Order of the British Empire
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, public service outside the civil service. It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female. There is the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions of the Empire and the Viceroy of India. Nominations continue today from Commonwealth countries that participate in recommending British honours. Most Commonwealth countries ceased recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire when they created their own honours; the five classes of appointment to the Order are, in descending order of precedence: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Knight Commander or Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire The senior two ranks of Knight or Dame Grand Cross, Knight or Dame Commander, entitle their members to use the title of Sir for men and Dame for women before their forename.
Most members are citizens of the United Kingdom or the Commonwealth realms that use the Imperial system of honours and awards. Honorary knighthoods are appointed to citizens of nations where the Queen is not head of state, may permit use of post-nominal letters but not the title of Sir or Dame. Honorary appointees are, referred to as Sir or Dame – Bob Geldof, for example. Honorary appointees who become a citizen of a Commonwealth realm can convert their appointment from honorary to substantive enjoy all privileges of membership of the order, including use of the title of Sir and Dame for the senior two ranks of the Order. An example is Irish broadcaster Terry Wogan, appointed an honorary Knight Commander of the Order in 2005, on successful application for British citizenship, held alongside his Irish citizenship, was made a substantive member and subsequently styled as Sir Terry Wogan. King George V founded the Order to fill gaps in the British honours system: The Orders of the Garter, of St Patrick honoured royals, peers and eminent military commanders.
In particular, King George V wished to create an Order to honour many thousands of those who had served in a variety of non-combatant roles during the First World War. When first established, the Order had only one division. However, in 1918, soon after its foundation, it was formally divided into Military and Civil Divisions; the Order's motto is For the Empire. At the foundation of the Order, the'Medal of the Order of the British Empire' was instituted, to serve as a lower award granting recipients affiliation but not membership. In 1922, this was renamed the'British Empire Medal', it stopped being awarded by the United Kingdom as part of the 1993 reforms to the honours system, but was again awarded beginning in 2012, starting with 293 BEMs awarded for Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee. In addition, the BEM is awarded by some other Commonwealth nations. In 2004, a report entitled "A Matter of Honour: Reforming Our Honours System" by a Commons committee recommended to phase out the Order of the British Empire, as its title was "now considered to be unacceptable, being thought to embody values that are no longer shared by many of the country's population".
The British monarch is Sovereign of the Order, appoints all other members of the Order. The next most senior member is the Grand Master, of whom there have been three: Prince Edward, the Prince of Wales; the Order is limited to 300 Knights and Dames Grand Cross, 845 Knights and Dames Commander, 8,960 Commanders. There are no limits applied to the total number of members of the fourth and fifth classes, but no more than 858 Officers and 1,464 Members may be appointed per year. Foreign appointees, as honorary members, do not contribute to the numbers restricted to the Order as full members do. Although the Order of the British Empire has by far the highest number of members of the British Orders of Chivalry, with over 100,000 living members worldwide, there are fewer appointments to knighthoods than in other orders. Though men can be knighted separately from an order of chivalry, women cannot, so the rank of Knight/Dame Commander of the Order is the lowest rank of damehood, second-lowest of knighthood.
Because of this, an appointment as Dame Commander is made in circumstances in which a man would be created a Knight Bachelor. For example, by convention, female judges of the High Court of Justice are created Dames Commander after appointment, while male judges
Hassanal Bolkiah, GCB GCMG is the 29th and current Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan of Brunei. He is the first and incumbent Prime Minister of Brunei; the eldest son of Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III and Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Damit, he succeeded to the throne as the Sultan of Brunei, following the abdication of his father on 5 October 1967. Sultan Hassanal was known as the Chairman of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations in 2001 and 2013 due to the hosting of the ASEAN summits to those due dates; the Sultan has been ranked among the wealthiest individuals in the world. After Queen Elizabeth II, the Sultan is the world's second longest-reigning current monarch. On 5 October 2017, the Sultan celebrated his Golden Jubilee to mark the 50th year of his reign on the throne. In April 2019, it was announced that he had sponsored legislation to punish adultery and gay sex by stoning to death; the Sultan was born on 15 July 1946, in Istana Darussalam, Brunei Town as Pengiran Muda Hassanal Bolkiah. The Sultan received high school education at Victoria Institution in Kuala Lumpur, after which he attended the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in the United Kingdom, graduating in 1967.
