The International Paper Company is an American pulp and paper company, the largest such company in the world. It has 56,000 employees, is headquartered in Memphis, Tennessee; the company was incorporated January 31, 1898, upon the merger of 17 pulp and paper mills in the northeastern United States. Its founders and first two presidents were William Augustus Russell, who died in January 1899, Hugh J. Chisholm; the newly formed company supplied 60 percent of all newsprint in the country. The Hudson River Mill in Corinth, New York, where the Sacandaga River joins the Hudson River, was a pioneer in the development of the modern paper industry in the late 19th century; the first wood-based newsprint paper mill in New York, it was built by Albrecht Pagenstecher in 1869. In the early 20th century, the Hudson River Mill was one of the company's largest plants and served both as its principal office, a place where paper workers helped shape the direction of the industry's early labor movement. After World War II, Hudson River Mill workers developed and perfected the production of coated paper for the company.
Shifting economic forces resulted in the mill's closure in November 2002. The historic mill was slated for partial demolition during 2011; the work including asbestos removal was completed by Northstar Group Services. Given the nature of their products, paper plants are flammable. Therefore, International Paper Company used asbestos insulation in its walls and roofs as a protective measure. Asbestos insulation was used on pipes and boilers throughout International Paper plants; this material intended to protect people turned out to damage their health The producers did not reveal that their asbestos products were dangerous though asbestos was known to cause illnesses as far back as the 1920s. Many former employees of International Paper have been diagnosed with mesothelioma following decades of service. In 1987, the company's paper mill workers went on strike at a number of its U. S. plants. In 1986, the company acquired the Hammermill Paper Company, founded in 1898, which managed eleven papermills nationwide, had its corporate offices based in Erie, PA.
In 1996, it purchased Federal Paper Board. In 1999, the company purchased Union Camp Corporation, in June of 2000 Champion International. Additionally, it owns shares in the Chilean company Copec. Andhra Pradesh Paper Mills Rajahmundry, now an International Paper company, is one of the biggest integrated paper and pulp manufacturing centers in India; the company produces writing and copier papers and paper boards for foreign and domestic markets. APPM's production facilities are two mills in Rajahmundry and Kadiam with a total production capacity of 240,000 TPD; the company is becoming a driving force in sustainability in the paper manufacturing arena through focused social and community programs, including pioneering work in raw material generation through social farm forestry. International Paper owns a majority interest in APPM, the remaining shares are publicly traded on the Bombay and National Stock Exchange of India. In 2012, International Paper, through the merger of its wholly owned subsidiary Metal Acquisition Inc. with and into Temple-Inland, acquired Temple-Inland in a deal valued at $4.5 billion.
Temple-Inland became a wholly owned subsidiary of International Paper. At the time of sale, Temple-Inland's corrugated packaging operation consisted of 7 mills and 59 converting facilities as well as the building products operation. In 2005 and 2006, the company undertook a significant restructuring, selling over 6,000,000 acres of forestland in the U. S. along with its coated paper, kraft paper, wood products, beverage packaging businesses, as well as subsidiaries Arizona Chemical and New Zealand-based Carter Holt Harvey. The coated paper business were sold to Apollo Management and now operate as Verso Paper; the kraft paper business was sold to Kapstone Paper and Packaging and operates as Kapstone Kraft Paper. The beverage packaging business, now called Evergreen Packaging, was purchased by Carter Holt Harvey, following the purchase of CHH by Graeme Hart; the company sold its wood products division to West Fraser Timber, based in Vancouver, British Columbia. This included 13 sawmills, making West Fraser the second-largest producer of lumber in North America, after Weyerhaeuser Company.
