A latrine is a toilet or an simpler facility, used as a toilet within a sanitation system. For example, it can be a communal trench in the earth in a camp to be used as emergency sanitation, a hole in the ground, or more advanced designs, including pour-flush systems; the term "latrine" is still used in emergency sanitation situations. Nowadays, the word "toilet" is more used than "latrine", except for simple systems like "pit latrine" or "trench latrine"; the use of latrines was a major advancement in sanitation over more basic practices such as open defecation, helped control the spread of many waterborne diseases The word "latrine" is derived from the Latin lavatrina, meaning bath. It is nowadays still used in the term "pit latrine", it has the connotation of something being less hygienic than a standard toilet. It is used to describe communal facilities, such as the shallow-trench latrines used in emergency sanitation situations, e.g. after an earthquake, flood or other natural disaster. Many forms of latrine technology have been used, from simple to more complex.
The more sophisticated the system, the more that the term "toilet" is used instead of "latrine". A pit latrine is a inexpensive toilet, minimally defined as a hole in the ground. More sophisticated pit latrines may include a floor plate, or ventilation to reduce odor and fly and mosquito breeding. Many military units, if intended for extended use, place basic shelters and seating over the pits. A pit is sited well away from any water sources to minimize possible contamination. After prolonged use, a pit is buried. Other types of pit latrines may include the Reed Odourless Earth Closet, the arborloo or treebog, or the twin pit pour-flush pit latrine, popularized by Sulabh International; the shelter that covers such a pit latrine is known in some varieties of English as an outhouse. In a location without longer term sanitation infrastructure, such as for emergency sanitation, a trench latrine is a workable solution, it consists of a pit or a trench in the ground, 4 feet to 5 feet deep and 4 feet to 20 feet long.
A slit-trench latrine consists of a shallow trench, narrow enough to stand with one leg on either side. This type is used either by squatting, with the users' legs straddling the pit, or by various arrangements for sitting or leaning against a support structure; such support may be a log, branch or similar arrangement placed at right angles to the long axis of the pit. This type of latrine is not found in developing countries but can be used for emergency sanitation; the shallow-trench latrine is wider than the latter. It is shallow, with a depth of about 150 mm; this type of latrine is used in the initial phases of emergencies and is a simple improvement on open defecation fields. A rule of thumb in emergency sanitation provision is to allow 0.25 m2 of land per person per day. This means nearly two hectares per week. Men’s and women’s areas should always be separated. An aqua privy is a small septic tank located directly below a dry toilet squatting pan or bowl which has a drop pipe extending below the liquid level in the tank to form a simple water seal to minimise odors.
Campers refer to a cathole -- a shallow scrape. Emergency sanitation Reredorter, medieval monastic latrine
A bidet shower, is a hand-held triggered nozzle, placed near the toilet and delivers a spray of water used for anal cleansing and cleaning of the genitals after using the toilet for defecation and urination. The device is similar to that on a kitchen sink sprayer; the health faucet is a source of water for people who prefer using water rather than other methods of cleansing after defecation or urination. The shower is an alternative for the traditional sources of water for this action, such as the bidet, copper pot or bucket and mug, being more hygienic and compact. There is no contact between the spray of the used water drainage; the user grasps the faucet in the right hand and uses the thumb or forefinger to aim a spray of water at the anus or genitals to assist cleansing after using the toilet. The bidet shower is common in all predominantly Islamic countries and in most parts of Asia where water is considered essential for anal cleansing; this includes Egypt, Pakistan, Iran, Maldives, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Singapore and Cambodia.
In those countries it is installed in Western-style toilet installations. In Thailand, it is common in squat toilet installations; the bidet shower is similar in intent, if not method of use, to the Japanese washlet-style toilet seats, or so-called "electronic bidets". Bidet showers are used by Muslims in Muslim countries and all parts of the Arab world as well as in Asia in order to cleanse themselves with water after using the toilet. Here, water is used instead of, or together with, toilet paper for cleaning after defecation. In Europe, the bidet shower is used for example in Estonia. Bidets are more common bathroom fixtures in many southern European countries
Toilet paper, sometimes called toilet tissue in Britain, is a tissue paper product people use to clean the anus and surrounding area of fecal material after defecation and to clean the perineal area of urine after urination and other bodily fluid releases. It acts as a layer of protection for the hands during these processes, it is supplied as a long strip of perforated paper wrapped around a paperboard core for storage in a dispenser near a toilet. Most modern toilet paper in the developed world is designed to decompose in septic tanks, whereas some other bathroom and facial tissues are not. Toilet paper comes in various numbers of plies, from one- to six-ply, with more back-to-back plies providing greater strength and absorbency; the use of paper for hygiene has been recorded in China in the 6th century AD, with manufactured toilet paper being mass-produced in the 14th century. Modern commercial toilet paper originated in the 19th century, with a patent for roll-based dispensers being made in 1883.
