas Huyot. During the Bourbon Restoration, construction was halted and it would not be completed until the reign of King Louis-Philippe, between 1833 and 1836, by the architects Goust Huyot, under the direction of Héricart de Thury. On 15 December 1840, brought back to France from Saint Helena, Napoleon's remains passed under it on their way to the Emperor's final resting place at the Invalides. Prior to burial in the Panthéon, the body of Victor Hugo was displayed under the Arc during the night of 22 May 1885; the sword carried by the Republic in the Marseillaise relief broke off on the day, it is said, that the Battle of Verdun began in 1916. The relief was hidden by tarpaulins to conceal the accident and avoid any undesired ominous interpretations. On 7 August 1919, Charles Godefroy flew his biplane under the Arc. Jean Navarre was the pilot, tasked to make the flight, but he died on 10 July 1919 when he crashed near Villacoublay while training for the flight.
Following its construction, the Arc de Triomphe became the rallying point of French troops parading after successful military campaigns and for the annual Bastille Day military parade. Famous victory marches around or under the Arc have included the Germans in 1871, the French in 1919, the Germans in 1940, the French and Allies in 1944 and 1945. A United States postage stamp of 1945 shows the Arc de Triomphe in the background as victorious American troops march down the Champs-Élysées and U. S. airplanes fly overhead on 29 August 1944. After the interment of the Unknown Soldier, all military parades have avoided marching through the actual arch; the route taken is up to the arch and around its side, out of respect for the tomb and its symbolism. Both Hitler in 1940 and de Gaulle in 1944 observed this custom. By the early 1960s, the monument had grown blackened from coal soot and automobile exhaust, during 1965–1966 it was cleaned through bleaching. In the prolongation of the Avenue des Champs-Élysées, a new arch, the Grande Arche de la Défense, was built in 1982, completing the line of monuments that forms Paris's Axe historique.
After the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel and the Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile, the Grande Arche is the third arch built on the same perspective. In 1995, the Armed Islamic Group of Algeria placed a bomb near the Arc de Triomphe which wounded 17 people as part of a campaign of bombings. In late 2018, the Arc de Triomphe suffered acts of vandalism as part of the Yellow vests movement protests; the astylar design is in the Neoclassical version of ancient Roman architecture. Major academic sculptors of France are represented in the sculpture of the Arc de Triomphe: Jean-Pierre Cortot; the main sculptures are not integral friezes but are treated as independent trophies applied to the vast ashlar masonry masses, not unlike the gilt-bronze appliqués on Empire furniture. The four sculptural groups at the base of the Ar
University of Paris
The University of Paris, metonymically known as the Sorbonne, was a university in Paris, active 1150–1793, 1806–1970. Emerging around 1150 as a corporation associated with the cathedral school of Notre Dame de Paris, it was considered the second oldest university in Europe. Chartered in 1200 by King Philip II of France and recognised in 1215 by Pope Innocent III, it was often nicknamed after its theological College of Sorbonne, in turn founded by Robert de Sorbon and chartered by French King Saint Louis around 1257. Internationally reputed for its academic performance in the humanities since the Middle Ages – notably in theology and philosophy – it introduced several academic standards and traditions that have endured since and spread internationally, such as doctoral degrees and student nations. Vast numbers of popes, royalty and intellectuals were educated at the University of Paris. A few of the colleges of the time are still visible close to Pantheon and Luxembourg Gardens: Collège des Bernardins, Hotel de Cluny, College Sainte Barbe, College d'Harcourt, Cordeliers.
In 1793, during the French Revolution, the university was closed and by Item-27 of the Revolutionary Convention, the college endowments and buildings were sold. A new University of France replaced it in 1806 with four independent faculties: the Faculty of Humanities, the Faculty of Law, the Faculty of Science, the Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Theology. In 1970, following the May 1968 events, the university was divided into 13 autonomous universities. Although all the thirteen universities that resulted of the original University of Paris split can be considered its inheritors, just three universities of the post-1968 universities embodied direct faculties successors while inheriting the name "Sorbonne", as well as its physical location in the Latin Quarter: the Pantheon-Sorbonne University. From 2010, University of Paris successors started to reorganise themselves into different groups of universities and institutions that were upgraded to "pôles de recherche et d'enseignement supérieur".
As a result, various university groups exist in the Paris area, among them Sorbonne Paris Cité, Sorbonne Universities, the University of Paris-Saclay, Paris Lumiéres, Paris-Seine, so on. In January 2018, two of the inheritors of the old University of Paris, Paris-Sorbonne University and Pierre and Marie Curie University, merged into a single university called Sorbonne University. In 2019, two other inheritors of the University of Paris, namely Paris Diderot University and Paris Descartes University, are expected to merge. In 1150, the future University of Paris was a student-teacher corporation operating as an annex of the Notre-Dame cathedral school; the earliest historical reference to it is found in Matthew of Paris' reference to the studies of his own teacher and his acceptance into "the fellowship of the elect Masters" there in about 1170, it is known that Pope Innocent III completed his studies there in 1182 at the age of 21. The corporation was formally recognised as an "Universitas" in an edict by King Philippe-Auguste in 1200: in it, among other accommodations granted to future students, he allowed the corporation to operate under ecclesiastic law which would be governed by the elders of the Notre-Dame Cathedral school, assured all those completing courses there that they would be granted a diploma.