Under pressure from budget sequestration in 2013, the federal government of the United States has moved from physical checks to cheaper electronic transactions. John Runyan, former head of federal government relations for IP, has become executive director of Consumers for Paper Options, a paper industry funded group that advocates for the use of paper documents for clients of the federal government who are Internet challenged; the company's logo was designed by American graphic designers Lester Beall and Richard Rogers in 1960. The logo features the letters "I" and "P" which form a stylized arrow resembling a tree surrounded by a circle. A primary constraint in the design process was the need for a logo simple enough that it could be stenciled onto trees and lumber intended for paper production. International Paper owns Tower I and occupies the entire property and leases 50,000 square feet in Tower II and all of Tower III. In 2000, International Place Tower III was designed and rests amid the two exi
Reverend Gary Davis
Reverend Gary Davis Blind Gary Davis, was a blues and gospel singer, proficient on the banjo and harmonica. His fingerpicking guitar style influenced many other artists, his students include Stefan Grossman, David Bromberg, Steve Katz, Roy Book Binder, Larry Johnson, Nick Katzman, Dave Van Ronk, Rory Block, Ernie Hawkins, Larry Campbell, Bob Weir, Woody Mann, Tom Winslow. He influenced Bob Dylan, the Grateful Dead, Wizz Jones, Jorma Kaukonen, Keb' Mo', Resurrection Band, John Sebastian. Davis was born in South Carolina, in the Piedmont region. Of the eight children his mother bore, he was the only one, he became blind as an infant. He recalled being poorly treated by his mother and that his father placed him in the care of his paternal grandmother. Davis reported that when he was 10 years old his father was killed in Alabama, he sangs for the first time at Gray Court's Baptist church in South Carolina. He took to the guitar and assumed a unique multivoice style produced with his thumb and index finger, playing gospel and blues tunes along with traditional and original tunes in four-part harmony.
In the mid-1920s, Davis migrated to Durham, North Carolina, a major center of black culture at the time. There he taught Blind Boy Fuller and collaborated with a number of other artists in the Piedmont blues scene, including Bull City Red. In 1935, J. B. Long, a store manager with a reputation for supporting local artists, introduced Davis and Red to the American Record Company; the subsequent recording sessions marked the real beginning of Davis's career. During his time in Durham, he became a Christian. In 1933, Davis was ordained as a Baptist minister in Washington, North Carolina]. Following his conversion and his ordination, Davis began to prefer inspirational gospel music. In the 1940s, the blues scene in Durham began to decline, Davis moved to New York. In 1951, he recorded an oral history for the folklorist Elizabeth Lyttleton Harold. Who transcribed their conversations in a typescript more than 300 pages long; the folk revival of the 1960s invigorated Davis's career. He performed at the Newport Folk Festival.
Peter and Mary recorded his version of "Samson and Delilah" known as "If I Had My Way", a song by Blind Willie Johnson, which Davis had popularized. "Samson and Delilah" was covered and credited to Davis by the Grateful Dead on the album Terrapin Station. The Dead covered Davis' "Death Don't Have No Mercy". Eric Von Schmidt credited Davis with three-quarters of Schmidt's "Baby, Let Me Follow You Down", covered by Bob Dylan on his debut album for Columbia Records; the Blues Hall of Fame singer and harmonica player Darrell Mansfield has recorded several of Davis's songs. Davis died of a heart attack in Hammonton, New Jersey, he is buried in Lynbrook, Long Island, New York. Many of Davis' recordings were published posthumously. Cocaine Blues Gospel blues Mann, Woody; the Art of Acoustic Blues Guitar: Ragtime and Gospel. Oak Publications. Reevy, Tony. "Street Sessions, Piedmont Style". Our State. Stambler, Irwin. Folk and Blues, the Encyclopedia. New York: St. Martin's Press. Tilling, Robert. Oh, What a Beautiful City!
A Tribute to Rev. Gary Davis. Paul Mill Press. ISBN 9780786682584. Von Schmidt, Eric. "Remembering Reverend Gary Davis". Sing Out! 5167–73. Zack, Ian. Say No to the Devil: The Life and Musical Genius of Rev. Gary Davis. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226234106. RevGaryDavis.com, a site devoted to Gary Davis. Harlem Street Singer, 2013 documentary film on the life and music of Reverend Gary Davis www.folkways.si.edu, Smithsonian Folkways recordings information. Reverend Gary Davis at Find a Grave Davis biography on AllMusic.com Biography of the Reverend Gary Davis from the Association of Cultural Equity The guitar students of Rev. Gary Davis with links to performances The Rev. Gary Davis performing on WNYC Radio, February 10, 1966
McCormick County, South Carolina
McCormick County is a county located in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, its population was 10,233, making it the least-populous county in South Carolina, its county seat is McCormick. The county was formed in 1916 from parts of Edgefield and Greenwood Counties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 394 square miles, of which 359 square miles is land and 35 square miles is water, it is the smallest county in South Carolina by land second-smallest by total area. McCormick County is in the Savannah River basin. Johnny Letman - Musician Patrick Noble - SC Governor Greenwood County - northeast Edgefield County - east Columbia County, Georgia - south Lincoln County, Georgia - west Elbert County, Georgia - northwest Abbeville County - northwest Sumter National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 9,958 people, 3,558 households and 2,604 families residing in the county; the population density was 28 people per square mile. There were 4,459 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 53.88% Black or African American, 44.78% White, 0.07% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.38% from other races, 0.57% from two or more races. 0.86% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,558 households out of which 24.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.80% were married couples living together, 17.60% had a female householder with no husband present and 26.80% were non-families. 24.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.82. In the county, the population was spread out with 19.50% under the age of 18, 8.30% from 18 to 24, 27.60% from 25 to 44, 28.10% from 45 to 64 and 16.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 113.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,577, the median income for a family was $38,822.
