Harare is the capital and most populous city of Zimbabwe. Situated in the north-east of the country in the heart of historic Mashonaland, Harare is a metropolitan province, which incorporates Chitungwiza town and Epworth. It is situated at an elevation of 1,483 metres above sea level, company administrators demarcated the city and ran it until Southern Rhodesia achieved responsible government in 1923. Salisbury was thereafter the seat of the Southern Rhodesian government and and it retained the name Salisbury until 1982, when it was renamed Harare on the second anniversary of Zimbabwean independence. Harare is Zimbabwes leading financial and communications centre, and a centre for tobacco, cotton. Manufactured goods include textiles and chemicals, and gold is mined in the area, the University of Zimbabwe, the countrys oldest university, is situated in Mount Pleasant, about 6 km north of the city centre. Harare is home to the countrys main Test cricket ground, Harare Sports Club, the Pioneer Column, a military volunteer force of settlers organised by Cecil Rhodes, founded the city on 12 September 1890 as a fort.
They originally named the city Fort Salisbury after The 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, British Prime Minister, the Salisbury Polo Club was formed in 1896. It was declared to be a municipality in 1897 and it became a city in 1935. The area at the time of founding of the city was poorly drained, the first area to be fully drained was near the head of the stream and was named Causeway as a result. Salisbury was the capital of the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia from 1923, ian Smiths Rhodesian Front government declared Rhodesia independent from the United Kingdom on 11 November 1965, and proclaimed the Republic of Rhodesia in 1970. Subsequently, the became the short-lived state of Zimbabwe Rhodesia. The capital city retained the name Salisbury until 1982, prior to independence, Harare was the name of the black residential area now known as Mbare. In May 2006 the Zimbabwean newspaper the Financial Gazette, described the city in an editorial as a sunshine city-turned-sewage farm, in 2009, Harare was voted to be the toughest city to live in according to the Economist Intelligence Units livability poll.
The situation was unchanged in 2011, according to the poll, which is based on stability, healthcare and environment, education. In May 2005 the Zimbabwean government demolished shanties and backyard cottages in Harare, the government claimed it was necessitated by a rise of criminality and disease. This was followed by Operation Garikayi/Hlalani Kuhle a year which consisted of building housing of poor quality. In late March 2010, Harares Joina City Tower was finally opened after 14 years of on-off construction, uptake of space in the tower was low, with office occupancy at only 3% in October 2011
Wilder Graves Penfield OM CC CMG FRS was an American-Canadian pioneering neurosurgeon once dubbed the greatest living Canadian. He expanded brain surgerys methods and techniques, including mapping the functions of various regions of the such as the cortical homunculus. His scientific contributions on neural stimulation expand across a variety of topics including hallucinations, Penfield devoted a lot of his thinking to mental processes, including contemplation of whether there was any scientific basis for the existence of the human soul. Penfield was born in Spokane, Washington on January 26,1891 and he studied at Princeton University, where he was a member of Cap and Gown Club and played on the football team. After graduation in 1913, he was hired briefly as the team coach, in 1915 he obtained a Rhodes Scholarship to Merton College, where he studied neuropathology under Sir Charles Scott Sherrington. After one term at Merton, Penfield went to France where he served as a dresser in a hospital in the suburbs of Paris.
He was wounded in 1916 when the ferry he was aboard, returning to Merton College in 1919, Penfield spent the next two years completing his studies, during this time he met William Osler. In 1924, he worked for five months with Pío del Río Hortega characterising the type of cells known as oligodendroglia. He studied in Germany and New York City, after taking a surgical apprenticeship under Harvey Cushing, he obtained a position at the Neurological Institute of New York, where he carried out his first solo operations to treat epilepsy. While in New York, he met David Rockefeller, who wished to endow an institute where Penfield could further study the surgical treatment of epilepsy. Academic politics amongst the New York neurologists, prevented its establishment in New York, so, in 1928, Penfield taught at McGill University and the Royal Victoria Hospital, becoming the citys first neurosurgeon. In 1934, Penfield founded and became the first director of the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital at McGill University and that year, he became a Canadian citizen.