He became the Sultan of Brunei Darussalam on 5 October 1967. His coronation was held on 1 August 1968, made him the Yang di-Pertuan of Brunei. Like his father, he has been knighted by Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, of which Brunei was a protectorate until 1984. Under Brunei's 1959 constitution, the Sultan is the head of state with full executive authority, including emergency powers since 1962. On 9 March 2006, the Sultan was reported to have amended Brunei's constitution to make himself infallible under Bruneian law. Bolkiah, as Prime Minister, is the head of government. In addition, he holds the portfolios both of Minister of Minister of Finance; as Minister of Defense he is therefore the Supreme Commander of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces, as well as an Honorary General in the British and Indonesian armed forces and an Honorary Admiral of the Fleet in the Royal Navy. He appointed himself as Inspector General of Police of the Royal Brunei Police Force. Bolkiah addressed the United Nations General Assembly on Brunei Darussalam's admission to the United Nations in September 1984.
In 1991, he introduced a conservative ideology to Brunei called Melayu Islam Beraja, which presents the monarchy as the defender of the faith. He has favoured Brunei government democratisation and declared himself Prime Minister and President. In 2004, the Legislative Council, dissolved since 1962, was reopened, his designated successor is Prince Al-Muhtadee Billah. The Sultan's official residence is the Istana Nurul Iman, with 1,788 rooms, 257 bathrooms, a floor area of 2,152,782 square feet; the Istana houses several offices of government, including that of the Office of the Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan, the Office of the Grand Chamberlain, as well as the offices within the Prime Minister's Department. Parts of the Ministry of Defence and Ministry of Finance are located at the palace; the Crown Prince, the Senior Minister, works from offices at the Istana. Hyatt Borneo Management Services and HM The Sultan's flight maintain offices there; the University of Brunei Darussalam and Sultan Sharif Ali Islamic University were established.
Technical and vocational institutions were built, such as the Brunei Technological University, Sultan Saiful Rijal Technical College, vocational schools. The religious Institute Tahfiz Al-Quran Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah was established. Scholarships for study in the country and abroad were provided for educational purposes; the Royal Brunei Armed Forces were expanded with the establishment of three major branches of the Royal Brunei Land Forces, Royal Brunei Navy and Royal Brunei Air Force. Medicines and medical treatment are free of charge to children and members of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces in hospitals and government clinics, subject to a small charge for others. There is one doctor per 949 patients; the life expectancy of the people and the country's population is 74.2 years for men and 77.3 years for women. Other facilities offered include various National Housing Plan Scheme, Land Allocation Scheme, the additional monthly pension on the elderly, subsistence allowances for widows and people with disabilities.
Hassanal Bolkiah established the Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Foundation. In January 2013, the Royal College of General Practitioners created the honour of ‘Companion of the College’ to mark its 60th anniversary; the Sultan became the first recipient of this award in recognition of the work he has done to promote healthcare in Brunei and abroad. An auditorium in the College's headquarters at 30 Euston Square, London - where the Sultan was inaugurated - was named in his honour. Brunei Darussalam is a member of various international and regional organisations such as ASEAN, the Organisation of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and the Non-Aligned Movement. Hassanal Bolkiah was chairman of Summit APEC Leaders in 2000 when Brunei Darussalam hosted the summit. Hassanal Bolkiah was the chairman of ASEAN Summit in 2013 when Brunei Darussalam hosted the summit. Hassanal Bolkiah attended various meetings of internatio
The London Gazette
The London Gazette is one of the official journals of record of the British government, the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published. The London Gazette claims to be the oldest surviving English newspaper and the oldest continuously published newspaper in the UK, having been first published on 7 November 1665 as The Oxford Gazette; this claim is made by the Stamford Mercury and Berrow's Worcester Journal, because The Gazette is not a conventional newspaper offering general news coverage. It does not have a large circulation. Other official newspapers of the UK government are The Edinburgh Gazette and The Belfast Gazette, apart from reproducing certain materials of nationwide interest published in The London Gazette contain publications specific to Scotland and Northern Ireland, respectively. In turn, The London Gazette carries not only notices of UK-wide interest, but those relating to entities or people in England and Wales.
