Mímir or Mimir is a figure in Norse mythology, renowned for his knowledge and wisdom, beheaded during the Æsir-Vanir War. Afterward, the god Odin carries around Mímir's head and it recites secret knowledge and counsel to him. Mímir is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson of Iceland, in euhemerized form as one of the Æsir in Heimskringla written by Snorri Sturluson in the 13th century. Mímir's name appears in the names of the well Mímisbrunnr, the tree Mímameiðr, the wood Hoddmímis holt. Scholars have proposed that Bestla may be Mímir's sister, therefore Mímir Odin's uncle. Mímir is mentioned in Sigrdrífumál. In Völuspá, Mímir is mentioned in two stanzas. Stanza 28 references Odin's sacrifice of his eye to Mímir's Well, states that Mímir drinks mead every morning "from the Father of the Slain's wager." Stanza 46 describes that, in reference to Ragnarök, the "sons" of Mím are at play while "fate burns", that the god Heimdallr blows the Gjallarhorn, that Mímir's severed head gives counsel to Odin.
The single mention in stanza 14 of Sigrdrífumál is a reference to Mímir's speaking, decollated head. Stanzas 20 and 24 of the poem Fjölsvinnsmál refer to Yggdrasil as Mímameiðr. In chapter 15 of the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning, as owner of his namesake well, Mímir himself drinks from it and gains great knowledge. To drink from the well, he uses the Gjallarhorn, a drinking horn which shares its name with the sounding horn used by Heimdallr intended to announce the onset of Ragnarök; the section further relates that the well is located beneath one of the three roots of Yggdrasil, in the realm of the frost jötnar. Chapter 51 relates that, with the onset of Ragnarök, "Heimdall stands up and blows the Gjallarhorn with all his strength, he wakens all the gods who hold an assembly. Odin now rides to Mimir's Well, seeking council for both his followers; the ash Yggdrasil shakes, nothing, whether in heaven or on earth, is without fear."In the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál, Mímir's name appears in various kennings.
These kennings include "Mím's friend" in three places, "mischief-Mímir", among a list of names for jötunn. Mímir is mentioned in chapters 7 of the saga Ynglinga Saga, as collected in Heimskringla. In chapter 4, Snorri presents a euhemerized account of the Æsir-Vanir War. Snorri states that the two sides tired of the war and both agree to meet to establish a truce; the two sides exchanged hostages. Vanaheimr are described as having sent to Asgard their best men: Njörðr—described as wealthy—and his son Freyr in exchange for Asaland's Hœnir—described here as large and thought of by the people of Vanaheimr well suited to be a chieftain. Additionally, the Æsir send Mímir—described as a man of great understanding—in exchange for Kvasir, who Snorri describes as the wisest man of Vanaheimr. Snorri continues that, upon arrival in Vanaheimr, Hœnir was made chief and Mímir gave him good counsel. However, when Hœnir was at meetings and at the Thing without Mímir by his side, he would always answer the same way: "Let others decide."
Subsequently, the Vanir suspected they had been cheated in the exchange by the Æsir, so they seized Mimir and beheaded him and sent the head to Asgard. Odin took the head of Mímir, embalmed it with herbs so that it would not rot, spoke charms over it, which gave it the power to speak to him and reveal to him secrets; the head of Mímir is again mentioned in chapter 7 in connection with Odin, where Odin is described as keeping Mímir's head with him and that it divulged information from other worlds. On the basis of Hávamál 140 – where Odin learns nine magic songs from the unnamed brother of his mother Bestla – some scholars have theorized that Bestla's brother may in fact be Mímir, Odin's maternal uncle; this means that Mimir's father would be Bölþorn. In the theories of Viktor Rydberg, Mímir's wife is Sinmara, named in the poem Fjölsvinnsmal. According to Rydberg, the byname Sinmara refers to "Mímir-Niðhad"'s "queen ordering Völund's hamstrings to be cut". Mimir, a 1980 bronze and concrete sculpture in Portland, Oregon Nine Herbs Charm, an Anglo-Saxon charm featuring Woden and herbs.
