Jane Seymour was Queen of England from 1536 to 1537 as the third wife of King Henry VIII. She succeeded Anne Boleyn as queen consort following the latter's execution in May 1536, she died of postnatal complications less than two weeks after the birth of her only child, a son who became King Edward VI. She was the only one of Henry's wives to receive a queen's funeral, his only consort to be buried beside him in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. Jane, the daughter of Sir John Seymour and Margery Wentworth was born at Wulfhall, although West Bower Manor in Somerset has been suggested, Her birth date is not recorded. Through her maternal grandfather, she was a descendant of King Edward III's son Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence; because of this and King Henry VIII were fifth cousins. She shared a great-grandmother, Elizabeth Cheney, with his second and fifth wives, Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard. Jane was not as educated as Henry's first and second wives, Catherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn.
She could read and write a little, but was much better at needlework and household management, which were considered much more necessary for women. Her needlework was reported to elaborate. After her death, it was noted that Henry was an "enthusiastic embroiderer."Jane became a maid-of-honour in 1532 to Queen Catherine, but may have served her as early as 1527, went on to serve Queen Anne. The first report of Henry VIII's interest in Jane was in February 1536, about three months before Anne's execution. Jane was praised for her gentle, peaceful nature, being referred to as "gentle a lady as I knew" by John Russell and being named as "the Pacific" by the Imperial Ambassador Eustace Chapuys for her peacemaking efforts at court. According to Chapuys, she was of middling stature and pale. However, John Russell stated that she was "the fairest of all the King's wives." Polydore Vergil commented that she was "a woman of the utmost charm in both character and appearance." She was regarded as a meek, gentle and chaste woman, whose large family made her a suitable candidate to give birth to many children.
Henry VIII was betrothed to Jane on 20 May 1536, just one day after Anne Boleyn's execution. They were married at the Palace of Whitehall, London, in the Queen's closet by Bishop Gardiner on 30 May 1536; as a wedding gift he made her a grant of 104 manors in four counties as well as a number of forests and hunting chases for her jointure, the income to support her during their marriage. She was publicly proclaimed queen on 4 June 1536, her well-publicised sympathy for the late Queen Catherine and her daughter Mary showed her to be compassionate and made her a popular figure with the common people and most of the courtiers. She was never crowned because of plague in London. Henry may have been reluctant to have her crowned before she had fulfilled her duty as a queen consort by bearing him a son and a male heir; as queen, Jane was said to be formal. Jane would form a close relationship with Mary; the lavish entertainments and extravagance of the queen's household, which had reached its peak during the time of Anne Boleyn, was replaced by a strict enforcement of decorum.
For example, she banned the French fashions. Politically, Seymour appears to have been conservative, her only reported involvement in national affairs, in 1536, was when she asked for pardons for participants in the Pilgrimage of Grace. Henry is said to have rejected this, reminding her of the fate her predecessor met with when she "meddled in his affairs", her motto as a queen was "Bound to obey and serve." Jane put forth much effort to restore Mary to court and to the royal succession, behind any children that she might have with Henry. Jane brought up the issue of Mary's restoration both before and after she became queen. While she was unable to restore Mary to the line of succession, she was able to reconcile her with Henry. Eustace Chapuys wrote to Charles V of her compassion and efforts on behalf of Mary's return to favour. A letter from Mary to her shows. While it was she who first pushed for the restoration and Elizabeth were not reinstated to the succession until Henry's sixth wife, Catherine Parr, convinced him to do so.
In January 1537, Jane became pregnant. During her pregnancy, she developed a craving for quail, which Henry ordered for her from Calais and Flanders. During the summer, she took no public engagements and led a quiet life, being attended by the royal physicians and the best midwives in the kingdom, she went into confinement in September 1537 and gave birth to the coveted male heir, the future King Edward VI, at two o'clock in the morning on 12 October 1537 at Hampton Court Palace. Edward was christened on 15 October 1537, without his mother in attendance, he was the only legitimate son of Henry VIII to survive infancy. Both of his daughters and Elizabeth, were present and carried Edward's train during the ceremony. Jane's labour had been difficult, lasting two days and three nights because the baby was not well positioned. After the christening, it became clear that she was ill, she died on 24 October 1537 at Hampton Court Palace. Within a few weeks of her death, there were conflicting testimonies concerning the cause of her demise.