Penfield was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1950 and he was appointed to the Order of Merit in the 1953 New Year Honours list. He turned his attention to writing, producing a novel as well as his autobiography No Man Alone, in 1960, the year he retired, Penfield was awarded the Lister Medal for his contributions to surgical science. He delivered the corresponding Lister Oration, Activation of the Record of Human Experience, in 1967, he was made a Companion of the Order of Canada and, in 1994, was posthumously inducted into the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame. Much of his material is housed in the Osler Library at McGill University. In his years, Penfield dedicated himself to the public interest, with his friends Governor-General Georges Vanier and Pauline Vanier, he co-founded the Vanier Institute of the Family to promote and guide education in the home – mans first classroom. He was a proponent of childhood bilingualism
It is sometimes used as the English translation of an equivalent rank in non-English-speaking countries, especially those with an air force-specific rank structure. Flight lieutenant ranks above flying officer and below squadron leader, the name of the rank is the complete phrase, it is never shortened to lieutenant. It has a NATO ranking code of OF-3, and is equivalent to a lieutenant in the Royal Navy and a captain in the British Army and the Royal Marines. The equivalent rank in the Womens Auxiliary Air Force, Womens Royal Air Force, on 1 April 1918, the newly created RAF adopted its officer rank titles from the British Army, with Royal Naval Air Service lieutenants and Royal Flying Corps captains becoming captains in the RAF. In response to the proposal that the RAF should use its own titles, it was suggested that the RAF might use the Royal Navys officer ranks. For example, the current rank of lieutenant would have been air lieutenant. It was suggested that RAF captains might be entitled flight-leaders, the rank title flight lieutenant was chosen as flights were typically commanded by RAF captains and the term flight lieutenant had been used in the Royal Naval Air Service.
The rank of lieutenant has been used continuously since 1 August 1919. The RAFs promotion system is automatic up until Flight Lieutenant, every officer will attain the rank provided they complete their professional training and do not leave early. For Aircrew, Flight Lieutenant is reached 2.5 years after commissioning, BEng/MEng qualified engineers 2.5 and 1.5 years respectively, and for all ground branch officers,3.5 years. Aircrew are appointed to an Early Departure Payment Commission upon reaching their Operational Conversion Unit, promotion to Squadron Leader thereafter is strictly upon merit, officers promoted beyond Flight Lieutenant are appointed to a Career Commission, or service to age 60. Resigning a commission is generally dependent on the needs of the Service, most aircrew reach their squadrons as Flight Lieutenants due to the length of training time required. The majority of squadron line pilots are flight lieutenants, with some squadron executives or Career Commission aircrew reaching Squadron Leader, the role of a Flight Lieutenant generally involves management of a team of specialists Non-Commissioned Officers and airmen, within their specific branch.
Flight Lieutenant is the most common rank in the RAF, in April 2013, for example, there were 8,230 RAF officers, in RAF informal usage, a flight lieutenant is sometimes referred to as a flight lieuy. A Flight Lieutenants starting salary is £39,236.40 as of 2015, in the Air Training Corps, a flight lieutenant is usually the officer commanding of a squadron. Retired flight lieutenants are the first rank that may continue to use their rank after they have active service. The rank insignia consists of two narrow blue bands on slightly wider black bands and this is worn on both the lower sleeves of the tunic or on the shoulders of the flight suit or the casual uniform. The rank insignia on the uniform is similar to the naval pattern
Apartheid was a system of institutionalised racial segregation and discrimination in South Africa between 1948 and 1991, when it was abolished. The countrys first multiracial elections under a universal franchise were held three years in 1994, Apartheid as a policy was embraced by the South African government shortly after the ascension of the National Party during the countrys 1948 general elections. Apartheid was enforced in South West Africa until it gained independence as Namibia in 1990, with the rapid growth and industrialisation of the British Cape Colony in the nineteenth century, racial policies and laws became increasingly rigid. Cape legislation that discriminated specifically against black Africans began appearing shortly before 1900, the policies of the Boer republics were racially exclusive, for instance, the Transvaal constitution barred nonwhite participation in church and state. Places of residence were determined by racial classification, from 1960 to 1983,3.5 million nonwhite South Africans were removed from their homes, and forced into segregated neighbourhoods, in one of the largest mass removals in modern history.