Although paper had been known as a wrapping and padding material in China since the 2nd century BC, the first documented use of toilet paper in human history dates back to the 6th century AD, in early medieval China. In 589 AD the scholar-official Yan Zhitui wrote about the use of toilet paper: Paper on which there are quotations or commentaries from the Five Classics or the names of sages, I dare not use for toilet purposes. During the Tang dynasty, an Arab traveller to China in the year 851 AD remarked:...they do not wash themselves with water when they have done their necessities. During the early 14th century, it was recorded that in what is now Zhejiang province alone, ten million packages of 1,000 to 10,000 sheets of toilet paper were manufactured annually. During the Ming dynasty, it was recorded in 1393 that an annual supply of 720,000 sheets of toilet paper was produced for the general use of the imperial court at the capital of Nanjing. From the records of the Imperial Bureau of Supplies of that same year, it was recorded that for the Hongwu Emperor's imperial family alone, there were 15,000 sheets of special soft-fabric toilet paper made, each sheet of toilet paper was perfumed.
Elsewhere, wealthy people wiped themselves with wool, lace or hemp, while less wealthy people used their hand when defecating into rivers, or cleaned themselves with various materials such as rags, wood shavings, grass, stones, moss, snow, plant husks, fruit skins, seashells, or corncobs, depending upon the country and weather conditions or social customs. In Ancient Rome, a sponge on a stick was used, after use, placed back in a pail of vinegar. Several talmudic sources indicating ancient Jewish practice refer to the use of small pebbles carried in a special bag, to the use of dry grass and of the smooth edges of broken pottery jugs; these are all cited in the classic Biblical and Talmudic Medicine by the German physician Julius Preuss. The 16th-century French satirical writer François Rabelais, in Chapter XIII of Book 1 of his novel sequence Gargantua and Pantagruel, has his character Gargantua investigate a great number of ways of cleansing oneself after defecating. Gargantua dismisses the use of paper as ineffective, rhyming that: "Who his foul tail with paper wipes, Shall at his ballocks leave some chips.".
He concludes that "the neck of a goose, well downed" provides an optimum cleansing medium. The rise of publishing by the eighteenth century led to the use of newspapers and cheap editions of popular books for cleansing. Lord Chesterfield, in a letter to his son in 1747, told of a man who purchased a common edition of Horace, of which he tore off a couple of pages, carried them with him to that necessary place, read them first, sent them down as a sacrifice to Cloacina. In many parts of the world where toilet paper or the necessary plumbing for disposal may be unavailable or unaffordable, toilet paper is not used. In many parts of the world people consider using water a much cleaner and more sanitary practice than using paper. Cleansing is performed with other methods or materials, such as water, for example using a bidet, a lota, sand, corn cobs, animal furs, sticks or hands. Joseph Gayetty is credited with being the inventor of modern commercially available toilet paper in the United States.
Gayetty's paper, first introduced in 1857, was available as late as the 1920s. Gayetty's Medicated Paper was sold in packages of flat sheets, watermarked with the inventor's name. Original advertisements for the product used the tagline "The greatest necessity of the age! Gayetty's medicated paper for the water-closet." Seth Wheeler of Albany, New York, obtained the earliest United States patents for toilet paper and dispensers, the types of which were in common use in that country, in 1883. The manufacturing of this product had a long period of refinement, considering that as late as the 1930s, a selling point of the Northern Tissue company was that their toilet paper was "splinter free". Moist toilet paper, called wet wipes, was first introduced in the United Kingdom by Andrex in the 1990s, it has been promoted as being a better method of cleaning than dry toilet paper after defecation, may be useful for women during menstruation. It was promoted as a flushable product but it has been implicated in the creation of fatbergs.
A toilet is a piece of hardware used for the collection or disposal of human urine and feces. In other words: "Toilets are sanitation facilities at the user interface that allow the safe and convenient urination and defecation". Toilets can be without flushing water, they can be set up for a squatting posture. Flush toilets are connected to a sewer system in urban areas and to septic tanks in less built-up areas. Dry toilets are connected to a pit, removable container, composting chamber, or other storage and treatment device. Toilets are made of ceramic, plastic, or wood. In private homes, the toilet, bath, or shower may be in the same room. Another option is to have one room for body washing and a separate room for the toilet and handwashing sink. Public toilets consist of one or more toilets. Portable toilets or chemical toilets may be brought in for temporary gatherings. Many poor households in developing countries use basic, unhygienic toilets, for example simple pit latrines and bucket toilets which are placed in outhouses.