In retrospect from the current day, there are various speculations. Acco
The Order of Preachers known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216. Members of the order, who are referred to as Dominicans carry the letters OP after their names, standing for Ordinis Praedicatorum, meaning of the Order of Preachers. Membership in the order includes friars, active sisters, affiliated lay or secular Dominicans. Founded to preach the Gospel and to oppose heresy, the teaching activity of the order and its scholastic organisation placed the Preachers in the forefront of the intellectual life of the Middle Ages; the order is famed for its intellectual tradition, having produced many leading theologians and philosophers. In the year 2017 there were 5,742 Dominican friars, including 4,302 priests; the Dominican Order is headed by the Master of the Order Bruno Cadoré. A number of other names have been used to refer to its members.
In England and other countries the Dominican friars are referred to as "Black Friars" because of the black cappa or cloak they wear over their white habits. Dominicans were "Blackfriars", as opposed to "Whitefriars" or "Greyfriars", they are distinct from the Augustinian Friars who wear a similar habit. In France, the Dominicans were known as "Jacobins" because their convent in Paris was attached to the Church of Saint-Jacques, now disappeared, on the way to Saint-Jacques-du-Haut-Pas, which belonged to the Italian Order of Saint James of Altopascio Sanctus Iacobus in Latin, their identification as Dominicans gave rise to the pun that they were the "Domini canes", or "Hounds of the Lord". The Dominican Order came into being in the Middle Ages at a time when men of God were no longer expected to stay behind the walls of a cloister. Instead, they travelled among the people, taking as their examples the apostles of the primitive Church. Out of this ideal emerged two orders of mendicant friars: one, the Friars Minor, was led by Francis of Assisi.
Like his contemporary, Dominic saw the need for a new type of organization, the quick growth of the Dominicans and Franciscans during their first century of existence confirms that the orders of mendicant friars met a need. Dominic sought to establish a new kind of order, one that would bring the dedication and systematic education of the older monastic orders like the Benedictines to bear on the religious problems of the burgeoning population of cities, but with more organizational flexibility than either monastic orders or the secular clergy; the Order of Preachers was founded in response to a perceived need for informed preaching. Dominic's new order was to be trained to preach in the vernacular languages. Dominic inspired his followers with loyalty to learning and virtue, a deep recognition of the spiritual power of worldly deprivation and the religious state, a developed governmental structure. At the same time, Dominic inspired the members of his order to develop a "mixed" spirituality.
They were both active in preaching, contemplative in study and meditation. The brethren of the Dominican Order were urban and learned, as well as contemplative and mystical in their spirituality. While these traits affected the women of the order, the nuns absorbed the latter characteristics and made those characteristics their own. In England, the Dominican nuns blended these elements with the defining characteristics of English Dominican spirituality and created a spirituality and collective personality that set them apart; as an adolescent, he had a particular love of theology and the Scriptures became the foundation of his spirituality. During his studies in Palencia, Spain, he experienced a dreadful famine, prompting Dominic to sell all of his beloved books and other equipment to help his neighbors. After he completed his studies, Bishop Martin Bazan and Prior Diego d'Achebes appointed Dominic to the cathedral chapter and he became a Canon Regular under the Rule of Saint Augustine and the Constitutions for the cathedral church of Osma.
At the age of twenty-four or twenty-five, he was ordained to the priesthood. In 1203, Dominic de Guzmán joined Diego de Acebo on an embassy to Denmark for the monarchy of Spain, to arrange the marriage between the son of King Alfonso VIII of Castile and a niece of King Valdemar II of Denmark. At that time the south of France was the stronghold of the Cathar movement; the Cathars were a heretical neo-gnostic sect. They believed that matter was evil and only the spirit was good; the Albigensian Crusade was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc, in southern France. Dominic saw the need for a response that would attempt to sway members of the Albigensian movement back to mainstream Christian thought. Dominic became inspired into a reforming zeal after they encountered Albigensian Christians at Toulouse. Diego saw one of the paramount reasons for the spread of the unorthodox movement- the representatives of the Holy Church acted and moved with an offensive amount of pomp and ceremony.