Most of these targeted removals were intended to restrict the population to ten designated tribal homelands, known as bantustans. The government announced that relocated persons would lose their South African citizenship as they were absorbed into the bantustans, Apartheid sparked significant international and domestic opposition, resulting in some of the most influential global social movements of the twentieth century. It was the target of frequent condemnation in the United Nations, some reforms of the apartheid system were undertaken, including allowing for Indian and coloured political representation in parliament, but these measures failed in appeasing most activist groups. In 1990, prominent ANC leaders such as Nelson Mandela were released from detention, Apartheid legislation was abolished in mid-1991, pending multiracial elections set for April 1994. Apartheid is an Afrikaans word meaning separateness, or the state of being apart and its first recorded use was in 1929. The governors and assemblies that governed the process in the various colonies of South Africa were launched on a different and independent legislative path from the rest of the British Empire.
In the days of slavery, slaves required passes to travel away from their masters, in 1797 the Landdrost and Heemraden of Swellendam and Graaff-Reinet extended pass laws beyond slaves and ordained that all Khoikhoi moving about the country for any purpose should carry passes. Ordinance No.49 of 1828 decreed that prospective black immigrants were to be granted passes for the purpose of seeking work. These passes were to be issued for Coloureds and Khoikhoi, but not for other Africans, the United Kingdoms Slavery Abolition Act 1833 abolished slavery throughout the British Empire and overrode the Cape Articles of Capitulation. To comply with the act the South African legislation was expanded to include Ordinance 1 in 1835 and this was followed by Ordinance 3 in 1848, which introduced an indenture system for Xhosa that was little different from slavery. The Glen Grey Act of 1894, instigated by the government of Prime Minister Cecil John Rhodes limited the amount of land Africans could hold, in 1905 the General Pass Regulations Act denied blacks the vote, limited them to fixed areas and inaugurated the infamous Pass System.
The Asiatic Registration Act required all Indians to register and carry passes, one of the first pieces of segregating legislation enacted by Jan Smuts United Party government was the Asiatic Land Tenure Bill, which banned land sales to Indians. The United Party government began to move away from the enforcement of segregationist laws during World War II
The Colony of Southern Rhodesia was a self-governing British Crown colony in southern Africa from 1923 to 1980, the predecessor state of modern Zimbabwe. After a period of interim British control following the Lancaster House Agreement in December 1979, the territory was referred to as South Zambezia, a reference to the River Zambezi, until the name Rhodesia came into use in 1895. This was in honour of Cecil Rhodes, the British empire-builder, Southern was first used in 1898 and dropped from normal usage in 1964, on the break-up of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. Rhodesia remained the name of the country until the creation of Zimbabwe Rhodesia in 1979, from the British perspective, the name Southern Rhodesia continued to be used until 18 April 1980, when the Republic of Zimbabwe was promulgated. The British government agreed that Rhodes company, the British South Africa Company, queen Victoria signed the charter in 1889. A Legislative Council was created in 1899 to manage the companys affairs, with a minority of elected seats.
Prior to about 1918, the opinion among the electorate supported continued BSAC rule but opinion changed because of the development of the country and increased settlement. In addition, a decision in the British courts that land not in private ownership belonged to the British Crown rather than the BSAC gave great impetus to the campaign for self-government. In the resulting treaty government self-government, Crown lands which were sold to settlers allowed those settlers the right to vote in the self-governing colony, the territory north of the Zambezi was the subject of separate treaties with African chiefs, today, it forms the country of Zambia. The first BSAC Administrator for the part was appointed for Barotseland in 1897. The first BSAC Administrator for the part, North-Eastern Rhodesia, was appointed in 1895. The whites in the south of the river paid it scant regard though. This resulted in the formation of new movements for expanding the self-government of the Rhodesian people which saw BSAC rule as an impediment to further expansion, in view of the outcome of the referendum, the territory was annexed by the United Kingdom on 12 September 1923.
