Cinnamomum camphora is a species of evergreen tree, known under the names camphor tree, camphorwood or camphor laurel. Cinnamomum camphora is native to China south of the Yangtze River, southern Japan and Vietnam, has been introduced to many other countries, it grows up to 20–30 m tall. In Japan, where the tree is called kusunoki, five camphor trees are known with a trunk circumference above 20 m, with the largest individual, Kamō no Ōkusu, reaching 24.22 m. The leaves have a waxy appearance and smell of camphor when crushed. In spring, it produces bright green foliage with masses of small white flowers, it produces clusters of berry-like fruit around 1 cm in diameter. Its pale bark is rough and fissured vertically. C. camphora is cultivated for timber production. The production and shipment of camphor, in a solid, waxy form, was a major industry in Taiwan prior to and during the Japanese colonial era, it was used medicinally and was an important ingredient in the production of smokeless gunpowder and celluloid.
Primitive stills were set up in the mountainous areas in which the tree is found. The wood was chipped, it was scraped off and packed out to government-run factories for processing and sale. Camphor was one of the most lucrative of several important government monopolies under the Japanese. Camphor is a white crystalline substance, obtained from the tree C. camphora. Camphor has been used for many centuries as a culinary spice, a component of incense, as a medicine, it is an insect repellent and a flea-killing substance. The species contains volatile chemical compounds in all plant parts, the wood and leaves are steam distilled for the essential oils. Camphor laurel has six different chemical variants called chemotypes, which are camphor, linalool, 1,8-cineole, nerolidol and borneol. In China, field workers avoid mixing chemotypes; the cineole fraction of camphor laurel is used in China to manufacture fake "eucalyptus oil". The chemical variants seem dependent upon the country of origin of the tree.
E.g. C. camphora grown in Taiwan and Japan is very high in linalool between 80 and 85%. In India and Sri Lanka, the high camphor variety/chemotype remains dominant. C. camphora grown in Madagascar, though, is high in 1,8-cineole. The essential oil from the Madagascar trees is commercially known as ravintsara. Camphor laurel was introduced to Australia in 1822 as an ornamental tree for use in gardens and public parks, it has become a noxious weed throughout Queensland and central to northern New South Wales, where it is suited to the wet, subtropical climate. However, the tree provides hollows in younger trees, whereas natives can take hundreds of years to develop hollows; the camphor content of the leaf litter helps prevent other plants from germinating helping to ensure the camphor's success against any competing vegetation, the seeds are attractive to birds and pass intact through the digestive system, ensuring rapid distribution. Camphor laurel invades rainforests and pastures, competes against eucalyptus trees, certain species of which are the sole food source of koalas.
Introduced to the contiguous United States around 1875, C. camphora has become naturalized in portions of Alabama, Florida, Hawaii, Mississippi, North Carolina and South Carolina. It has been declared a category. In Australia, two native Lepidoptera insects, the purple brown-eye and common red-eye, larval stages feed on camphor despite it being an introduced plant. Sandalwood Camphor laurel fact sheet—Produced by the Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries Campaign to stop the spread of camphor laurels in Australia
Rhododendron maximum — its common names include great laurel, great rhododendron, rosebay rhododendron, American rhododendron and big rhododendron — is a species of Rhododendron native to the Appalachians of eastern North America, from Alabama north to coastal Nova Scotia. Rhododendron maximum is an evergreen shrub growing to 4 m 10 m, tall; the leaves are 9–19 cm long and 2–4 cm broad. The flowers are 2.5–3 cm diameter, pink or pale purple with small greenish-yellow spots. The fruit is a dry capsule 15 -- 20 mm long; the leaves can be poisonous. Leaves are sclerophyllous, simple and oblong, it retains its deep-green leaves for up to 8 years, but once shed are slow to decompose. It produces large, white to purple flowers each June. Rosebay rhododendron is the most occurring and dominant species of Rhododendron in the southern Appalachian region, occurs on mesic hill-slopes throughout the upper Piedmont Crescent of the Southeastern United States. 12,000 square miles in the southern Appalachians are occupied by this species where it dominates the understory.