In Norse mythology, Hœnir is one of the Æsir. He is mentioned as the one. In Ynglinga saga, along with Mímir, he went to the Vanir as a hostage to seal a truce after the Æsir-Vanir War. There, Hœnir was indecisive and relied on Mímir for all of his decisions, grunting noncommital answers when Mímir was absent. In Völuspá, at the creation of the first human beings and Embla, Hœnir and Lóðurr help Odin. According to the Prose Edda, Hœnir is said to have given reason to man.'In Gylfaginning, Vili and Vé are mentioned instead. As Snorri Sturluson knew Völuspá, it is possible. According to Völuspá, Hœnir was one of the few gods that would survive Ragnarök. Hœnir has a minor role in Haustlöng and Reginsmál. Hoenir crater on Callisto is named after him. MyNDIR Illustrations of Hœnir from manuscripts and early print books. Clicking on the thumbnail will give you the full image and information concerning it
In Norse mythology, Heimdallr is a god who possesses the resounding horn Gjallarhorn, owns the golden-maned horse Gulltoppr, is called the shining god and the whitest of the gods, has gold teeth, is the son of Nine Mothers. Heimdallr is attested as possessing foreknowledge, keen eyesight and hearing, keeps watch for invaders and the onset of Ragnarök while drinking fine mead in his dwelling Himinbjörg, located where the burning rainbow bridge Bifröst meets the sky. Heimdallr is said to be the originator of social classes among humanity and once regained Freyja's treasured possession Brísingamen while doing battle in the shape of a seal with Loki. Heimdallr and Loki are foretold to kill one another during the events of Ragnarök. Heimdallr is additionally referred to as Rig, Hallinskiði, Vindlér or Vindhlér. Heimdallr is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional material. Two lines of an otherwise lost poem about the god, survive. Due to the problematic and enigmatic nature of these attestations, scholars have produced various theories about the nature of the god, including his apparent relation to rams, that he may be a personification of or connected to the world tree Yggdrasil, potential Indo-European cognates.
The etymology of the name is obscure. Heimdallr may be connected to one of Freyja's names. Heimdallr and its variants are sometimes modernly anglicized as Heimdall. Heimdallr is attested as having three other names; the name Hallinskiði has resulted in a series of attempts at deciphering it. Gullintanni means'the one with the golden teeth'. Vindlér translates as either'the one protecting against the wind' or'wind-sea'. All three have resulted in numerous theories about the god. A lead spindle whorl bearing an Old Norse Younger Futhark inscription that mentions Heimdallr was discovered in Saltfleetby, England on September 1, 2010; the spindle whorl itself is dated from the year 1000 to 1100 AD. On the inscription, the god Heimdallr is mentioned alongside the god Odin and Þjálfi, a name of one of the god Thor's servants. Regarding the inscription reading, John Hines of Cardiff University comments that there is "quite an essay to be written over the uncertainties of translation and identification here.
In the Poetic Edda, Heimdallr is attested in six poems. Heimdallr is mentioned thrice in Völuspá. In the first stanza of the poem, the undead völva reciting the poem calls out for listeners to be silent and refers to Heimdallr: This stanza has led to various scholarly interpretations; the "holy races" have been considered variously as the gods. The notion of humanity as "Heimdallr's sons" is otherwise unattested and has resulted in various interpretations; some scholars have pointed to the prose introduction to the poem Rígsþula, where Heimdallr is said to have once gone about people, slept between couples, so doled out classes among them. In Völuspá, the völva foresees the events of Ragnarök and the role in which Heimdallr and Gjallarhorn will play at its onset. Due to manuscript differences, translations of the stanza vary: Regarding this stanza, scholar Andy Orchard comments that the name Gjallarhorn may here mean "horn of the river Gjöll" as "Gjöll is the name of one of the rivers of the Underworld, whence much wisdom is held to derive", but notes that in the poem Grímnismál Heimdallr is said to drink fine mead in his heavenly home Himinbjörg.