Males had a median income of $28,824 versus $21,587 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,770. About 15.10% of families and 17.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.50% of those under age 18 and 11.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 10,233 people, 4,027 households, 2,798 families residing in the county; the population density was 28.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,453 housing units at an average density of 15.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 49.7% black or African American, 48.7% white, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.1% American Indian, 0.2% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 10.7% were English, 10.2% were American, 10.2% were German, 6.0% were Irish. Of the 4,027 households, 21.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.4% were married couples living together, 15.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.5% were non-families, 27.4% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.65. The median age was 50.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $35,858 and the median income for a family was $43,021. Males had a median income of $32,606 versus $28,067 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,411. About 14.2% of families and 18.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37.6% of those under age 18 and 7.9% of those age 65 or over. McCormick Parksville Plum Branch Clarks Hill Modoc Mount Carmel Willington National Register of Historic Places listings in McCormick County, South Carolina
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined amount of time in a boxing ring. Amateur boxing is both an Olympic and Commonwealth Games sport and is a common fixture in most international games—it has its own World Championships. Boxing is overseen by a referee over a series of one- to three-minute intervals called rounds; the result is decided when an opponent is deemed incapable to continue by a referee, is disqualified for breaking a rule, or resigns by throwing in a towel. If a fight completes all of its allocated rounds, the victor is determined by judges' scorecards at the end of the contest. In the event that both fighters gain equal scores from the judges, professional bouts are considered a draw. In Olympic boxing, because a winner must be declared, judges award the content to one fighter on technical criteria. While humans have fought in hand-to-hand combat since the dawn of human history, the earliest evidence of fist-fighting sporting contests date back to the ancient Near East in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC.
The earliest evidence of boxing rules date back to Ancient Greece, where boxing was established as an Olympic game in 688 BC. Boxing evolved from 16th- and 18th-century prizefights in Great Britain, to the forerunner of modern boxing in the mid-19th century with the 1867 introduction of the Marquess of Queensberry Rules; the earliest known depiction of boxing comes from a Sumerian relief in Iraq from the 3rd millennium BC. Depictions from the 2nd millennium BC are found in reliefs from the Mesopotamian nations of Assyria and Babylonia, in Hittite art from Asia Minor. A relief sculpture from Egyptian Thebes shows both spectators; these early Middle-Eastern and Egyptian depictions showed contests where fighters were either bare-fisted or had a band supporting the wrist. The earliest evidence of fist fighting with the use of gloves can be found on Minoan Crete. Various types of boxing existed in ancient India; the earliest references to musti-yuddha come from classical Vedic epics such as the Ramayana and Rig Veda.
The Mahabharata describes two combatants boxing with clenched fists and fighting with kicks, finger strikes, knee strikes and headbutts. Duels were fought to the death. During the period of the Western Satraps, the ruler Rudradaman - in addition to being well-versed in "the great sciences" which included Indian classical music, Sanskrit grammar, logic - was said to be an excellent horseman, elephant rider and boxer; the Gurbilas Shemi, an 18th-century Sikh text, gives numerous references to musti-yuddha. In Ancient Greece boxing was enjoyed consistent popularity. In Olympic terms, it was first introduced in the 23rd Olympiad, 688 BC; the boxers would wind leather thongs around their hands. There were no boxers fought until one of them acknowledged defeat or could not continue. Weight categories were not used; the style of boxing practiced featured an advanced left leg stance, with the left arm semi-extended as a guard, in addition to being used for striking, with the right arm drawn back ready to strike.
