Whalley Abbey is a former Cistercian abbey in Whalley, England. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the abbey was demolished and a country house was built on the site. In the 20th century the house was modified and it is now the Retreat and Conference House of the Diocese of Blackburn; the ruins of the abbey are recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade I listed building, are a Scheduled Ancient Monument. In 1296 the Cistercian monks from Stanlow Abbey moved to Whalley. Stanlow Abbey had been founded on the banks of the River Mersey in the 1170s by John fitz Richard, the constable of Chester; this abbey had suffered a series of misfortunes, including flooding in 1279, the destruction of the church tower in a gale in 1287 and a fire in 1289. In 1283 Henry de Lacy, tenth Baron of Halton agreed to the move from Stanlow to Whalley but this was not achieved until 1296; the first stone was laid by Henry de Lacy in June 1296 and at least part of the site was consecrated by the Bishop of Whithern in 1306.
Building proceeded and the foundation stone was laid in 1330. Stone for building the abbey was obtained from quarries at Simonstone. A royal licence to build a crenellated wall around the site was obtained in 1339; the church was completed in 1380 but the remainder of the abbey was not finished until the 1440s. In 1480 the North East Gatehouse, which provided a new entrance to the abbey, was completed. In the 16th century, John Paslew, the last Abbot of Whalley, reconstructed his own lodgings and added a Lady Chapel; the abbey closed in 1537 as part of the dissolution of the monasteries. That year Abbot Paslew was executed for high treason for his part in events connected with the Pilgrimage of Grace the previous year. In 1553 the abbey lands and the manor of Whalley were sold for just over £2,151 to John Braddyll of Brockhall and Richard Assheton of Lever near Bolton; the properties were divided and Assheton took the monastic site and buildings. The abbot's house and the infirmary buildings were demolished and a large house was built on the site.
In the 17th century most of the remaining church and monastic buildings were pulled down. The house passed through a succession of owners and further alterations were made to it in the 19th century. Around 1900 the house and grounds were bought by Sir John Travis Cragg. In 1923 the house and grounds were purchased by the Anglican Diocese of Manchester when the bishop was William Temple; when the diocese was divided in 1926, the property passed to the new Diocese of Blackburn. In 1930 Canon J. R. Lumb was appointed as the first warden of the centre and it has since become a centre of religious education with residential accommodation for guests. Two of the ground floor rooms have been converted into chapels. In the 1930s the site of the abbey church was excavated and the foundations discovered were exposed and consolidated; the former private house, now a retreat and conference house, was reopened in September 2005 following refurbishment. It contains a dining room and en suite rooms for residents.
The north range contains a visitor centre, with exhibition centre and a bookshop. A spirituality programme is available for non-resident guests. Guided tours of the abbey ruins can be arranged in the summer months. Only the foundations of the church remain; the remains of the former monastic buildings are more extensive. The west range, the lay brothers' dormitory, consists of two stories, is roofed; this is used as a Roman Catholic church hall. To the south of the cloister, part of the walls of the former kitchen and refectory remain; the east range is more complete and includes parts of the walls of the former monks' day room and vestry. The North West Gateway is separately listed Grade I, it is in two storeys and is roofless. It is a Scheduled Ancient Monument; the lodge at the entrance to the abbey grounds is listed Grade II. It dates from the late 18th century, is built in ashlar sandstone with a stone slate roof. Listed Grade II are a pair of gatepiers at the entrance to the grounds. Grade I listed buildings in Lancashire Listed buildings in Whalley, Lancashire Bibliography Media related to Whalley Abbey at Wikimedia Commons Whalley Abbey Virtual Tour History of Whalley Abbey Photographs by Craig Thornber Photographs by Peter Glass Architectural details of the 2005 refurbishment
Great Mitton is a village and a civil parish in the Ribble Valley, England. It is separated from the civil parish of Little Mitton by the River Ribble, both lie about three miles from the town of Clitheroe; the combined population of both civil parishes at the 2011 census was 266. In total and Little Mitton cover less than 2000 acres of the Forest of Bowland, making it the smallest township in the Forest; the village is part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, but was transferred to Lancashire for administrative purposes on 1 April 1974, under the provisions of the Local Government Act 1972. Great Mitton has an ancient church, All Hallows, an ancient manor house and a pub, The Three Fishes, where in former times manorial courts were held. A second pub,The Aspinall Arms, sits across the Ribble in Little Mitton; the ancient parish of Mitton took its name from the Old English, being a settlement at the mythe, the confluence of the Hodder and Ribble Rivers. The Domesday manor of Mitton encompassed both Great and Little Mitton, straddling lands on both sides of the Ribble.