In contrast, the Cathars led ascetic lifestyles. For these reasons, Diego suggested that the papal legates begin to live a reformed apostolic l
Sir Nikolaus Bernhard Leon Pevsner was a German British scholar of the history of art of architecture. Pevsner is best known for his monumental 46-volume series of county-by-county guides, The Buildings of England simply referred to by his surname. Nikolaus Pevsner was born in Leipzig, the son of Hugo Pevsner, a Russian-Jewish fur merchant, his wife, Anna, he attended St. Thomas School and went on to study at several universities, Munich and Frankfurt am Main, before being awarded a doctorate by Leipzig in 1924 for a thesis on the Baroque architecture of Leipzig. In 1923, he married the daughter of distinguished Leipzig lawyer, Alfred Kurlbaum, he worked as an assistant keeper at the Dresden Gallery. He converted to Lutheranism early in life. During this period he became interested in establishing the supremacy of German modernist architecture after becoming aware of Le Corbusier's Pavillon de l'Esprit Nouveau at the Paris Exhibition of 1925. In 1928 he contributed the volume on Italian baroque painting to the Handbuch der Kunstwissenschaft, a multi-volume series providing an overview of the history of European art.
He taught at the University of Göttingen, offering a specialist course on English art and architecture. According to biographer Stephen Games, Pevsner welcomed many of the economic and cultural policies of the early Hitler regime. However, due to Nazi race laws he was forced to resign his lectureship in 1933; that year Pevsner moved to England, settling in Hampstead, where poet Geoffrey Grigson was his neighbour in Wildwood Terrace. Pevsner's first post was an 18-month research fellowship at the University of Birmingham, found for him by friends in Birmingham and funded by the Academic Assistance Council. A study of the role of the designer in the industrial process, the research produced a critical account of design standards in Britain which he published as An Enquiry into Industrial Art in England, he was subsequently employed as a buyer of modern textiles and ceramics for the Gordon Russell furniture showrooms in London. By this time Pevsner had completed Pioneers of the Modern Movement: from William Morris to Walter Gropius, his influential pre-history of what he saw as Walter Gropius's dominance of contemporary design.
Pioneers ardently championed Gropius's first two buildings on the grounds that they summed up all the essential goals of 20th-century architecture. In spite of that, the book remains an important point of reference in the teaching of the history of modern design, helped lay the foundation of Pevsner's career in England as an architectural historian. Since its first publication by Faber & Faber in 1936, it has gone through several editions and been translated into many languages; the English-language edition has been renamed Pioneers of Modern Design. Pevsner was "more German than the Germans" to the extent that he supported "Goebbels in his drive for'pure' non-decadent German art", he was reported as saying of the Nazis: "I want this movement to succeed. There is no alternative but chaos.... There are things worse than Hitlerism." Nonetheless, he was included in the Nazi Black Book as hostile to the Hitler regime. In 1940, Pevsner was taken to the internment camp at Liverpool, as an enemy alien.
Geoffrey Grigson wrote in his Recollections: "When at last two hard-faced Bow Street runners arrived in the early hours of the morning to take... I managed, clutching my pyjama trousers, to catch them up with the best parting present I could think of, an elegant little edition, a new edition, of Shakespeare's Sonnets." Pevsner was released after three months on the intervention of, among others, Frank Pick Director-General of the Ministry of Information. He spent some time in the months after the Blitz clearing bomb debris, wrote reviews and art criticism for the Ministry of Information's Die Zeitung, an anti-Nazi publication for Germans living in England, he completed for Penguin Books the Pelican paperback An Outline of European Architecture, which he had begun to develop while in internment. Outline would go into seven editions, be translated into 16 languages, sell more than half a million copies. In 1942, Pevsner secured two regular positions. From 1936 onwards he had been a frequent contributor to the Architectural Review and from 1943 to 1945 he stood in as its acting editor while the regular editor J. M. Richards was on active service.