Earlier in the same poem, the völva mentions a scenario involving the hearing or horn of the god Heimdallr: Scholar Paul Schach comments that the stanzas in this section of Völuspá are "all mysterious and obscure, as it was meant to be". Schach details that "Heimdallar hljóð has aroused much speculation. Snorri seems to have confused this word with gjallarhorn, but there is otherwise no attestation of the use of hljóð in the sense of'horn' in Icelandic. Various scholars have read this as "hearing" rather than "horn". Scholar Carolyne Larrington comments that if "hearing" rather than "horn" is understood to appear in this stanza, the stanza indicates that Heimdallr, like Odin, has left a body part in the well. Larrington says that "Odin exchanged one of his eyes for wisdom from Mimir, guardian of the well, while Heimdall seems to have forfeited his ear."In the poem Grímnismál, tortured and thirsty, tells the young Agnar of a number of mythological locations. The eighth location he mentions is Himinbjörg, where he says that Heimdallr drinks fine mead: Regarding the above stanza, Henry Adams Bellows comments that "in this stanza the two functions of Heimdall—as father of humanity and as warder of the gods—seem both to be mentioned, but the second line in the manuscripts is in bad shape, in the editions it is more or less conjecture".
In the poem Lokasenna, Loki flyts with various gods. At one point during the exchanges, the god
Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic peoples, stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia, into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period. The northernmost extension of Germanic mythology, Norse mythology consists of tales of various deities and heroes derived from numerous sources from both before and after the pagan period, including medieval manuscripts, archaeological representations, folk tradition; the source texts mention numerous gods, such as the hammer-wielding, humanity-protecting thunder-god Thor, who relentlessly fights his foes. Most of the surviving mythology centres on the plights of the gods and their interaction with various other beings, such as humanity and the jötnar, beings who may be friends, foes or family members of the gods; the cosmos in Norse mythology consists of Nine Worlds that flank Yggdrasil. Units of time and elements of the cosmology are personified as beings. Various forms of a creation myth are recounted, where the world is created from the flesh of the primordial being Ymir, the first two humans are Ask and Embla.
These worlds are foretold to be reborn after the events of Ragnarök when an immense battle occurs between the gods and their enemies, the world is enveloped in flames, only to be reborn anew. There the surviving gods will meet, the land will be fertile and green, two humans will repopulate the world. Norse mythology has been the subject of scholarly discourse since the 17th century, when key texts were brought to the attention of the intellectual circles of Europe. By way of comparative mythology and historical linguistics, scholars have identified elements of Germanic mythology reaching as far back as Proto-Indo-European mythology. During the modern period, the Romanticist Viking revival re-awoke an interest in the subject matter, references to Norse mythology may now be found throughout modern popular culture; the myths have further been revived in a religious context among adherents of Germanic Neopaganism. The historical religion of the Norse people is referred to as Norse mythology. In certain literature the terms Scandinavian mythology or Nordic mythology have been used.
Norse mythology is attested in dialects of Old Norse, a North Germanic language spoken by the Scandinavian people during the European Middle Ages, the ancestor of modern Scandinavian languages. The majority of these Old Norse texts were created in Iceland, where the oral tradition stemming from the pre-Christian inhabitants of the island was collected and recorded in manuscripts; this occurred in the 13th century. These texts include the Prose Edda, composed in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, the Poetic Edda, a collection of poems from earlier traditional material anonymously compiled in the 13th century; the Prose Edda was composed as a prose manual for producing skaldic poetry—traditional Old Norse poetry composed by skalds. Composed and transmitted orally, skaldic poetry utilizes alliterative verse and various metrical forms; the Prose Edda presents numerous examples of works by various skalds from before and after the Christianization process and frequently refers back to the poems found in the Poetic Edda.