Globally, nearly one billion people have no access to a toilet at all, are forced to do open defecation. Diseases transmitted via the fecal-oral route or via water, such as cholera and diarrhea, can be spread by open defecation, they can be spread by unsafe toilets which cause pollution of surface water or groundwater. Sanitation has been a concern from the earliest stages of human settlements; the Sustainable Development Goal Number 6 calls for "adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation by 2030". The number of different types of toilets used on a worldwide level is large. Toilet types can be grouped by: Having a water seal or not Being used in a sitting or squatting position Being located at a household level or in public People use different toilet types based on the country that they are in. In developing countries, access to toilets is related to people's socio-economic status. Poor people in low-income countries have no toilets at all and resort to open defecation instead.
This is part of the sanitation crisis which international initiatives such as World Toilet Day draw attention to. A typical flush toilet is a ceramic bowl connected on the "up" side to a cistern that enables rapid filling with water, on the "down" side to a drain pipe that removes the effluent; when a toilet is flushed, the sewage should flow into a septic tank or into a system connected to a sewage treatment plant. However, in many developing countries, this treatment step does not take place; the water in the toilet bowl is connected to a pipe shaped like an upside-down U. One side of the U channel is arranged as a siphon tube longer; the siphon tube connects to the drain. The bottom of the drain pipe limits the height of the water in the bowl before it flows down the drain; the water in the bowl acts as a barrier to sewer gas entering the building. Sewer gas escapes through a vent pipe attached to the sewer line; the amount of water used by conventional flush toilets makes up a significant portion of personal daily water usage.
However, modern low flush toilet designs allow the use of much less water per flush. Dual flush toilets allow the user to select between a flush for urine or feces, saving a significant amount of water over conventional units; the flush handle on these toilets is pushed up for one kind of flush and down for the other. Another design is to have one for urination and the other for defecation. In some places, users are encouraged not to flush after urination. Flushing toilets can be plumbed to use greywater rather than potable water; some modern toilets pressurize the water in the tank, which initiates flushing action with less water usage. Another variant is the pour-flush toilet; this type of flush toilet has no cistern but is flushed manually with a few liters of a small bucket. The flushing can use as little as 2–3 litres; this type of toilet is common in many Asian countries. The toilet can be connected to one or two pits, in which case it is called a "pour flush pit latrine" or a "twin pit pour flush to pit latrine".
It can be connected to a septic tank. Flush toilets on ships are flushed with seawater. "High-tech" toilets, which can be found in countries like Japan, include features such as automatic-flushing mechanisms. Others include medical monitoring features such as urine and stool analysis and the checking of blood pressure and blood sugar; some toilets have automatic lid operation, heated seats, deodorizing fans, or automated replacement of paper toilet-seat-covers. Interactive urinals have been developed in several countries; the "Toylet", produced by Sega, uses pressure sensors to detect the flow of urine and translates that into on-screen action. Astronauts on the International Space Station use a space toilet with urine diversion which can recover potable water. A vacuum toilet is a flush toilet that requires little flushing water and is connected to a vacuum sewer system. For example, they are used on trains. Many types of toilets without a water seal (also
A bedpan or bed pan is a receptacle used for the toileting of a bedridden patient in a health care facility, is made of metal, ceramic, or plastic. A bedpan can be used for both fecal discharge. Many diseases can confine a patient to bed, necessitating the use of bedpans, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and dementia. Additionally, many patients may be confined to a bed temporarily as a result of a temporary illness, injury, or surgery, thereby necessitating the use of a bedpan. Bedpans are constructed of stainless steel, easy to clean and durable, but may be cold and uncomfortable to use; the supporting area of some products is small, prolonged use can cause pressure ulcers. To solve these problems, new ergonomic bedpans have been developed, which support the patient with a larger area of warm plastic; some designs cover the genitalia during use, offering protection and an extra measure of privacy. On the other hand, the material is more difficult to sterilize, may become a reservoir for microorganisms.