Under the AR's influence, Pevsner's approach to modern architecture became more complex and more moderate. Early signs of a lifelong interest in Victorian architecture influenced by the Architectural Review, appeared in a series written under the pseudonym of "Peter F. R. Donner": Pevsner's "Treasure Hunts" guided readers down selected London streets, pointing out architectural treasures of the 19th century, he was closely involved with the Review's proprietor, H. de C. Hastings, in evolving the magazine's theories on picturesque planning. In 1942, Pevsner was appointed a part-time lecturer at Birkbeck College, London, he lectured at Cambridge University for 30 years, having been Slade professor there for a record six years from 1949 to 1955, would become the Slade professorship at Oxford in 1968. Framing all this was his career as a writer and editor. After moving to England, Pevsn
Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII was King of England from 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Henry is best known for his six marriages, in particular his efforts to have his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon, annulled, his disagreement with the Pope on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority. He appointed himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England and dissolved convents and monasteries, for which he was excommunicated. Henry is known as "the father of the Royal Navy". Domestically, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering into England the theory of the divine right of kings. Besides asserting the sovereign's supremacy over the Church of England, he expanded royal power during his reign. Charges of treason and heresy were used to quell dissent, those accused were executed without a formal trial, by means of bills of attainder.
He achieved many of his political aims through the work of his chief ministers, some of whom were banished or executed when they fell out of his favour. Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Richard Rich, Thomas Cranmer all figured prominently in Henry's administration, he was an extravagant spender and used the proceeds from the Dissolution of the Monasteries and acts of the Reformation Parliament to convert into royal revenue the money, paid to Rome. Despite the influx of money from these sources, Henry was continually on the verge of financial ruin due to his personal extravagance as well as his numerous costly and unsuccessful continental wars with King Francis I of France and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. At home, he oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 and following the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 he was the first English monarch to rule as King of Ireland, his contemporaries considered Henry in his prime to be an attractive and accomplished king.
He has been described as "one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the English throne". He was an composer; as he aged, Henry became obese and his health suffered, contributing to his death in 1547. He is characterised in his life as a lustful, egotistical and insecure king, he was succeeded by the issue of his third marriage to Jane Seymour. Born 28 June 1491 at the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, Henry Tudor was the third child and second son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. Of the young Henry's six siblings, only three – Arthur, Prince of Wales, he was baptised by Richard Fox, the Bishop of Exeter, at a church of the Observant Franciscans close to the palace. In 1493, at the age of two, Henry was appointed Constable of Dover Castle and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, he was subsequently appointed Earl Marshal of England and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland at age three, was inducted into the Order of the Bath soon after. The day after the ceremony he was created Duke of York and a month or so made Warden of the Scottish Marches.
In May 1495, he was appointed to the Order of the Garter. The reason for all the appointments to a small child was so his father could keep personal control of lucrative positions and not share them with established families. Henry was given a first-rate education from leading tutors, becoming fluent in Latin and French, learning at least some Italian. Not much is known about his early life – save for his appointments – because he was not expected to become king. In November 1501, Henry played a considerable part in the ceremonies surrounding his brother's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, the youngest surviving child of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile; as Duke of York, Henry used the arms of his father as king, differenced by a label of three points ermine. He was further honoured, on 9 February 1506, by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I who made him a Knight of the Golden Fleece. In 1502, Arthur died at the age of 15 of sweating sickness, just 20 weeks after his marriage to Catherine.
Arthur's death thrust all his duties upon the 10-year-old Henry. After a little debate, Henry became the new Duke of Cornwall in October 1502, the new Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester in February 1503. Henry VII gave the boy few tasks. Young Henry was supervised and did not appear in public; as a result, he ascended the throne "untrained in the exacting art of kingship". Henry VII renewed his efforts to seal a marital alliance between England and Spain, by offering his second son in marriage to Arthur's widow Catherine. Both Isabella and Henry VII were keen on the idea, which had arisen shortly after Arthur's death. On 23 June 1503, a treaty was signed for their marriage, they were betrothed two days later. A papal dispensation was only needed for the "impediment of public honesty" if the marriage had not been consummated as Catherine and her duenna claimed, but Henry VII and the Spanish ambassador set out instead to obtain a dispensation for "affinity", which took account of the possibility of consummation.