The Poetic Edda consists entirely of poems, with some prose narrative added, this poetry—Eddic poetry—utilizes fewer kennings. In comparison to skaldic poetry, Eddic poetry is unadorned; the Prose Edda features layers of euhemerization, a process in which deities and supernatural beings are presented as having been either actual, magic-wielding human beings who have been deified in time or beings demonized by way of Christian mythology. Texts such as Heimskringla, composed in the 13th century by Snorri and Gesta Danorum, composed in Latin by Saxo Grammaticus in Denmark in the 12th century, are the results of heavy amounts of euhemerization. Numerous further texts, such as the sagas, provide further information; the saga corpus consists of thousands of tales recorded in Old Norse ranging from Icelandic family histories to Migration period tales mentioning historic figures such as Attila the Hun. Objects and monuments such as the Rök Runestone and the Kvinneby amulet feature runic inscriptions—texts written in the runic alphabet, the indigenous alphabet of the Germanic peoples—that mention figures and events from Norse mythology.
Objects from the archaeological record may be interpreted as depictions of subjects from Norse mythology, such as amulets of the god Thor's hammer Mjölnir found among pagan burials and small silver female figures interpreted as valkyries or dísir, beings associated with war, fate or ancestor cults. By way of historical linguistics and comparative mythology, comparisons to other attested branches of Germanic mythology may lend insight. Wider comparisons to the
In Norse mythology, Fárbauti is the jötunn husband of Laufey and the father of Loki, also of Helblindi and Byleistr. He is attested in the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, in the poetry of Viking Age skalds. Fárbauti's name and character are thought to have been inspired by the observation of the natural phenomena surrounding the appearance of wildfire. In the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning, the enthroned figure of High says Loki is the son of the jötunn Fárbauti and that "Laufey or Nál is his mother". In Skáldskaparmál, Fárbauti receives. In chapter 16, Lokakenningar or "ways of referring to Loki" are provided, one of which reads "son of Fárbauti and Laufey, or Nál". In chapter 17, a work by the 10th century skald Úlfr Uggason is quoted referring to Loki as "Fárbauti's sly son". In chapter 22, Fárbauti is referenced in the Haustlöng of 10th century skald Þjóðólfr of Hvinir, where Loki is referred to as "Fárbauti's son". If, as according to Axel Kock, Fárbauti as "dangerous striker" refers to "lightning", the figure would appear to be part of an early nature myth alluding to wildfire being produced by lightning striking dry tinder such as leaves or pine needles.
Though not directly attested in any original source, scholars have considered Loki's brothers Helblindi and Býleistr to be sons of Fárbauti. However, their exact role in the ancient mythic complex surrounding Loki's family remains unclear
Höðr is a blind god and a son of Odin and Frigg in Norse mythology. Tricked and guided by Loki, he shot the mistletoe arrow, to slay the otherwise invulnerable Baldr. According to the Prose Edda and the Poetic Edda, the goddess Frigg, Baldr's mother, made everything in existence swear never to harm Baldr, except for the mistletoe, which she found too unimportant to ask; the gods amused themselves by seeing them fail to do any harm. Loki, the mischief-maker, upon finding out about Baldr's one weakness, made a spear from mistletoe, helped Höðr shoot it at Baldr. In reaction to this and the giantess Rindr gave birth to Váli, who grew to adulthood within a day and slew Höðr; the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus recorded an alternative version of this myth in his Gesta Danorum. In this version, the mortal hero Høtherus and the demi-god Balderus compete for the hand of Nanna. Høtherus slays Balderus. In the Gylfaginning part of Snorri Sturluson's Prose Edda Höðr is introduced in an ominous way. Höðr is not mentioned again.