However, certain notices that are only of specific interest to Scotland or Northern Ireland are required to be published in The London Gazette. The London and Belfast Gazettes are published by TSO on behalf of Her Majesty's Stationery Office, they are subject to Crown copyright. The London Gazette is published each weekday, except for bank holidays. Notices for the following, among others, are published: Granting of royal assent to bills of the Parliament of the United Kingdom or of the Scottish Parliament The issuance of writs of election when a vacancy occurs in the House of Commons Appointments to certain public offices Commissions in the Armed Forces and subsequent promotion of officers Corporate and personal insolvency Granting of awards of honours and military medals Changes of names or of coats of arms Royal Proclamations and other DeclarationsHer Majesty's Stationery Office has digitised all issues of the Gazette, these are available online; the official Gazettes are published by The Stationery Office.
The content, apart from insolvency notices, is available in a number of machine-readable formats, including XML and XML/RDFa via Atom feed. The London Gazette was first published as The Oxford Gazette on 7 November 1665. Charles II and the Royal Court had moved to Oxford to escape the Great Plague of London, courtiers were unwilling to touch London newspapers for fear of contagion; the Gazette was "Published by Authority" by Henry Muddiman, its first publication is noted by Samuel Pepys in his diary. The King returned to London as the plague dissipated, the Gazette moved too, with the first issue of The London Gazette being published on 5 February 1666; the Gazette was not a newspaper in the modern sense: it was sent by post to subscribers, not printed for sale to the general public. Her Majesty's Stationery Office took over the publication of the Gazette in 1889. Publication of the Gazette was transferred to the private sector, under government supervision, in the 1990s, when HMSO was sold and renamed The Stationery Office.
In time of war, despatches from the various conflicts are published in The London Gazette. People referred to are said to have been mentioned in despatches; when members of the armed forces are promoted, these promotions are published here, the person is said to have been "gazetted". Being "gazetted" sometimes meant having official notice of one's bankruptcy published, as in the classic ten-line poem comparing the stolid tenant farmer of 1722 to the lavishly spending faux-genteel farmers of 1822: Notices of engagement and marriage were formerly published in the Gazette. Gazettes, modelled on The London Gazette, were issued for most British colonial possessions. History of British newspapers Iris Oifigiúil The Dublin Gazette – in Ireland London Gazette index Official Journal of the European Union List of government gazettes London and Belfast Gazettes official site Great Fire of London 1666 – Facsimile and transcript of London Gazette report
The Wittelsbach-Graff Diamond is a 31.06-carat deep-blue diamond with internally flawless clarity. Laurence Graff purchased the Wittelsbach Diamond in 2008 for £16.4 million. In 2010, Graff revealed; the diamond was renamed the Wittelsbach-Graff Diamond. There is controversy, as critics claim the recutting has so altered the diamond as to make it unrecognisable, compromising its historical integrity; the original Wittelsbach Diamond known as Der Blaue Wittelsbacher, was a 35.56-carat fancy, greyish-blue diamond with VS2 clarity, part of both the Austrian and the Bavarian Crown jewels. Its colour and clarity had been compared to the Hope Diamond; the diamond had measured 8.29 millimetres in depth. It had 82 facets arranged in an atypical pattern; the star facets on the crown were vertically split, the pavilion had sixteen needle-like facets arranged in pairs, pointing outward from the culet facet. The diamond originates from the Kollur mines of Guntur District in India; the story that King Philip IV of Spain purchased the jewel and included it in the dowry of his teenage daughter, Margaret Teresa, in 1664 is apocryphal.