From the late eleventh century, it fell under the Lordship of Bowland, the Lords of Bowland being lords paramount of a Royal Forest and a Liberty of ten manors spanning eight townships and four parishes and which covered an area of 300 square miles on the historic borders of Lancashire and Yorkshire. The manors within the Liberty were Slaidburn, Waddington, Bashall Eaves, Withgill, Leagram and Dunnow. Mitton was a mesne manor from the early twelfth century, its first lord, Radulphus le Rus, may have been a scion of the de Lacy family. Descendants of Radulphus assumed the surname de Mitton. In the late thirteenth century, the family adopted the surname de Sotheron Sherburne by marriage, thereby laying the foundation for the dynasty of Shireburne of Stonyhurst; the manor passed out of Shireburne ownership in the fourteenth century but was re-acquired in 1665. With the extinction of the Shireburne male line in 1717, the manor passed to the Hawksworth and Aspinall families; the Mitton Hoard of eleven medieval silver coins was found to the west of the village near the River Hodder.
The coins are now in Clitheroe Castle Museum. The manor of Withgill was small, it was held by the de Bury family until the late fourteenth century. The Singletons held the manor from 1379-1503 after which it passed to the family of Sir William Leyland and the Tyldesleys; the Tyldesleys, leading Jacobites, forfeited the manor for their role in the 1715 Preston Rebellion. The historical Parish of Great Mitton comprised the townships of Old Laund Booth, Aighton and Chaigley in Blackburnshire, the chapelries of Grindleton and Waddington, townships of Bashall Eaves, West Bradford in Staincliffe and Mitton itself which straddled the two. Sir William Addison and author, was born at Milton; the civil parish of Great Mitton was created from the ancient township with the same name in 1866. Great Mitton was part of the West Riding of Yorkshire until its abolition in 1974; the parish shares a parish council with the neighbouring civil parishes of Bashall Eaves and Little Mitton. All Hallows Church was built with 15th and 16th century additions.
It contains Shireburne of Stonyhurst family tombs. Since 1954, it has been designated a Grade I listed building by English Heritage. Listed buildings in Great Mitton Neighbourhood Statistics for Great Mitton
Read Hall and Park
Read Hall and Park is a manor house with ornamental grounds of about 450 acres in Whalley Road, Read, a few miles west of Padiham, England. The current hall is a grade II * listed building; the landscaped grounds date from around the same time and feature a waterfall, two lakes and woodland. There is a rockery, rose garden and terrace, plus a fountain and gardens near the house of about 25 acres; the hall and park are not open to the public. The original building on the site was a three-storey building built round three sides of a courtyard by Roger Nowell, who acquired the estate in the 16th century after the Dissolution of Whalley Abbey. Alexander Nowell was an English theologian, born in Read Hall in the Elizabethan age, in popular story the inventor of bottled beer on a fishing expedidition. Izaak Walton describes the story in the "Complete Angler". A Roger Nowell was Sheriff of Lancashire in 1610 and the magistrate at the time of the Lancashire Witches in 1612 who sent them to Lancaster for trial and eventual execution.