All things except the mistletoe have sworn an oath not to harm Baldr, so the Æsir throw missiles at him for sport. The Gylfaginning does not say. In fact it states that Baldr cannot be avenged, at least not immediately, it does seem, that Höðr ends up in Hel one way or another for the last mention of him in Gylfaginning is in the description of the post-Ragnarök world. Snorri's source of this knowledge is Völuspá as quoted below. In the Skáldskaparmál section of the Prose Edda several kennings for Höðr are related. None of those kennings, are found in surviving skaldic poetry. Neither are Snorri's kennings for Váli, which are of interest in this context, it is clear from this that Snorri was familiar with the role of Váli as Höðr's slayer though he does not relate that myth in the Gylfaginning prose. Some scholars have speculated that he found it distasteful since Höðr is innocent in his version of the story. Höðr is referred to several times always in the context of Baldr's death; the following strophes are from Völuspá.
This account seems to fit well with the information in the Prose Edda, but here the role of Baldr's avenging brother is emphasized. Baldr and Höðr are mentioned in Völuspá's description of the world after Ragnarök; the poem Vafþrúðnismál informs us that the gods who survive Ragnarök are Viðarr, Váli, Móði and Magni with no mention of Höðr and Baldr. The myth of Baldr's death is referred to in another Eddic poem, Baldrs draumar. Höðr is not mentioned again by name in the Eddas, he is, referred to in Völuspá in skamma. The name of Höðr occurs several times in skaldic poetry as a part of warrior-kennings, thus Höðr brynju, "Höðr of byrnie", is a warrior and so is Höðr víga, "Höðr of battle". Some scholars have found the fact that the poets should want to compare warriors with Höðr to be incongruous with Snorri's description of him as a blind god, unable to harm anyone without assistance, it is possible that this indicates that some of the poets were familiar with other myths about Höðr than the one related in Gylfaginning - some where Höðr has a more active role.
On the other hand, the names of many gods occur in kennings and the poets might not have been particular in using any god name as a part of a kenning. In Gesta Danorum Hotherus is a human hero of the Swedish royal lines, he is gifted in swimming, archery and music and Nanna, daughter of King Gevarus falls in love with him. But at the same time Balderus, son of Othinus, has caught sight of Nanna bathing and fallen violently in love with her, he resolves to his rival. Out hunting, Hotherus is led astray by a mist and meets wood-maidens who control the fortunes of war, they warn him that Balderus has designs on Nanna but tell him that he shouldn't attack him in battle since he is a demigod. Hotherus asks him for his daughter; the king replies that he would gladly favour him but that Balderus has made a like request and he does not want to incur his wrath. Gevarus tells Hotherus that Balderus is invincible but that he knows of one weapon which can defeat him, a sword kept by Mimingus, the satyr of the woods.
Mimingus has another magical artifact, a bracelet that increases the wealth of its owner. Riding through a region of extraordinary cold in a carriage drawn by reindeer, Hotherus captures the satyr with a clever ruse and forces him to yield his artifacts. Hearing about Hotherus's artifacts, king of Saxony, equips a fleet to attack him. Gevarus tells him where to meet Gelderus in battle; when the battle is joined and his men save their missiles while defending themselves against those of the enemy with a testudo formation. With his missiles exhausted, Gelderus is forced to sue for peace, he becomes his ally. Hotherus gains another ally with his eloquent oratory by helping King Helgo of Hålogaland win a bride. Meanwhile, Balderus enters the country of king Gevarus sues for Nanna. Gevarus tells him to learn Nanna's own mind. Balderus is refused. Nanna tells him that because of the great difference in their nature and stature, since he is a demigod, they are not suitable for marriage; as news of Balderus's efforts reaches Hotherus, he and his allies resolve to attack Balderus.