Fracture bedpans are smaller than standard size bedpans, have one flat end. These bedpans are designed for patients who have had a hip fracture or are recovering from hip replacement; this type of bedpan may be used for those patients who cannot raise their hips high enough or roll over onto a regular size bedpan. In recent years, a bedpan liner made of recycled wood pulp is more popular in UK hospitals. An alternative to the recycled pulp liner is the plastic bedpan liner, which creates a barrier between the waste and the bedpan; some liners are made of biodegradable plastic and contain absorbent powder to eliminate splashing and spills. Liners are used in hospitals to decrease infection, can be purchased and used for home health care. Chamber pot Media related to Bedpans at Wikimedia Commons
The head is a ship's toilet. The name derives from sailing ships in which the toilet area for the regular sailors was placed at the head or bow of the ship. In sailing ships, the toilet was placed in the bow somewhat above the water line with vents or slots cut near the floor level allowing normal wave action to wash out the facility. Only the captain had a private toilet near his quarters, at the stern of the ship in the quarter gallery. In many modern boats, the heads look similar to seated flush toilets but use a system of valves and pumps that brings sea water into the toilet and pumps the waste out through the hull to a drain. In small boats the pump is hand operated; the pump on a marine toilet operates in a "dry" mode. The cleaning mechanism is blocked if too much toilet paper or other fibrous material is put down the pan. Submarine heads face the problem that at greater depths higher water pressure makes it harder to pump the waste out through the hull; as a result, early systems could be complicated, with the head fitted to the US Navy S class submarine being described as taking an engineer to operate.
Making a mistake resulted in waste or seawater being forcibly expelled back into the hull of the submarine. This caused the loss of German submarine U-1206; the toilet on the World War I British E class submarine was considered so poor by the captain of HMS E35 that he preferred the crew to wait to relieve themselves until the submarine surfaced at night. As a result, many submarines only used the heads as an extra storage space for provisions. Aboard sailing ships and during the era when all hands aboard a vessel were men, the heads received most of their use for defecation.
In plumbing, a trap is a device shaped with a bending pipe path to retain fluid to prevent sewer gases from entering buildings while allowing waste materials to pass through. In oil refineries, traps are used to prevent hydrocarbons and other dangerous gases and chemical fumes from escaping through drains. In domestic applications, traps are U, S, Q, or J-shaped pipe located below or within a plumbing fixture. An S-shaped trap is known as an S-bend, it was invented by Alexander Cummings in 1775 but became known as the U-bend following the introduction of the U-shaped trap by Thomas Crapper in 1880. The U-bend could not jam, so, unlike the S-bend, it did not need an overflow; the most common of these traps is referred to as a P-trap. It is the addition of a 90 degree fitting on the outlet side of a U-bend, thereby creating a P-like shape, it is referred to as a sink trap because it is installed under most sinks. Because of its shape, the trap retains some water after the fixture's use; this water creates an air seal that prevents sewer gas from passing from the drain pipes back into the building.
All plumbing fixtures including sinks and showers must be equipped with either an internal or external trap. Toilets always have an internal trap; because it is a localized low-point in the plumbing, sink traps tend to capture dense objects inadvertently dropped down the sink. Traps tend to collect hair, food waste and other debris and limit the size of objects that enter the plumbing system, thereby catching oversized objects. For all of these reasons, most traps may provide a cleanout feature. Where a volume of water may be discharged through the trap, a standpipe may be required to minimize impact to other nearby traps. An S-shaped trap is known as an S-bend, it was invented by Alexander Cumming in 1775 but became known as the U-bend following the introduction of the U-shaped trap by Thomas Crapper in 1880. The new U-bend could not jam, so, unlike the S-bend, it did not need an overflow. Once invented, despite being simple and reasonably reliable, widespread use was slow coming. In Britain, the requirement to use traps was introduced only after the Great Stink in London, in the summer of 1858, when the objectionable smell of the River Thames, an open sewer, affected the nearby Houses of Parliament.
That motivated the legislators to authorise the construction of a modern sewerage system in the city, of which the S-bend was an essential component. As of 2017, only about two-thirds of the world population have access to traps, in spite of the evidence that good sewage systems improve economic productivity in places that employ them. Maintaining the water seal is critical to trap operation; this is avoided by venting the drain pipes downstream of the trap. Plumbing codes provide strict limitations on how far a trap may be located from the nearest vent stack; when a vent cannot be provided, codes may allow the use of an air admittance valve instead. These devices avoid negative pressure in the drain pipe by venting room air into the drain pipe. A "Chicago Loop" is another alternative; when a trap is installed on a fixture, not used—such as a floor drain—the eventual evaporation of the water in the trap must be considered. In these cases, a trap primer may be installed. In some regions of the United States, "S" traps are no longer accepted by the plumbing codes as these traps tend to siphon dry when well vented.
It may be possible to determine whether a household uses an S- or U-bend by the presence of an overflow pipe outlet. What is required instead is a P-trap with proper venting. Certain drum-styled traps are discouraged or banned