Shortly after annexation, on 1 October 1923, the first constitution for the new Colony of Southern Rhodesia came into force, under this constitution Sir Charles Coghlan became the first Premier of Southern Rhodesia and upon his death in 1927 he was succeeded by Howard Unwin Moffat. During World War II, Southern Rhodesian military units participated on the side of the United Kingdom, Southern Rhodesian forces were involved on many fronts including the East and North African Campaigns, Italy and Burma. Southern Rhodesian forces had the highest loss ratio of any constituent element, additionally, the Rhodesian pilots earned the highest number of decorations and ace appellations of any group within the Empire. This resulted in the Royal Family paying a state visit to the colony at the end of the war to thank the Rhodesian people. Economically, Southern Rhodesia developed an economy that was based on production of a few primary products, chrome
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the United Kingdoms aerial warfare force. Formed towards the end of the First World War on 1 April 1918, following victory over the Central Powers in 1918 the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world. The RAF describe its mission statement as, an agile and capable Air Force that, person for person, is second to none, and that makes a decisive air power contribution in support of the UK Defence Mission. The mission statement is supported by the RAFs definition of air power, Air power is defined as the ability to project power from the air and space to influence the behaviour of people or the course of events. Today the Royal Air Force maintains a fleet of various types of aircraft. The majority of the RAFs rotary-wing aircraft form part of the tri-service Joint Helicopter Command in support of ground forces, most of the RAFs aircraft and personnel are based in the UK, with many others serving on operations or at long-established overseas bases. It was founded on 1 April 1918, with headquarters located in the former Hotel Cecil, during the First World War, by the amalgamation of the Royal Flying Corps, at that time it was the largest air force in the world.
The RAFs naval aviation branch, the Fleet Air Arm, was founded in 1924, the RAF developed the doctrine of strategic bombing which led to the construction of long-range bombers and became its main bombing strategy in the Second World War. The RAF underwent rapid expansion prior to and during the Second World War, under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan of December 1939, the air forces of British Commonwealth countries trained and formed Article XV squadrons for service with RAF formations. Many individual personnel from countries, and exiles from occupied Europe. By the end of the war the Royal Canadian Air Force had contributed more than 30 squadrons to serve in RAF formations, the Royal Australian Air Force represented around nine percent of all RAF personnel who served in the European and Mediterranean theatres. In the Battle of Britain in 1940, the RAF defended the skies over Britain against the numerically superior German Luftwaffe, the largest RAF effort during the war was the strategic bombing campaign against Germany by Bomber Command.
Following victory in the Second World War, the RAF underwent significant re-organisation, during the early stages of the Cold War, one of the first major operations undertaken by the Royal Air Force was in 1948 and the Berlin Airlift, codenamed Operation Plainfire. Before Britain developed its own nuclear weapons the RAF was provided with American nuclear weapons under Project E and these were initially armed with nuclear gravity bombs, being equipped with the Blue Steel missile. Following the development of the Royal Navys Polaris submarines, the nuclear deterrent passed to the navys submarines on 30 June 1969. With the introduction of Polaris, the RAFs strategic nuclear role was reduced to a tactical one and this tactical role was continued by the V bombers into the 1980s and until 1998 by Tornado GR1s. For much of the Cold War the primary role of the RAF was the defence of Western Europe against potential attack by the Soviet Union, with many squadrons based in West Germany. With the decline of the British Empire, global operations were scaled back, despite this, the RAF fought in many battles in the Cold War period
Wimbledon had a population of 68,187 in 2011 which includes the electoral wards of Abbey, Hillside, Village, Raynes Park and Wimbledon Park. It is home to the Wimbledon Tennis Championships and New Wimbledon Theatre, Wimbledon has been inhabited since at least the Iron Age when the hill fort on Wimbledon Common is thought to have been constructed. In 1087 when the Domesday Book was compiled, Wimbledon was part of the manor of Mortlake, the village developed with a stable rural population coexisting alongside nobility and wealthy merchants from the city. The location of the station shifted the focus of the subsequent growth away from the original village centre. Since 2005, the north and west of the Borough has been represented in Westminster by Stephen Hammond, the eastern and southern of the Borough are represented by Siobhain McDonagh, a Labour MP. It has established minority groups, among the most prominent are British Asians, British Ghanaians, Wimbledon has been inhabited since at least the Iron Age when the hill fort on Wimbledon Common, the second-largest in London, is thought to have been constructed.