A great naval battle ensues. Thoro in par
Jan de Vries (linguist)
Jan Pieter Marie Laurens de Vries was a Dutch scholar of Germanic linguistics and Germanic mythology, from 1926 to 1945 ordinarius at Leiden University and author of reference works still in use today. During the German occupation of the Netherlands in the Second World War, de Vries was part of the Nederlandsche Kultuurkamer, a National Socialist censorship body corresponding to the Kulturkammer, prominent in the Ahnenerbe. In a 1940 pamphlet and in radio speeches, he demonstrated sympathy for Nazi ideology. After the war, he was stripped of his academic position. De Vries demonstrated anti-democratic views before the war. However, he rejected the doctrine of the "Nordic race", was criticized by influential Nazis for insisting on differentiating Dutch culture from German, for specific actions, such as seeking to found a new journal that would be open to anti-Nazi contributions, planning to make Ethnography a full subject of study at a Catholic university, he refused to join the Nazi Party, in the preface to De Germanen in 1941 warned against "an all too uncritical mode of thought."
At his trial for collaboration the verdict was that in spite of "personal moral integrity" he had committed "very serious political errors." He was sentenced to time served in internment and was able to resume his research and publishing while teaching Dutch from 1948 to 1955 in Oostburg, Zeeuws-Vlaanderen. He died, aged 74, in Utrecht, his scholarly work was not tainted by Nazi ideology, continues to be respected and cited in Germanic studies the two two-volume comprehensive studies, Altgermanische Religionsgeschichte, still the fullest overview of Germanic religion, Altnordische Literaturgeschichte, a basic reference work on Old Norse literature. In the Netherlands his translations and his etymological and place-name work were important. De Vries became member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1938, his membership was suspended in May 1945. Selected publications: Studiën over Færösche Balladen, diss. Amsterdam, 1915. De Wikingen in de lage landen bij de zee, Haarlem, 1923.
Translation: Henrik Ibsen, Zes Voordrachten, Maastricht, 1924. De Germaansche Oudheid, Haarlem, 1930. Contributions to the Study of Othin: Especially in his Relation to Agricultural Practices in Modern Popular Lore, FFC 94, Helsinki, 1931; the Problem of Loki, FFC 110, Helsinki, 1932. Altgermanische Religionsgeschichte, 2 vols. Vol. 1, Berlin-Leipzig: de Gruyter, 1935, 2nd rev. ed. 1956, Vol. 2, Berlin-Leipzig: de Gruyter, 1937, 2nd rev. ed. 1957. Wulfilae Codices Ambrosiani Rescripti, Epistularum Evangelicarum Textum Goticum Exhibentes, Phototypice editi et prooemio instructi a Jano de Vries, Bibliothecae Ambrosianae Codices quam simillime expressi, 3 vols. Turin, 1936. Edda, vertaald en van inleidingen voorzien, Amsterdam, 1938, 2nd rev. ed. Amsterdam, 1942. De Germaansche Oudheid, 1930. De Wetenschap der Volkskunde, Amsterdam, 1941. Altnordische Literaturgeschichte, 2 vols. Vol. 1, Berlin-Leipzig: de Gruyter, 1941, 2nd rev. ed. 1964 repr. 1970, Vol. 2, Berlin: de Gruyter, 1942, rev. ed. 1967 repr.
1970. Die Geistige Welt der Germanen, Halle a.d. Saale: Niemeyer, 1943. De Goden der Germanen, Amsterdam, 1944. Het Nibelungenlied, 2 vols. Vol 1 Sigfried, de Held van Nederland, Vol. 2 Kriemhilds Wraak, Antwerp, 1954. Etymologisch Woordenboek: Waar komen onze woorden en plaatsnamen vandaan?, Utrecht-Antwerp, 1958, 2nd rev. ed. 1959. Heldenlied en Heldensage, Utrecht-Antwerp, 1959. Kelten und Germanen, Bern, 1960. Altnordisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch, Leiden, 1961. Keltische Religion, Stuttgart, 1961. Godsdienstgeschiedenis in Vogelvlucht, Utrecht-Antwerp, 1961. Forschungsgeschichte der Mythologie, Freiburg, 1961. Woordenboek der Noord- en Zuidnederlandse Plaatsnamen, Utrecht-Antwerp, 1962. Mythography