This species has been confined to riparian areas and other mesic sites but takes advantage of disturbed areas where it is present to advance onto sub-mesic sites. It prefers deep well-drained acid soils high in organic matter where it produces a thick, peat-like humus, it prefers low to medium light conditions for optimum carbon gain, has a tremendous capacity for avoiding cavitation during freeze-thaw cycles. Where extensive overstory mortality has eliminated most of the overstory, this species forms a thick and continuous subcanopy known locally as ‘laurel slicks’ or ‘laurel hells’. Rosebay rhododendron is an important structural and functional component of southern Appalachian forest ecosystems. What isn’t clear is whether or not we are in a period of advancement or retreat for this species. For example, on poorly drained sites on ridge or upper slope positions, large areas of rosebay rhododendron at the high elevations, have died out due to the phytophthora fugus, or due to recent prolonged periods of below-average precipitation.
Yet, rosebay rhododendron now occupies sites that were free of evergreen understory. There are still important questions to be answered regarding this species to understand its role in forest understories. Rosebay rhododendron is clonal, it is capable, however, of reproducing both vegetatively and sexually. It reproduces vegetatively through a process called ‘layering’ where it produces roots from above ground woody parts when in contact with the forest floor; the fruit is produced from showy flowers from March to August. The fruit is an oblong capsule that ripens in the fall, splits along the sides soon after ripening to release large numbers of minute seed. Microsite requirements for seed germination are specific. Seeds from rosebay rhododendron are minute and it is estimated that 11 million are contained in 1 kg. Commercial seed production is from cultivated hybrids. Seeds from wild sources are not sold commercially. Rosebay rhododendron is a slow-growing shrub and has a high sprout potential.
If mechanical removal is attempted in the case of forest management high densities are attained by this species in a matter of a few years. Prescribed fire has been used to control this species but with limited success. Rosebay rhododendron is a striking and aesthetically pleasing feature of mesic southern Appalachian forests, it is one of hardiest rhododendrons grown commercially. Several cultivars with white to purple flowers have been selected for the horticultural trade. Where it occurs it produces a showy, pink, or light purple flower in June, but occurs from March into August. Rosebay rhododendron maintains deep-green foliage year round; this species affords shelter for wildlife. The wood is hard and is used for specialty wood products. For all its prized qualities as a occurring component of the landscape or as plantings in residential and commercial landscaping, rosebay rhododendron can have an inhibitory effect on regeneration of other plant species. There is some evidence to suggest that due to fire suppression and the absence of other cultural activities, this species has advanced beyond the mesic forest sites into sub-mesic understories.
The significance of this movement onto unoccupied sites centers around the impacts of rosebay rhododendron on plant succession and resource availability. Rosebay rhododendron is associated with reduced woody and herbaceous seedling abundance throughout its range, hence poses a serious impediment to the production of wood products; the mechanism by which rosebay rhododendron reduces seedling survival has been the subject of much debate. Possible sources of inhibition include allelopathy, competition for resources including light and chemical attributes of the forest floor and soil, interactions between some or all sources. R. maximum has been called: Great rhododendron Late rhododendron Summer rhododendron Great laurel Bigleaf laurel Deertongue l
Prunus lusitanica, the Portugal laurel, is a species of the genus Prunus, related to the cherry. It is native to southwestern France, Portugal and Macaronesia. Prunus lusitanica is rare in the wild, found along mountain streams, preferring sunshine and moist but well-drained soils, it is moderately drought-tolerant. It reproduces either sexually or asexually by cloning from shoots; the species was first scientifically described by Linnaeus in Species Plantarum in 1753. Its specific epithet lusitanica means of the Roman name for Portugal. Prunus lusitanica is an evergreen small tree growing to 3-4m tall, it will grow to 6 m high according to some references. The bark is blackish-brown, The leaves are alternate, oval, 7–12 cm long and 3–5 cm broad, with an acute apex and a dentate margin, glossy dark green above, lighter below, they superficially resemble those of the Bay laurel, which accounts for its being mistaken for one. The flowers are small with five small white petals; the fruit is a small cherry-like drupe 8–13 mm in diameter, green or reddish green at first, turning dark purple or black when ripe in late summer or early autumn.