The first time the diamond was mentioned is about fifty years when it was in Vienna. It was in the possession of the Habsburg family and came to Munich when, in 1722, Maria Amalia married Charles of Bavaria, a member of the Wittelsbach family. In 1745, the Wittelsbach Diamond was first mounted on the Bavarian Elector's Order of the Golden Fleece; when Maximilian IV Joseph von Wittelsbach became the first King of Bavaria in 1806, he commissioned a royal crown that prominently displayed the diamond. Until 1918, the jewel remained on top of the Bavarian crown, it was seen last in public at Ludwig III of Bavaria's funeral in 1921. The Wittelsbach family tried to sell the diamond in 1931 during the Great Depression but found no buyers, it sold the jewel in 1951. In 1958, the stone was exhibited at the World Expo in Brussels. In the 1960s, the Goldmuntz family asked Joseph Komkommer, a jeweller, to re-cut the diamond, but Komkommer recognised its historical significance and refused. Instead, he joined a group of dealers.
The diamond had been in a private collection since 1964. On 10 December 2008, the 35.56-carat Wittelsbach Diamond was sold to London-based jeweller Laurence Graff for £16.4 million sterling, or US$23.4 million, at the time the highest price paid at auction for a diamond. The record was eclipsed on 16 November 2010, when a 24.78 carat pink diamond was sold for £29 million Sterling, or US$46 million, again to Mr. Graff. In June 2011, Graff sold the diamond to the former emir of Qatar, Hamad bin Khalifa, for at least US$80 million. Following the sale, Graff announced his intention to recut the gem to remove damage to the girdle and enhance the colour. On 7 January 2010, it was reported that the diamond had been recut to enhance the stone's colour and clarity, losing over 4.45 carats in the process. The resulting stone has been renamed the Wittelsbach-Graff; the move was met with heavy criticism by some experts: Gabriel Tolkowsky called it "the end of culture." Shortly after the auction of the diamond, American gem cutter and replicator of famous diamonds Scott Sucher stated, "In the case of the Wittelsbach, what's at stake is at minimum over 350 years of history, as every nick and scratch has a story to tell.
Just because we can't decipher these stories doesn't mean they don't exist." The alteration of the historical stone has been compared by Professor Hans Ottomeyer, director of the Deutsches Historisches Museum of Berlin, to the overpainting of a painting by Rembrandt. It is opined that the recutting was done to increase its market value and, by extension, that of other "fancy diamonds"; as a result of the recut, which removed some chips and reduced the size of the culet by 40%, the gem has been re-evaluated by the Gemological Institute of America and its colour grade revised from "fancy deep grayish-blue", the same grade given by GIA to The Hope, to the more desirable "fancy deep blue". The diamond's clarity had been revised upward from "very included" to "internally flawless". List of famous diamonds Rudolf Dröschel, Jürgen Evers, Hans Ottomeyer: The Wittelsbach Blue, in: Gems and Gemology ISSN 0016-626X, 44, P. 348–363 Jürgen Evers, Leonhard Möckl, Heinrich Nöth: Der Wittelsbacher und der Hope-Diamant, in: Chemie in Unserer Zeit ISSN 0009-2851, 46, P. 356–364 Wise, Richard W. Secrets of the Gem Trade, The Connoisseur's Guide To Precious gemstones, ISBN 0-9728223-8-0 Fancy Blue Diamonds, p. 235-236
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
British Jews are British citizens who are ethnically and/or religiously Jewish. The number of identifying Jews in England and Wales has risen over the past decade; the growth is due to the rapid growth of the Ultra-Orthodox community. The first recorded Jewish community in Britain was brought to England in 1070 by King William the Conqueror, who believed that what he assumed to be its commercial skills would make his newly won country more prosperous. Two hundred years the Jews were no longer welcome. On 16 March 1190, in the run up to the Third Crusade, the Jewish population of York was massacred at the site where Clifford's Tower now stands, King Edward I of England passed the Statute of the Jewry in 1275, restricting the community's activities, most notably outlawing the practice of usury. When, 15 years Edward found that many of these provisions were ignored, he expelled the Jews from England, they emigrated to countries such as Poland. A small English community persisted in hiding despite the expulsion.