The estate passed to his grandson, who raised an army during the Civil War at his own expense to help defend Lathom House for the Royalists. During the Civil War a skirmish in 1643 known as the Battle of Read Bridge in the vicinity of the hall ended in a decisive victory for the Parliamentarian forces. After several more generations of Nowells the house was sold on the death of Alexander Nowell in 1772, his widow returned to London with their daughter. The current hall was built between 1818 and 1825 for Richard Fort, a wealthy partner in a Manchester Calico textile printing firm, it was designed by the architect George Webster of Kendal when he was only 21.. John Fort died in 1842 and was succeeded by his son Richard, High Sheriff of Lancashire for 1854 and M. P. for Clitheroe from 1865 to 1868. The rest of the park includes Home Lodge in Whalley Road, both by Webster at the same time. Home Farm was built as a model farm, converted into living accommodation in the 20th century. Grade II* listed buildings in Lancashire Listed buildings in Read, Lancashire List of works by George Webster Historic England.
"Read Hall". Images of England. Alexander Balloch Grosart, The spending of the money of Robert Nowell of Reade hall, brother of Dean Alexander Norwell. 1568-1580, 1877
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
William Lambarde was an English antiquarian, writer on legal subjects, politician. He is remembered as the author of A Perambulation of Kent, the first English county history. William Lambarde was born in London on 18 October 1536, his father John Lambarde was a draper who served three times as Master of the Drapers' Company, an alderman and a sheriff of London. The Manor of Westcombe in Greenwich, demolished in 1725, was their family home. In 1556, Lambarde was admitted to Lincoln's Inn, he studied law with Laurence Nowell, in 1568, with Nowell's encouragement, published a collection of Anglo-Saxon laws, printed by John Day. In the introduction he acknowledged Nowell's contribution; this publication included a woodcut map depicting the seven kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England, thought to be the first map of any sort to have been designed and published in England, and, likely to have been the work of Laurence Nowell. In 1570, while Lambarde was courting the daughter of George Multon, he completed his Perambulation of Kent, the first English county history.
Circulating in manuscript before being printed in 1576, it proved to be popular, was published in a second edition in 1596. Lambarde considered writing a similar work for all of Britain, but he set the idea aside when he learned that William Camden was working on the same project. On 11 September 1570, Lambarde married Jane Multon on her 17th birthday, she died in 1573. He lived in the Manor of St. Clere in Ightham. On Laurence Nowell's death, he inherited his books and manuscripts, which may have included the manuscript of Beowulf. Lambarde served as a Member of Parliament for Aldborough in the Parliament of 1563–1567, he was a bencher of Lincoln's Inn, a Justice of the Peace for Kent. Lambarde founded an almshouse in East Greenwich in 1576, he was appointed Keeper of the Rolls by the Lord Chancellor Sir Thomas Egerton in 1597, Elizabeth made him Keeper of the Records in the Tower in 1601. He died on 19 August that same year. Shortly before his death he had a conversation with Elizabeth in which she commented obliquely on Essex's Rebellion, saying "I am Richard II knowe you not that", "this tragedie was fortie times plaied in open streetes & howses".
Her words are read as a reference to Shakespeare's Richard II, a performance of, commissioned by Essex's followers shortly before the rising. Apart from the works mentioned, Lambarde wrote Eirenarcha: Or of the Office of the Justices of Peace, a manual that became the standard work on the subject, he completed Archeion, or, A Discourse upon the High Courts of Justice in England by 1591, another important legal work. The manuscript circulated and a copy was published without consent by the printer Daniel Frere in 1635. In the same year, Lambarde's grandson put out an authorized edition of the work to correct certain errors in Frere's version. There is a Lambarde archive at Drapers' Hall. Smith, George. "Lambarde, William", Dictionary of National Biography: From the Earliest Times to 1900, Oxford: Oxford University Press, OCLC 3336495. Warnicke, Retha M, William Lambarde: Elizabethan Antiquary, 1536–1601, London: Phillimore, ISBN 978-0-85033-077-9. Analysis of alleged Shakespeare signature in Lambarde's Archaionomia
The Nowell Codex is the second of two manuscripts comprising the bound volume Cotton Vitellius A.xv, one of the four major Anglo-Saxon poetic manuscripts. It is most famous as the manuscript containing the unique copy of the epic poem Beowulf. In addition to this, it contains first a fragment of The Life of Saint Christopher the more complete texts Wonders of the East and Letters of Alexander to Aristotle, after Beowulf, a poetic translation of Judith. Due to the fame of Beowulf, the Nowell codex is sometimes known as the Beowulf manuscript; the manuscript is located within the British Library with the rest of the Cotton collection. The current codex is a composite of at least two manuscripts; the main division is into two distinct books which were not bound together until the 17th century. The first of these owned by Southwick Priory in Hampshire, dates from the 12th century and contains four works of prose, it is the second, older manuscript, more famous. This second manuscript is known as the Nowell codex, after the antiquarian Laurence Nowell, whose name is inscribed on its first page.