The original nucleus of Wimbledon was at the top of the close to the common – the area now known locally as the village. The village is referred to as Wimbedounyng in a signed by King Edgar the Peaceful in 967. The name Wimbledon means Wynnmans hill, with the element of the name being the Old English dun. At the time the Domesday Book was compiled, Wimbledon was part of the manor of Mortlake, the ownership of the manor of Wimbledon changed hands many times during its history. The manor was held by the church until 1398 when Thomas Arundel, the manor was confiscated and became crown property. The manor remained crown property until the reign of Henry VIII when it was granted briefly to Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, until Cromwell was executed in 1540 and the land was again confiscated. The manor was held by Henry VIIIs last wife and widow Catherine Parr until her death in 1548 when it again reverted to the monarch. In the 1550s, Henrys daughter, Mary I, granted the manor to Cardinal Reginald Pole who held it until his death in 1558 when it again become royal property.
Marys sister, Elizabeth I held the property until 1574 when she gave the house to Christopher Hatton who sold it in the same year to Sir Thomas Cecil. The lands of the manor were given to the Cecil family in 1588, the Cecil family retained the manor for fifty years before it was bought by Charles I in 1638 for his Queen, Henrietta Maria. On his death in 1677 the manor was sold on again to the Lord High Treasurer, Thomas Osborne, the Osborne family sold the manor to Sir Theodore Janssen in 1712. Janssen, a director of the South Sea Company, began a new house to replace the Cecil-built manor house but, due to the collapse of the company
National Health Service
The National Health Service is the name of the public health services of England and Wales, and is commonly used to refer to those of Northern Ireland. They were established together as one of the social reforms following the Second World War on the founding principles of being comprehensive, universal. Today, each provides a range of health services, the vast majority of which are free for people ordinarily resident in the United Kingdom. Taken together, the four National Health Services in 2015-16 employed around 1.6 million people with a budget of £136.7 billion. For non-residents, the NHS is free at the time of use, for general practitioner, the NHS began on the Appointed Day of 5 July 1948. This put into practice Westminster legislation for England and Wales from 1946 and Scotland from 1947, when Clement Attlees Labour Party won the 1945 election he appointed Aneurin Bevan as Health Minister. Bevan embarked upon what the historian of the NHS, Charles Webster. Three years after the founding of the NHS, Bevan resigned from the Labour government in opposition to the introduction of charges for the provision of dentures and glasses, the following year, Winston Churchills Conservative government introduced prescription charges.
These charges were the first of many controversies over reforms to the NHS throughout its history, each of the UKs four nations have their own separate NHS, each with its own history. From its earliest days, the history of the NHS has shown its place in British society reflected and debated in film, TV, cartoons. However, some functions might be performed by one health service on behalf of another. There have been issues about cross-border payments, taken together, the four National Health Services in 2015-16 employed around 1.6 million people with a combined budget of £136.7 billion. In 2014 the total health sector workforce across the UK was 2,165,043 and this broke down into 1,789,586 in England,198,368 in Scotland,110,292 in Wales and 66,797 in Northern Ireland. The NHS is free at the time of use, for general practitioner and emergency treatment not including admission to hospital, people with the right to medical care in European Economic Area nations are entitled to free treatment by using the European Health Insurance Card.
Those from other countries with which the UK has reciprocal arrangements qualify for free treatment, people not ordinarily resident in the UK are in general not entitled to free hospital treatment, with some exceptions such as refugees. People not ordinarily resident may be subject to an interview to establish their eligibility, patients who do not qualify for free treatment are asked to pay in advance, or to sign a written undertaking to pay, except for emergency treatment. The provision of treatment to non-UK-residents, formerly interpreted liberally, has been increasingly restricted. As of 2016 the surcharge was £200 per year, with exemptions and reductions in some cases, the systems are 98. 8% funded from general taxation and National Insurance contributions, plus small amounts from patient charges for some services
Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence
Britain, the Commonwealth and the United Nations all deemed Rhodesias UDI illegal, and economic sanctions, the first in the UNs history, were imposed on the breakaway colony. Amid near-complete international isolation, Rhodesia continued as a state with the assistance of South Africa. Most white Rhodesians felt that they were due independence following four decades self-government, stalemate developed between the British and Rhodesian Prime Ministers, Harold Wilson and Ian Smith respectively, between 1964 and 1965. While no country recognised UDI, the Rhodesian High Court deemed the post-UDI government legal, the Smith administration initially professed continued loyalty to Queen Elizabeth II, but abandoned this in 1970 when it declared a republic in an unsuccessful attempt to win foreign recognition. Under these terms the country was reconstituted under black rule as Zimbabwe Rhodesia in June 1979, but this new order was rejected by the guerrillas, the Bush War continued until Zimbabwe Rhodesia revoked UDI as part of the Lancaster House Agreement in December 1979.