Jews were not banned from Scotland. In 1656, Oliver Cromwell made it clear that the ban on Jewish settlement in England and Wales would no longer be enforced, although when Rabbi Manasseh Ben Israel brought a petition to allow Jews to return, the majority of the Protectorate Government turned it down. Jews eased back into England, first visiting for trade staying longer periods, bringing their families. In mid-nineteenth century Ireland ruled by the British, Daniel O'Connell, known as "The Liberator" for his work on Catholic Emancipation, worked for the repeal of the "De Judaismo" law, which prescribed a special yellow badge for Jews. Benjamin Disraeli, of Jewish birth although he joined the Church of England, served in government for three decades, twice as prime minister; the oldest Jewish community in Britain is the Spanish and Portuguese Jewish community, which traces back to the 1630s, was unofficially legitimised in 1656, the date counted by the Jewish community as the re-admittance of the Jews to England.
A trickle of Ashkenazi immigration from German countries continued from the late 17th century to the early 19th century, before a second wave of Ashkenazi immigration, a large wave of Ashkenazi Jewish immigration fleeing persecution in the Russian Empire, such as pogroms and the May Laws between 1880 and the imposition of tighter immigration restrictions in 1905. Many German and Polish Jews seeking to escape the Nazi Holocaust arrived in Britain before and after the Second World War. Around 80-90% of British Jews today are Ashkenazi; however it would be a mistake to think of British Jews as being of European origin. Following decolonisation, the late twentieth century saw Yemeni Jews, Iraqi Jews and Baghdadi Jews from Asia settle in the United Kingdom. A multicultural community, in 2006, British Jews celebrated the 350th anniversary of the resettlement in England. According to the 2011 census, 263,346 people answered "Jewish" to the voluntary question on religion, compared with 259,927 in the previous count of 2001.
However, this final figure is considered an undercount. Demographers David Graham and Stanley Waterman give several reasons: the underenumeration for censuses in general. By comparison, the Jewish Virtual Library estimated a Jewish population of 291,000 in 2012, making Britain's Jewish community the fifth largest in the world; the 2001 Census included a religion question for the first time in its history. However, the subject of, a Jew is complex, the religion question did not record people who may be Jewish through other means, such as ethnically and culturally. Of people who chose Jewish as their religion, 97% put White as their ethnic group; the religion question appeared in the 2011 Census, but there was still no explicit option for "Jewish" in the ethnic-group question. The Board of Deputies had encouraged all Jews to indicate they were Jewish, either through the religion question or the ethnicity one. From 1990 to 2006, the Jewish population showed a decrease from 340,000 Jews to 270,000.
According to the 1996 Jewish Policy Review, nearly half married people who did not share their faith at that time. From 2005 to 2008, the Jewish population increased from 275,000 to 280,000, attributed to the high birth rates of Haredi Jews. Research by the University of Manchester in 2007 showed that 75% of British Jewish births were to the Haredi community. Ultra-Orthodox women have an average of 6.9 children, secular Jewish women 1.65. In 2015, the Institute for Jewish Policy Research reported that in England the orthodox community was growing by nearly 5% per year, while the non-haredi community was decreasing by 0.3% per year. It has been documented that in terms of births, between 2007 and 2015, the estimated number of Strictly Orthodox births per annum increased by 35%, rising from 1,431 to 1,932. While, the estimat
Stepney is a district in East London in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets that grew out of a medieval village around St Dunstan's church and the 15th-century ribbon development of Mile End Road called Stepney Green. The area built up in the 19th century to accommodate immigrant workers and displaced London poor, developed a reputation for poverty, overcrowding and political dissent, it was damaged during the Blitz, with over a third of housing destroyed. Some Georgian architecture and Victorian era terraced housing survive in patches: for example Arbour Square, the eastern side of Stepney Green, the streets around Matlock Street; as with most of the East End of London, Stepney was sparsely populated marshland until the 19th century, when the development of London's docks and railways, combined with slum clearance, pushed the displaced poor and various immigrants looking for work into cheap housing being built in the area. The first community developed around the church of St Dunstan's, founded in 923.