At some point it was combined with the first codex. It was acquired by Sir Robert Cotton. In his library, it was placed on the first shelf as the 15th manuscript of the bookcase that had a bust of the Emperor Vitellius, giving the collection its name; the Nowell codex is dated around the turn of the first millennium. Recent editions have specified a probable date in the decade after 1000; the Nowell Codex was written in two hands. The first extends from the beginning of the manuscript as far as the word scyran in line 1939 of Beowulf. Elliott Van Kirk Dobbie notes that although the scribes behind the two hands are contemporary, they differ markedly in appearance, the second hand appearing "to belong to an older school of insular writing than its companion hand."The volume was damaged in 1731 when a fire destroyed the Cotton library. While the volume itself survived, the edges of the pages were badly scorched. Three pages, fol. 182a, fol. 182b and fol. 201b are in notably bad shape, showing more damage than can be explained by the Cottonian fire, with many words faded or illegible, some of which are far from the edges of the leaf.
Van Kirk Dobbie suggests the damage to the third of these pages was due to Beowulf being separated from Judith prior to the 17th century, fol. 201b was on the outside of the manuscript with no binding to protect it. But he offers no explanation for the condition of the first two pages; the damage to the Nowell Codex can be overcome to different degrees. The three pages in bad shape mentioned above have been studied under ultraviolet light, the resulting information has been published. Three modern transcriptions of parts of this portion of this manuscript are known. Two of these transcriptions, known as A and B, were made under the direction of the first editor of Beowulf, Grimur Jonsson Thorkelin in the years 1786-1787 after the Cottonian fire yet before the manuscript had deteriorated as far as it presently has. Transcript A was made by an unidentified professional copyist, while B was made by Thorkelin himself; the third transcript is of the Judith poem and was made by Franciscus Junius between 1621 and 1651.
A careful copy of the poem with only occasional errors, Junius' transcription preserves the text of the poem before it suffered fire damage. The first codex contains four works of Old English prose: a copy of Alfred's translation of Augustine's Soliloquies, a translation of the Gospel of Nicodemus, the prose Solomon and Saturn, a fragment of a life of Saint Quentin; the second codex begins with three prose works: a life of Saint Christopher, Wonders of the East, a translation of a Letter of Alexander to Aristotle. These are followed by Beowulf, which takes up the bulk of the volume, Judith, a poetic retelling of part of the book of Judith. Great wear on the final page of Beowulf and other manuscript factors such as wormhole patterns indicate Judith was not the last part of the manuscript, though it is in the same hand as the parts of Beowulf; the somewhat eclectic contents of this codex have led to much critical debate over why these particular works were chosen for inclusion. One theory which has gained considerable currency is that the compiler saw a thematic link: all five works deal to some extent with monsters or monstrous behaviour.