SubspeciesThree subspecies are accepted: Prunus lusitanica subsp. Lusitanica. Mainland Europe. Prunus lusitanica subsp. Azorica Franco. Azores. Prunus lusitanica subsp. Hixa Franco. Canary Islands, Morocco. Prunus lusitanica is grown as an ornamental shrub and is planted as a hedge and for screening in gardens and parks, it is introduced and locally naturalised in the temperate zone in northern France, Great Britain, New Zealand, the western United States in California and Washington State. Similar to its relative Prunus laurocerasus, P. lusitanica has been recognized by some botanists and land managers in both western Washington and Oregon as invasive. It is thought to have spread from cultivated areas into natural areas by birds who consume and defecate the fruits away from the source plant, it has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. The leaves of Prunus lusitanica contain cyanide and will release this into the environment if burnt or if crushed; the fruit is somewhat edible if ripe, but if it is bitter, it is toxic and should not be eaten
Karaka or New Zealand laurel is an evergreen tree of the family Corynocarpaceae endemic to New Zealand. It is common throughout the North and South Islands to Banks Peninsula and Okarito, on the Three Kings Islands, on Raoul Island in the Kermadecs, on the Chatham Islands, it is widespread in coastal habitats forming a major component of coastal forest, though it dominates. Most botanists consider it to be native only to the northern half of the North Island, having been planted elsewhere by Māori near former village sites, subsequently spread by birds; the common name karaka comes from the Māori language, is the Māori term for the colour orange, from the colour of the fruit. In the Chatham Islands, it is called kōpī, its name in the Moriori language, it is considered invasive in Hawaii. Karaka is a leafy canopy tree with spreading branches, it has a stout trunk up to 1 m in diameter. The thick, leathery leaves are glossy, dark green above and paler beneath, 50–200 mm long, 30–70 mm wide with petioles 10–15 mm long.
In winter and spring, karaka produces erect panicles of tiny flowers. Individual flowers are 4 -- 5 mm in greenish-cream to off-white or pale yellow; the fruit is an ellipsoid to ovoid drupe 25–46 mm long, with pale yellow to orange flesh, containing a single seed. The fruit ripens in summer and autumn and the seeds are dispersed by columbiform birds which eat the fruit; this evergreen tree is a popular place for smaller birds to sleep during the winter. It is of great value to birds and other fauna, including invertebrates that feed on their fruits and disperse their seeds; the ability to bear fruit in winter gives this plant an important ecological value, being a good food source for many species birds, at a time when resources are scarce. Karaka may be grown from fresh seed, but cuttings are difficult to strike. Young plants are sensitive to cold; the tree naturalises in suitable habitats. It is common in cultivation and available for sale both in New Zealand and in suitable climates elsewhere.
It was cultivated by the Māori, who carried its seeds aboard sailing canoes over immense distances of up to 800 km or more to establish nut orchards on the Kermadec Islands and Chatham Islands. However, the raw seeds require special treatment to render them safe to eat; the pulp of the fruit is edible, although bitter, but the fresh kernels contain the toxic alkaloid karakin. Accounts from the 19th century record that extensive processing was used by Māori to convert the kernels to an edible form, mention that if the processing was not done with the greatest care, poisoning would result with symptoms including violent convulsions and severe muscle spasms which could leave the limbs permanently fixed in contorted positions. Death resulted in a few cases; the berries are toxic if may result in death. On the Chatham Islands this tree has played a distinguished role in the history of Moriori people: the soft bark of these trees has been used for making dendroglyphs. A report in 2000 noted the existence of 147 kopi trees with dendroglyphs, though some may not have been authentically Moriori.
Karaka leaves used for scientific research
Kalmia microphylla, known as alpine laurel, bog laurel, swamp-laurel, western bog-laurel or western laurel, is a species of Kalmia belonging to the Ericaceae family. It is native to North America and can be found throughout the western US and western and central Canada below the subarctic. Kalmia, the genus, is named after Swedish-Finn botanist Pehr Kalm, a student of Carl Linnaeus, while microphylla derives from Ancient Greek meaning "small leaves". Kalmia microphylla are characterized as being short, shrubs that have a maximum height of 24 inches and their growth surpasses 6 ft; this plant is mistaken for the K. polifolia "bog-laurel" because of the similar characteristics of their flowers. K. microphylla can be distinguished by their clusters of pink or purple bell shaped flowers. The flowers are held within five fused petals; the stamens held within the petals react to insects that land on them by covering them with pollen. The plant produces green fruits, which are hard in form. Fruits are five parted capsules.
The leaves of this plant are not deciduous. Leaves are distinctly lanceolate in shape with rolled leaf edges, a leathery texture, dark green color; the plant's branches and twigs are fuzzy in early growth and during maturity become smooth and reddish brown to grayish in color. This has active growth during spring and summer; these plants can be found in alpine meadows, open wet areas and bogs. The habitat in which it optimally grows in open heath or shrublands with moist soil; the soil must have low levels of calcium carbonate because the plant is intolerant of alkaline conditions. Distribution of Kalmia microphylla ranges from Alaska to California and now has expanded through much of northern Canada; the kalmias are poisonous plants. This can eliminate mass amounts of mammals. Kalmia microphylla has been used for medicinal purposes in creating external washes for skin diseases; some people use it to help open sores. Although there are some positive aspects of this plant such as for medicinal purposes they should still be used with care because of its poisonous nature.