Its name was recorded around 1000 AD as Stybbanhyð, "Stybba's landing-place". The Domesday Book survey of 1086 gives the name as Stibanhede and says that the land was held by the Bishop of London and was 32 hides large used for ploughing, woodland for 500 pigs, 4 mills. There were over 100 serfs, split between villeins who ploughed the land, cottars who assisted the villeins in return for a hut or cottage. Bishop William held this land in demesne, in the manor of Stepney, on the day on which King Edward was alive and dead. In the same vill Ranulph Flambard holds 3½ hides of the bishop; the Manor of Stepney was held by the Bishop of London in compensation for his duties in maintaining and garrisoning the Tower of London. Further ecclesiastic holdings came about from the need to enclose the marshes and create flood defences along the Thames. Edward VI passed the land to the Wentworth family, thence to their descendants, the Earls of Cleveland; the ecclesiastic system of copyhold, whereby land was leased to tenants for terms as short as seven years, prevailed throughout the manor.
This limited scope for improvement of the land and new building until the estate was broken up in the 19th century. In the early 20th century, Stepney was one of the most Jewish neighbourhoods in England; the Siege of Sidney Street took place in Stepney in 1911. As with the whole of Greater London, the Lord-Lieutenant Ken Olisa is the Her Majesty's representative for Stepney but has no political role or hold an office in any political party and is purely an honorary titular position. Stepney is in the constituency of Bethnal Green and Bow, represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2010 by Rushanara Ali of the Labour Party. London overall has a directly elected executive Mayor of London Sadiq Khan and the City and East seat in the London Assembly is held by Labour Party Unmesh Desai. Tower Hamlets London Borough Council is the local authority and has a directly elected executive mayor, the Mayor of Tower Hamlets John Biggs, Stepney has local councillors from three wards, St Dunstan's, Bethnal Green and Stepney Green.
Stepney formed a large ancient parish in the Ossulstone hundred of Middlesex. The parish included the hamlets of Mile End Old Town, Mile End New Town, Ratcliff. At its early extent it additionally included Whitechapel, Stratford Bow, Spitalfields, Bethnal Green and Poplar. Over time the parish was broken up with these settlements forming new independent parishes, leaving a residual parish of 830 acres comprising Mile End Old Town, Mile End New Town and Ratcliff; the Metropolitan Borough of Stepney was formed in 1900 dissolved in 1965 when it was absorbed into the newly created London Borough of Tower Hamlets which administers the area. Stepney is located 3.6 miles east north-east of Charing Cross. It is bounded by Shadwell between the London and Southend Railway between Limehouse station and the immediate area around the north-side of Shadwell DLR station, it reaches the north bank of the River Thames in a part of Stepney known as Free Trade Wharf; the various side streets that make up the boundary between the E1/14 postcode is considered to be the division with Limehouse in the south, part of the Great Eastern Main Line with Bethnal Green and the southern leg of Bancroft Road forms an borderline with Mile End due to both a hospital of the same name and Queen Mary University.
The western boundary with Whitechapel is Sidney Street. The Stepney Community Trust, a community led charity with a long history of local action, was set up in 1982 as the St Mary's Centre to respond to the severe levels of housing and social deprivation existing in the area; the name was changed to Stepney Community Trust. Stepney City Farm provides a number of community services, such as guided tours and other activities; the Stepney Historical Trust was set up in 1989 to advance the public's education in the history of Stepney and the surrounding areas. It is based in the London Dockers Athletic and Social Club and has installed a series of plaques on sites of historic interest. Jewish Care was created in 1990, through the merger of two previous charities to ensure they can care for the community needs in the most cost-effective way in order to maintain their vision of high quality care in Stepney and is