The university had four faculties: Arts, Medicine and Theology. The Faculty of Arts was the lowest in rank, but the largest, as students had to graduate there in order to be admitted to one of the higher faculties; the students were divided into four nationes according to language or regional origin: France, Normandy and England. The last came to be known as the Alemannian nation. Recruitment to each nation was wider than the names might imply: the English-German nation included students from Scandinavia and Eastern Europe; the faculty and nation system of the University of Paris became the model for all medieval universities. Under the governance of the Church, students wore robes and shaved the tops of their heads in tonsure, to signify they were under the protection of the church. Students followed the rules and laws of the Church and were not subject to the king's laws or courts; this presented problems for the city of Paris, as students ran wild, its official had to appeal to Church courts for justice.
Students were very young, entering the school at 13 or 14 years of age and staying for six to 12 years. Three schools were famous in Paris: the palatine or palace school, the school of Notre-Dame, that of Sainte-Geneviève Abbey; the decline of royalty brought about the decline of the first. The other two did not have much visibility in the early centuries; the glory of the palatine school doubtless eclipsed theirs, until it gave way to them. These two centres were much frequented and many of their masters were esteemed for their learning; the first renowned professor at the school of Ste-Geneviève was Hubold, who lived in the tenth century. Not content with the courses at Liège, he continued his studies at Paris, entered or allied himself with the chapter of Ste-Geneviève, attracted many pupils via his teaching. Distinguished professors from the school of Notre-Dame in the eleventh century incl
Arrondissements of Paris
The city of Paris is divided into twenty arrondissements municipaux, administrative districts, more referred to as arrondissements. These are not to be confused with departmental arrondissements, which subdivide the 100 French départements; the word "arrondissement", when applied to Paris, refers always to the municipal arrondissements listed below. The number of the arrondissement is indicated by the last two digits in most Parisian postal codes; the twenty arrondissements are arranged in the form of a clockwise spiral, starting from the middle of the city, with the first on the Right Bank of the Seine. Lyon and Marseille have, more also been subdivided into arrondissements. In French, notably on street signs, the number is given in Roman numerals. For example, the Eiffel Tower belongs to the VIIe arrondissement while Gare de l'Est is in the Xe arrondissement. In daily speech, people use only the ordinal number corresponding to the arrondissement, e.g. "Elle habite dans le sixième", "She lives in the 6th".
Notes: 1. With the Bois de Vincennes 2. Without the Bois de Vincennes 3. With the Bois de Boulogne 4. Without the Bois de Boulogne 5. 2005 is the year of the most recent official estimate. Paris thus has eighty quartiers administratifs, each containing a police station. For a table giving the names of the eighty quartiers, see Quarters of Paris. On 11 October 1795, Paris was divided into twelve arrondissements, they were numbered from west to east, with the numbers 1-9 situated on the Right Bank of the Seine and the numbers 10-12 on the Left Bank. Each arrondissement was subdivided into four quartiers, which corresponded to the 48 original districts created in 1790. Emperor Napoleon III and the Prefect of the Seine Baron Haussmann developed a plan to incorporate several of the surrounding communes into the Paris jurisdiction in the late 1850s. Parliament passed the necessary legislation in 1859, the expansion took effect when the law was promulgated on 3 November 1859; the previous twelve arrondissements were reorganized from twelve arrondissements into twenty.
When Haussmann released his plan for the new boundaries and numbering system, residents of Passy objected because it placed them in the new thirteenth arrondissement, at the time the expression "they were married in the thirteenth" was "a jocular way of referring to non-marital cohabitation". The mayor of Passy, devised the idea of a numbering the arrondissements in a spiral pattern beginning with the first centered on the imperial palaces, which put Passy in the sixteenth. In historical records, when it is important to distinguish between two systems, the original arrondissements are indicated by adding the term ancienne, for example, 2ème ancienne or 7ème anc. Both a city and a département, Paris has since 1982 and the PLM law both a city council and 20 arrondissement councils; the PLM law set limits to the prerogatives of the mayor of Paris, who has to deal with the powers granted to the prefect of police on security issues. The 20 arrondissement councils are similar in operation to the municipal council but with few powers.
Its members are elected at municipal elections in the same way as in municipalities with more than 3,500 inhabitants. The arrondissement council is made up of 2/3 arrondissement councilors and 1/3 of city councilors, elected in the arrondissement but who sit on the Paris city council. At its first meeting after the elections, each arrondissement council elects its mayor. Arrondissement, for other uses of the term. Historical quarters of Paris Paris, je t'aime, film composed of five-minute sequences on each arrondissement Administration of Paris Official Paris website Diagrams of each arrondissement showing its quartiers administratifs Website showing location, numbering conventions, general info for arrondissements Map of Paris arrondissements