USDA Plants Profile for Kalmia microphylla
Laurel is a city in northern Prince George's County, Maryland, in the United States, located midway between Washington, D. C. and Baltimore on the banks of the Patuxent River. Founded as a mill town in the early 19th century, the arrival of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad in 1835 expanded local industry and enabled the city to become an early commuter town for Washington and Baltimore workers. Residential today, the city maintains a historic district centered on its Main Street, highlighting its industrial past; the Department of Defense is a prominent presence in the Laurel area today, with the Fort Meade Army base, the National Security Agency, Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory all located nearby. Laurel Park, a thoroughbred horse racetrack, is located just outside city limits. Many dinosaur fossils from the Cretaceous Era are preserved in a 7.5-acre park in Laurel. The site, which among other finds has yielded fossilized teeth from Astrodon and Priconodon species, has been called the most prolific in the eastern United States.
From the Late Glacial age in 10,700 B. C. to 8,500 B. C. Laurel's climate changed from a spruce forest to a hardwood forest. In the Late Archaic period from 4,000 to 1,000 B. C. Laurel would have been covered with an oak and hickory forest. Laurel was formed from land on the fall line of the Patuxent River patented by the Snowden family in 1658 as part of the 12,250-acre New Birmingham plantation, which included the Montpelier; the Washington Turnpike Road Company built Route 1 between 1796 and 1812, creating a major North-South land route. Milstead's Hotel halfway house was built in town to serve four stage lines a day in 1816. Nicholas Snowden built a grist mill on the site circa 1811 which grew to a small cotton mill by the 1820s. In 1828, a detailed survey was conducted to build a canal from Baltimore to Georgetown to connect to the proposed C&O canal; the route from Elkridge Landing to Bladensburg would have built a waterway aligning with modern U. S. Route 1 and Kenilworth Avenue, with special consideration not to harm the water power for Savage Mill.
The project did not go forward. In 1835, coinciding with the opening of the Capital Subdivision rail line from Baltimore to Washington, the Patuxent Manufacturing Company was chartered by Horace Capon, Edward Snowden, Theodore Jenkins, W. C. Shaw, A. E. Hall, O. C. Tiffany and the mill expanded with the addition of the Avondale Mill building in 1844. Mill president Horace Capron with his partners built housing for close to 300 workers, a bigger cotton mill. Cotton duck from the mill was shipped down what would become Laurel's Main Street by rail to Baltimore. A substantial dam was built in 1850; as a mill town, Laurel was somewhat unusual in Prince George's County and was surrounded by agricultural endeavors. The community was known as "Laurel Factory" when Edward Snowden became the first postmaster in 1837 and was a true company town, with a school and shops, many of the mill workers' homes owned until the 1860s by the company. During the 1840s, three historic churches in the community—the Methodist Est.
1842, St. Mary of the Mills Est. 1845, St. Philip's Est. 1839 —established what are still vigorous congregations. During the Civil War, Laurel Factory, like much of Maryland, was a divided community, but with many Southern sympathizers. Union soldiers patrolled the railroad, for a time there was a Union hospital. During the latter half of the 19th century, while it still operated its factories, manufacturing played a less important role in the community. Laurel evolved into an early suburban town. Many of its residents commuted by rail to jobs in Baltimore; the town was incorporated in 1870 and reincorporated in 1890 to coincide with a new electric power plant and paved streets and boarded sidewalks. By this time, the town had grown to a population of 2,080, the city banned livestock from the streets. In 1870, the Patuxent Bank of Laurel was founded on the corner of Washington Avenue. In 1874 a delegation was sent to Annapolis to introduce legislation to make Laurel its own county of 10,000 residents with land from Prince George's, Anne Arundel counties.
In 1879 Laurel Academy of Music was built along Route 1. The building was converted to a movie theatre in 1915, with a parking garage on the lower floor of the wood structure. In 1888 inventor David J. Weems tested an unmanned electric train on a two-mile banked circular track near Laurel Station; the three-ton vehicle reached speeds of up to 120 mph for twenty minutes. In 1890, Citizens National Bank opened its doors on Main Street, as Prince George's County's first nationally chartered bank. Charles H. Stanley was the bank's first president, it remained independently managed and with the same name until acquired by PNC Financial Services in 2007. Branch services are still provided from the original building. At the turn of the century, Louis Barret operated a hotel called the "Half Way House" called the Milstead Hotel, which served as a stop for the four stage lines operating between Baltimore and Washington. In 1898, a stable fire spread to the 100-year-old hotel and burned adjacent buildings along Main Street.