Cohabitation was not possible. Isabella's death in 1504, the ensuing problems of succession in Castile, complicated matters, her father preferred her to stay in England, but Henry VII's relations with Ferdinand had deteriorated. Catherine was therefore left in limbo for some time, culminating in Prince Henry's rejection of the marriage as soon he was able, at the age of 14. Ferdinand's solution was to make his daugh
Brooke Priory was a minor house of Augustinian monks in Brooke, Rutland. It was a cell of Kenilworth, it was founded by Hugh de Ferrers before 1153. It was dedicated to St Mary the Virgin; the house was built close to the River Gwash. It was only a small priory, only intended to support three canons; the priory struggled financially, had a rapid succession of priors who felt unable to deal with the priory's poverty. Many saw being sent to Brooke as something of a punishment. In 1298 the Bishop of Lincoln wrote to the Prior of Kenilworth urging him to take action about Brooke; the priory had become "so dilapidated and decayed that it was a scandal to the neighbourhood, the revenues were so mismanaged that if something was not done soon the canons and their servants would have to beg their bread". The final prior, Roger Harwell, was in a dispute with his superiors at Kenilworth, he tried to get himself a large pension for his retirement but the Abbot of Kenilworth felt unable to provide it. When, in 1535, King Henry VIII began his Dissolution of the Monasteries, Prior Harwell lied to the royal commissioners and told them Brooke Priory was independent.
He surrendered the priory for dissolution of his own accord, securing himself in the process an annual pension of £10. At dissolution the priory was described as "for the most ruinous", is recorded as having a small annual income of £46 18s. 9½d. Prior Harwell's actions caused problems for the Abbot of Kenilworth who, on receipt of a 1,000 mark bond, had promised to lease Brooke to a friend of Thomas Cromwell; the abbot wrote to Cromwell, begging him to either release him from the bond. Brooke was never returned, the following year, it was granted to Anthony Cope. After the dissolution the name Brooke survived as a parish name; the priory's land was sold in 1549 to Andrew Noel who built Brooke House, of which only the dovecote and octagon lodge now survives. From a Derby merchant family, Noel used this estate to climb to power. Within 5 years he was sitting in Parliament; the family went on to become Earls of Gainsborough. No trace of the buildings survive, but there are earthworks and crop marks associated with fishpools or outbuildings.
Some of these may date from the English Civil War or the formal gardens of the succeeding Brooke House, itself now gone. Some fragments of the original buildings are thought to have been used in the present sixteenth century house, called "Brooke Priory"; the Brooke Reliquary is a small casket. It is believed to have held a saint's relics; the reliquary was discovered in c.1805, after years of being concealed on the site of Brooke Priory, when building work was carried out in the cellar of Priory House. The reliquary is decorated with Limoges enamel work in shades of blue, red and green with images of Christ with two apostles or saints; the robes on the saints are engraved on copper plates which were gilded, but this has worn away. It is now on display in Rutland County Museum in Oakham; the brevity of most of these appointments may be explained by remarks of John Streetche, who wrote that being sent to the small impoverished house was something of a punishment. "Brooke". Monastic sites from the air.
Cambridge University Press. Pp. 216, 217. Retrieved 26 May 2013. Aerial photograph Gurney, J. Summary report on estate and family papers 12th–20th century. Historical Manuscripts Commission. Retrieved 31 May 2013. Account of the Noel family
Church of St Mary and St Hardulph, Breedon on the Hill
The Priory Church of St Mary and St Hardulph is the Church of England parish church of Breedon on the Hill, England. The church has been known as Breedon Priory and as the Holy Hill Monastery; the church was founded as a monastery in the 7th century, contains the largest collection, some of the finest examples, of Anglo-Saxon sculptures. It contains a notable family pew and Renaissance-era church monuments to the Shirley family, who bought the manor of Breedon after it was surrendered to the Crown in 1539 during the Dissolution of the Monasteries; the largest of these monuments is for Sir George Shirley. It includes a life-sized skeleton carved in alabaster; the church stands on the top of Breedon Hill, within the remains of an Iron Age hill fort called The Bulwarks. The hill is flanked to the south by the 400 houses of Breedon on the Hill village, encroached on the east by Breedon Quarry. Breedon church is a nationally important building, with a Grade I listing for its exceptional architectural interest.