Following a brief period of direct British rule, the country was granted internationally recognised independence under the name Zimbabwe in 1980 and it was empowered to run its own affairs in almost all respects, including defence. In the event, they were never exercised, a generally co-operative relationship developed between Whitehall and the colonial government and civil service in Salisbury, and dispute was rare. The 1923 constitution was drawn up in terms, and the electoral system it devised was similarly open. Everyday life was marked by discrimination ranging from job reservation for whites to petty segregation of trains, post office queues, in the wider Imperial context, Southern Rhodesia occupied a category unto itself because of the special quasi-independent status it held. This unique arrangement continued following the advent of Commonwealth Prime Ministers Conferences in 1944, Southern Rhodesians of all races fought for Britain in the Second World War, and the colonial government gradually received more autonomy regarding external affairs.
Post-war immigration to Southern Rhodesia, mainly from Britain and South Africa, the black population grew from 1,400,000 to 3,550,000 over the same period. He hoped that this set in motion the creation of one united dominion in south-central Africa. Britain and Belgium vastly accelerated their withdrawal from Africa during this period, the idea of no independence before majority rule, commonly abbreviated to NIBMAR, gained considerable ground in British political circles. When Huggins asked Britain to make the Federation a dominion in 1956, the opposition Dominion Party responded by repeatedly calling for a Federal unilateral declaration of independence over the next few years. Following Lord Malverns retirement in late 1956, his successor Sir Roy Welensky pondered such a move on at least three occasions, a referendum of the mostly white electorate approved the new constitution by a majority of 65% on 26 July 1961. This effectively negated the relinquishment of British powers described elsewhere in the document, Field became Prime Minister, with Smith as his deputy.
In February 1962, the British Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations, Duncan Sandys, a few days later, he horrified Welensky by telling him that we British have lost the will to govern. But we havent, retorted Julian Greenfield, Welenskys Law Minister, macmillans Deputy Prime Minister and First Secretary of State, R A Butler, who headed British oversight of the Federation, officially announced Nyasalands right to secede in December 1962
Imperial College London
Imperial College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom. Its founder, Prince Albert, envisioned an area comprised of the Victoria and Albert Museum, Natural History Museum, Royal Albert Hall, the Imperial Institute was opened by his wife, Queen Victoria, who laid the foundation stone in 1888. Imperial College London was granted a charter in 1907. In the same year, the joined the University of London. The curriculum was expanded to include medicine after merging with several medical schools. In 2004, Queen Elizabeth II opened the Imperial College Business School, Imperial is organized through faculties for Science, Engineering and Business. The main campus is located in South Kensington, the universitys emphasis is on emerging technology and its practical application. Imperials contributions to society include the discovery of penicillin, the development of fibre optics, Imperial is consistently ranked among the top universities in the world. In 2017, it ranked 8th in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, 9th in the QS World University Rankings, in 2015, Imperial was ranked the most innovative university in Europe, and in 2017 as the 5th most international university in the world.
Staff and alumni include 15 Nobel laureates,2 Fields Medalists,70 Fellows of the Royal Society,82 Fellows of the Royal Academy of Engineering, and 78 Fellows of the Academy of Medical Sciences. The Great Exhibition in 1851 was organised by Prince Albert, Henry Cole, Francis Fuller and other members of the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce. The Great Exhibition made a surplus of £186,000 used in creating an area in the South of Kensington encouraging culture and education for everyone. Its founder, Prince Albert, envisioned an area composed of the Victoria and Albert Museum, Natural History Museum, Royal Albert Hall. Several royal colleges and the Imperial Institute merged to form what is now Imperial College London, as a result of a movement earlier in the decade, many politicians donated funds to establish the college, including Benjamin Disraeli, William Gladstone and Robert Peel. It was supported by Prince Albert, who persuaded August Wilhelm von Hofmann to be the first professor, William Henry Perkin studied and worked at the college under von Hofmann, but resigned his position after discovering the first synthetic dye, mauveine, in 1856.