Anglo-Saxon literature Beowulf Caedmon manuscript Exeter Book Liber Monstrorum Vercelli Book R. D. Fulk, ed. and trans. The Beowulf Manuscript: Complete Texts and The Fight at Finnsburg. Cambridge, Harvard University Press. 2010. Kiernan, Kevin. Beowulf and the Beowulf Manuscript. Revised edition. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press. 1996. Published by Rutgers, State University of New Jersey Press, 1981. Full digital coverage of the manuscript on the British Library's Digitised Manuscripts website
Alexander Nowell was an Anglican priest and theologian. He served as Dean of St Paul's during much of Elizabeth I's reign, is now remembered for his catechisms, he was the eldest son of John Nowell of Read Hall, Lancashire, by his second wife Elizabeth Kay of Rochdale, was the brother of Laurence Nowell. His sister Beatrice was the mother of John Hammond. Nowell was educated at Middleton, near Rochdale, Lancashire and at Brasenose College, where he is said to have shared rooms with John Foxe the martyrologist, he was elected fellow of Brasenose in 1526. In 1543 Nowell was appointed master of Westminster School, and, in December 1551, prebendary of Westminster Abbey. At this period he became involved in a controversy with Thomas Dorman, over the views of the late John Redman, which ran on in different forms for many years. Nowell was elected in September 1553 as Member of Parliament for West Looe in Cornwall in Queen Mary's first parliament. In October of that year, however, a committee of the house reported that he could not sit in the House of Commons because as prebendary of Westminster he had a seat in Convocation.
He was also deprived of his prebend, in 1554. Nowell was one of the Marian exiles, Protestants who left England during the Reign of Mary I and Philip II, he left England in 1555, aided by the merchant Francis Bowyer. He went first to Strassburg and to Frankfurt, where he became involved in the doctrinal and liturgical dispute between the exiles. While trying to moderate the discussions, Nowell came to side with John Knox. Nowell returned to England when Elizabeth I came to the throne, becoming chaplain to Edmund Grindal in December 1560, he was given the archdeaconry of Middlesex at the start of 1561, a canonry at Canterbury, in November 1561 became Dean of St Paul's. In 1562 the Bishop of London collated him with the Parish of Great or Much Hadham in Hertfordshire, where the Bishops had a palace. In the Convocation of 1563 Nowell played a prominent part. On its opening day, 12 January, he preached in Westminster Abbey the sermon for the opening of the concurrent Parliament. In it he gave offence to the Queen.
It was said. On the following day, Matthew Parker nominated him as prolocutor of the Lower House of Convocation. Elected to the post, he was used to keep the two Houses, the Upper consisting of bishops, in touch with each other. Friction with the Queen is well attested. On one occasion she rebuked Nowell in the vestry for having given her a prayer book with pictures of saints and angels that smacked of the Church of Rome. On another, in March 1565, she interrupted his sermon, directed against a work A Treatyse of the Crosse of John Martiall, telling him to stick to his text and cease slighting the crucifix. In 1594 he was appointed Canon of the eleventh stall at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, a position he held until 1602. Nowell held the deanery of St Paul's for 42 years, until his death on 13 February 1602. With his brother Robert, a lawyer, he re-established the free school at Middleton; some time after his death he was credited by Thomas Fuller, with the accidental invention of bottled beer.
"Without offence it may be remembered, that leaving a bottle of ale, when fishing, in the grass, he found it some days after, no bottle, but a gun, such the sound at the opening thereof: and this is believed the original of bottled ale in England."He was a keen angler, Izaak Walton says, "this good man was observed to spend a tenth part of his time in angling. Nowell is now remembered for his work on catechisms, his Latin Catechismus puerorum, in manuscript, gained the support of the Lower House in the Convocation of 1563. It was printed in 1570, as Catechismus, Prima institutio disciplinaque pietatis Christianae, with Matthew Parker's approval, it was required to be used in schools, in 1571, Thomas Norton translated it into English, as A Catechism, or, First instruction of Christian religion. Abridged versions appeared: "shorter" catechism. A Welsh translation, Catecism eglwys loegr by Thomas Jones of Denbigh, appeared in 1809. Nowell left no children, he was the uncle of the theologian William Whitaker, who translated the "middle" catechism into Greek.
Bibliographythe Works of John Strype the Publications of the Parker Society the Calendar of State Papers, Domestic "Nowell, Alexander". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Ralph Churton. Life of Alexander Nowell. Oxford. Gilbert Burnet. History of the Reformation. Oxford. Richard Watson Dixon. History of the Church of England. London