The church was founded as a monastery in about 676 on the site of the Bulwarks hill fort and a hermitage. The church was founded by third son of Penda according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle; the land was given by Friduricus with the stipulation. Friduricus is a candidate for the four saints who are interred here in a now-buried crypt; the hagiography of the Secgan Manuscript records the other three saints buried in Breedon-on-the-Hill are Anglo-Saxon saints Eardwulf of Northumbria, Beonna of Breedon and Cotta of Breedon. Headda was to become a Bishop of Lichfield and in 731, the monastery trained Tatwine to be its abbot, a position he held until 794. Tatwine was known for his rhyming riddles and for his ascension to Archbishop of Canterbury; the lands that supported the monastery were added to by King Aethelred. In 1066, the manor of Breedon was given by William the Conqueror to the de Ferrers family, who became the Earls of Derby. Domesday Book in 1086 records. Breedon priory was founded as an Augustinian monastery in around 1120, on the site of the earlier Saxon Benedictine abbey of Holy Hill Monastery.
The priory was a cell of Nostell Priory in Yorkshire and there seems to have been between three and five canons in residence at any one time from Nostell. Candidates for Prior were usually selected by Nostell. Gervase, a prior of Breedon, attempted to gain independence for the priory from Nostell, but failed and subsequently resigned in 1244. In 1441 a visit from William Alnwick, Bishop of Lincoln, found the monastery to be dilapidated and in debt. By 1535 there was no resident community at the priory, now occupied only by the prior; the Valor Ecclesiasticus of 1535 recorded the priory had an annual income, after expenses, of £24. 10s. 4d. The priory was surrendered for dissolution in November 1539, it was sold to Francis Shirley, head of the local manorial family, who were recusants. After the Dissolution, the eastern part of the priory with the central tower was retained for parish use; the nave and other buildings were demolished. The church has been a Grade I listed building since 1962, which categorises it as a building of exceptional interest.
Interior and exterior locations in and around the church as well as the neighbouring field were used in the 2016'Step into the Light' music video by British rock band Chasing Deer. The church contains a series of important Saxon relief sculpture, some of which may be amongst the earliest to survive in England; these carvings came from the original Saxon abbey church. They are not the earliest finds as neolithic artefacts have been found on the hill. Around the church are many early carvings which are included as stones in the interior walls; however they are wrapped in lead sheet. The carvings are dated to the 9th century and include Celtic patterns, people and other birds that are pecking at vines; the church contains many 16th and 17th century tombs of the Shirley family which bought the monastery site. There are two substantial tomb chests carved from Chellaston alabaster; the oldest chest tomb is for his wife. Around the chest are carved mourners arranged in pairs; this tomb is dated 1571. The other, similar tomb is for John Shirley and his wife, is dated 1585.
Both of these tombs were made by Gabriel Royley of Burton upon Trent. The tomb of Sir Francis Shirley was repaired after 60 years by Thomas Shirley; the latter recorded that after 60 years, Francis' body was well preserved, with only a black mark apparent on one of his toes but with no sign of rot. His body was returned to his tomb. Three substantial tombs were constructed to memorialize Sir George Shirley, his father John, his grandfather Thomas. By far the largest monument dominating the inside of the church is that dedicated to Sir George Shirley, it was made over 20 years before Shirley died in 1622. It consists of three storeys. On the bottom storey is a realistic skeleton carved from alabaster and showing the mortality of those portrayed above; the inclusion of this cadaver in the design was unusual for the time. The second storey is supported on six pillars and the space is divided into two arched spaces. To the right and facing right in prayer is Sir George Shirley with his two sons behind him.
All three figures are dressed in brightly painted period dress and the clothes include details in gold. In the left arch is his wife and two babies. According to the Lati
Elizabeth Seymour, Lady Cromwell
Elizabeth Seymour was the daughter of Sir John Seymour of Wulfhall and Margery Wentworth. Elizabeth and her sister Jane Seymour served in the household of Anne Boleyn, the second wife of Henry VIII. In his quest for a male heir, the king had divorced his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, whose only surviving child was a daughter, Mary, his marriage to Anne Boleyn had resulted in a single daughter, Elizabeth. The queen's miscarriage of a son in January 1536 sealed her fate; the king, convinced that Anne could never give him male children infatuated with Jane Seymour, encouraged by the queen's enemies, was determined to replace her. The Seymours rose to prominence. In May 1536, Anne Boleyn was accused of treason and adultery with Mark Smeaton, a court musician, the courtiers Henry Norris, Sir Francis Weston, William Brereton and her brother, George Boleyn, Viscount Rochford; the trials and executions of the queen and her co-accused followed swiftly, on 30 May 1536, eleven days after Anne's execution, Henry VIII and Jane were married.