With only bucket brigades, Mayor Phelps telegraphed Baltimore to send a special train with fireman and engine number 10. One fireman was crushed by the rolling fire engine, returned in a casket saved from the burning mortuary; the resulting losses inspired efforts to
Laurel is a town in Sussex County, United States. The population was 3,708 at the 2010 census. Laurel is part of Maryland-Delaware Metropolitan Statistical Area, it once hosted the Laurel Blue Hens of the Eastern Shore Baseball League. The site of the town of Laurel was a Nanticoke Indian settlement known as Broad Creek Town during most of the eighteenth century, its Nanticoke name is unknown. The Indian settlement was created on tracts known as Bachelor's Delight and Greenland in 1711 when the government of Maryland, who claimed this part of Delaware, set aside land for the Nanticoke Indians. Nearly all the Indian settlers left within 50 years; the present town was laid out along the Broad Creek in the 1790s and was named for the laurel bushes that grew alongside the creek. The Chipman Potato House, Chipman's Mill, Collins Potato House, Hearn Potato House, E. L. Hitch Potato House, Laurel Historic District, Moore Potato House, Old Christ Church, Phillips Potato House, Ralph Potato House, Rider Potato House, Ross Point School, Spring Garden, Stanley Potato House, Wright Potato House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
On March 29, 1929 the town was merged with the neighboring town of North Laurel which comprised most of the current town north of Broad Creek. This merger was not properly reported to the United States Census Bureau, which resulted in the North Laurel's population not being included with the population of Laurel in the 1930 United States Census; as such, the US Census Bureau did not make a change to the 1930 population statistics once the error was discovered, however it acknowledged in 1940 that the correct population for Laurel in 1930 was 2,542. West Laurel is one of Delaware’s oldest free black communities. According to the Delaware Historical Society, West Laurel dates back to the 1790’s. At some point in the 1870’s Captain Theodore Marsh settled in West Laurel, brought property, broke the property down into plots and sold them to his shipmates; the graveyard for New Zion United Methodist church in West Laurel, around since the early 1800’s is the resting place of Marsh and his shipmates.
Laurel is located on the Atlantic Coastal Plain in southwestern Delaware at 38°33′23″N 75°34′17″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.7 square miles, of which 1.7 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. 957 families, 1,389 households, 3,668 people reside in the town. The population density was 2,215.9 people per square mile. There were 1,561 housing units at an average density of 943.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 55.56% White, 39.42% African American, 0.35% Native American, 0.95% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.20% from other races, 2.48% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.32% of the population. There were 1,389 households out of which 37.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.4% were married couples living together, 26.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.1% were non-families. 26.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.19. In the town, the age distribution of the population shows 33.2% under the age of 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 16.7% from 45 to 64, 12.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 72.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $28,321, the median income for a family was $30,329. Males had a median income of $28,006 versus $18,550 for females; the per capita income for the town was $13,594. About 18.7% of families and 21.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.6% of those under age 18 and 11.4% of those age 65 or over. On August 13, 2011 the District 3 All-Stars from Laurel won the Senior League Softball World Series for Little League, going undefeated in the tournament and defeating Puerto Rico in the championship game by a score of 2–0; the Laurel High School Bulldogs have won three Division 2 State Football Championships in 1986, 1987, 1991.
Mark Briscoe – Professional wrestler Jay Briscoe – Professional wrestler Bert Carvel – former Governor of Delaware William B. Cooper – former Governor of Delaware Carlton Elliott – former NFL player Alex Ellis – current NFL player Dallas Marvil – Consensus All-American football player, 1931 Joshua H. Marvil – former Governor of Delaware John Collins - former Governor of Delaware Nathaniel Mitchell – former Governor of Delaware, Member of the Continental Congress William Ross - former Governor of Delaware Ron Waller – former NFL player and coach Laurel Star Leader & State Register The News Journal Delaware State News WBOC-TV has its broadcast tower located in Laurel. FOX 21 has its broadcast tower located in Laurel. WMDT WKDB Official Website of the Town of Laurel Laurel Chamber of Commerce Laurel Historical Society