It is considered the highest honour given in the chemical industry. The Royal School of Mines was established by Sir Henry de la Beche in 1851, developing from the Museum of Economic Geology and he created a school which laid the foundations for the teaching of science in the country, and which has its legacy today at Imperial. The Royal College of Science was established in 1881, the main objective was to support the training of science teachers and to develop teaching in other science subjects alongside the Royal School of Mines earth sciences specialities
New York University School of Medicine
The New York University School of Medicine is one of the graduate schools of New York University. As of 2016, it is one of the most selective school in the United States. In 2014, New York University School of Medicine attracted over $304.5 million in research funding from the National Institutes of Health alone. The School of Medicine is part of NYU Langone Medical Center, named after Kenneth Langone and it is located at 550 First Avenue in New York City. The School of Medicine has 1,177 full-time faculty and 3,091 part-time faculty, there are 104 endowed professorships,1,078 residents/fellows,68 M. D. /Ph. D. Candidates and 400 postdoctoral fellows as of 2011, the NYU Medical Center is home to the School of Medicine, the Sackler Institute of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, and the Charles C. Harris Skin & Cancer Pavilion. In 2016-17, NYU Langone Medical Center was recognized on the U. S, graduates of New York University School of Medicine are accepted into competitive residency programs and leading medical centers.
New York University School of Medicine has recently implemented the curriculum for the 21st century, the new curriculum consists of 18 months of basic science and two and a half years of clinical training. Students take the USMLE Step 1 exam after the clerkship year and this allows students additional time to take electives, conduct research, or go on away rotations. Other features of the curriculum include NYU3T and PLACE, the NYU School of Medicine offers several 5-year joint degree programs, some of which can be optionally completed in 4 years. Recently, NYU School of Medicine has introduced a 3-year MD program based on the program first pioneered in Canada at McMaster University Medical School in 1965, the 3-year program can only be applied to by students accepted into the 4 year stream. 3-year program students are guaranteed a residency placement in their specialty of choice at NYU Langone Medical Center, admission to NYU School of Medicine is among the most selective in the country. For the Class of 2019, NYU received 7,807 applications, the matriculating class had a median GPA of 3.87 and a MCAT score of 36, with 33% of the incoming class being underrepresented minorities.
The main NYU Langone Medical Center campus is located at the East River waterfront at 1st Ave. between 30th and 34th street and it hosts the NYU School of Medicine, Tisch Hospital and the Howard A. Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine. Other NYU Langone Medical Center facilities across the city include the Hospital for Joint Diseases Orthopaedic Institute, the NYU Cancer Center on 34th Street, and Woodhull Hospital in Brooklyn. Most recently, the NYU School of Medicine opened a new emergency simulation center at Bellevue Hospital in a joint effort with the City University of New York. Medical students, nurses, EMTs, and other medical staff will be able to practice and refine their skills on state-of-the-art mannequins, Research facilities include the Sackler Institute of Graduate Biomedical Sciences and the Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine. New York University College of Medicine was established in 1841, the medical school merged with Bellevue Medical College in 1898 to form the University and Bellevue Hospital Medical College
New York University
New York University is a private nonprofit research university based in New York City. Founded in 1831, NYU is considered one of the worlds most influential research universities, University rankings compiled by Times Higher Education, U. S. News & World Report, and the Academic Ranking of World Universities all rank NYU amongst the top 32 universities in the world. NYU is a part of the creativity and vibrancy that is Manhattan, located with its core in Greenwich Village. Among its faculty and alumni are 37 Nobel Laureates, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, over 30 Academy Award winners, alumni include heads of state, eminent mathematicians, media figures, Olympic medalists, CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, and astronauts. NYU alumni are among the wealthiest in the world, according to The Princeton Review, NYU is consistently considered by students and parents as a Top Dream College. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish in this immense, a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all.
A three-day-long literary and scientific convention held in City Hall in 1830 and these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18,1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the merchants, bankers. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institutions first president, the university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was officially renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, in 1835, the School of Law, NYUs first professional school, was established. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU and it became one of the nations largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding, the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus.
NYU had a desire to follow New York Citys development further uptown, NYUs move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken. The University Heights campus was far more spacious than its predecessor was, as a result, most of the universitys operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYUs administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead and this extension would become a fully independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the citys institutions, including NYU