Elizabeth was not included in her sister's household during her brief reign, although she would serve two of Henry VIII's wives, Anne of Cleves and Catherine Howard. Jane died 24 October 1537, twelve days after giving birth to a healthy son, Edward VI. Elizabeth was married three times. In 1531, she married Sir Anthony Ughtred, Governor of Jersey, who died in 1534, she married Gregory Cromwell, 1st Baron Cromwell, the son of Thomas Cromwell, chief minister to Henry VIII in 1537, who died in 1551. She married her third and last husband, John Paulet, Lord St John, the son of William Paulet, 1st Marquess of Winchester in 1554; the Seymour family took its name from St. Maur-sur-Loire in Touraine. William de St. Maur in 1240 held the manors of Woundy. William's great-grandson, Sir Roger de St. Maur, had two sons: John, whose granddaughter conveyed these manors by marriage into the family of Bowlay of Penhow, who bore the Seymour arms. Cicely brought to the Seymours the manor of Hache and her grandson, Roger Seymour, by his marriage with Maud and heir of Sir William Esturmy, acquired Wolf Hall in Wiltshire.
Elizabeth's father, Sir John Seymour, was a great-great-grandson of this Roger Seymour. Sir John Seymour was born in 1474, he succeeded his father in 1492, was knighted by Henry VII for his services against the Cornish rebels at Blackheath in 1497, was sheriff of Wiltshire in 1508. He was present at the sieges of Thérouanne and Tournay in 1513, at the two interviews between Henry VIII and Francis I in 1520 and 1532, died on 21 December 1536, he married Margery, the daughter of Sir Henry Wentworth of Nettlestead and his wife Anne Say. Anne was the daughter of Sir John Say and his wife, daughter of Lawrence Cheney and Elizabeth Cokayne. Margery Wentworth's grandfather, Sir Philip Wentworth, had married Mary, daughter of John Clifford, 7th Baron de Clifford, whose mother Elizabeth was daughter of Henry Percy and great-great-granddaughter of Edward III. Sir John Seymour, of Wulfhall, Savernake and his wife Margery Wentworth were married 22 October 1494; the couple had ten children: John Seymour Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, Lord Protector of Edward VI married firstly Catherine, daughter of Sir William Fillol, secondly Anne, daughter of Sir Edward Stanhope.
Sir Henry Seymour married Barbara, daughter of Morgan Wolfe Thomas Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley married Catherine Parr, widow of Henry VIII John Seymour Anthony Seymour Jane Seymour, queen Consort of Henry VIII Margery Seymour Elizabeth Seymour Dorothy Seymour married firstly, Sir Clement Smith of Little Baddow and secondly, Thomas Leventhorpe of Shingle Hall, Hertfordshire. Of the ten children born at Wulfhall, six survived:– three sons: Edward and Thomas, three daughters: Jane and Dorothy. Edward, Thomas and Elizabeth were courtiers. Edward and Thomas were both executed during the reign of Edward VI. Henry Seymour, who did not share his brothers' ambition, lived away from court, in relative obscurity, escaped their fate. Elizabeth Seymour was born at Wulfhall around 1518, her letters to Thomas Cromwell and Henry VIII show that she was both astute. She was skilled in needlework Elizabeth played a brief but prominent role in the 1530s and 1540s, during the rise to power of her father-in-law, Thomas Cromwell, her brother, Edward.
Elizabeth and her sister, served in the household of Henry VIII's second wife, Anne Boleyn, their second cousin. She by her first two marriages had seven children, she is best known as the wife of Gregory Cromwell. In January 1531, Elizabeth married, as Sir Anthony Ughtred, of Kexby, Yorkshire; the couple had two children: Henry Ughtred, born at Mont Orgueil, married Elizabeth, daughter to John Paulet, 2nd Marquess of Winchester and his first wife Elizabeth Willoughby and the widow of Sir William Courtenay. After his wife's death in 1576, Henry remarried, however the identity of his second wife is not recorded. Margery Ughtred, married William Hungate of Burnby,Yorkshire. In the same month, Henry VIII granted the couple the