It was the head of the opponent, targeted, there is little evidence to suggest that targeting the body was common. Boxing was a popular spectator sport in Ancient Rome. In order for the fighters to protect themselves against their opponents they wrapped leather thongs around their fists. Harder leather was used and the thong soon became a weapon; the Romans introduced metal studs to the thongs to make the cestus. Fighting events were held at Roman Amphitheatres; the Roman form of boxing was a fight until death to please the spectators who gathered at such events. However in times, purchased slaves and trained combat performers were valuable commodities, their lives were not given up without due consideration. Slaves were used against one another in a circle marked on the floor; this is. In AD 393, during the Roman gladiator period, boxing was abolished due to excessive brutality, it was not until the late 16th century. Records of Classical boxing activity disappeared after the fall of the Western Roman Empire when the wearing of weapons became common once again and interest in fighting with the fists waned.
However, there are detailed records of various fist-fighting sports that were maintained in different cities and provinces of Italy between the 12th and 17th centuries. There was a sport in ancient Rus called Kulachniy Boy or "Fist Fighting"; as the wearing of swords became less common, there was renewed interest in fencing with the fists. The sport would resurface in England during the early 16th century in the form of bare-knuckle boxing sometimes referred to as prizefighting; the first documented account of a bare-knuckle fight in England appeared in 1681 in the London Protestant Mercury, the first English bare-knuckle champion was James Figg in 1719. This is the time when the word "boxing" first came to be used; this earliest form of modern boxing was different. Contests in Mr. Figg's time, in addition to fist fighting contained fencing and cudgeling. On 6 January 1681, the first recorded boxing match took place in Britain when Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle engineered a bout between his butler and his butcher with the latter winning the prize.
Early fighting had no written rules. There were no weight divisions or round limits, no referee. In general, it was chaotic. An early article on boxing was published i
Easley, South Carolina
Easley is a city in Pickens County in the State of South Carolina. It is a principal city of the Greenville–Mauldin–Easley Metropolitan Statistical Area. Most of the city lies in Pickens County, with only a small portion of the city in Anderson County. In 2001, Easley hosted the Big League World Series for the first time, continued to host the tournament annually until it was disbanded in 2016. In 2017, the Senior League World Series moved to Easley as the host for the annual tournament; the Upper South Carolina State Fair is held annually in early September. In 1791 Washington District was established by the state legislature out of the former Cherokee territory. Rockville was created in 1791 but changed to Pickensville in 1792. Pickensville became the district seat of Washington District, composed of Greenville and Pendleton Counties. In 1798 Washington District was divided into Pendleton Districts. In 1828 Pendleton District was divided further with the upper portion becoming Anderson County and the lower becoming Pickens County named after Andrew Pickens.
Col. Robert Elliott Holcombe became a co-founder of the town by starting off as a farmer and timber mill owner in the area, his farming ventures enabled him to establish the storeroom in 1845 as the first business in the area. The namesake of the town was William King Easley. Easley was born in Pickens County, South Carolina in 1825. Easley and four others from Greenville represented the Greenville area in the South Carolina Secession Convention; when the American Civil War erupted, Easley raised a company of cavalry from Greenville and Pickens counties. During the war Easley served as a major in the Confederate Army. After the civil war Easley became a local attorney and persuaded the Atlanta and Charlotte Air Line Railway to be established through Pickensville by raising $100,000 to invest in the railroad. Holcombe was considered to be the first citizen of Easley, building the first dwelling and train depot in the town from his family's lumber mill. Holcombe became the first mayor of the town and was the first agent of the train depot.
The town of Easley was chartered in 1873. At the time, the consensus was that it should be named Holcombe or Holcombetown, but Col. Holcombe said that he didn't think Holcombe was a attractive name and that Easley sounded better; the Pickensville Post Office became Easley Post Office in 1875. The railroad transformed Easley into an industrious and thriving textile town; the Easley Textile Company known as Swirl Inc. came to Easley in 1953. The construction of U. S. Route 123 helped establish new business to Easley. On April 25, 1951, a department store was on fire threatening many buildings in downtown Easley but the quick response of the fire department extinguished the fire. Easley is located in southeastern Pickens County at 34°49′24″N 82°35′25″W, 12 miles west of the center of Greenville. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.3 square miles, of which 12.2 square miles is land and 0.039 square miles, or 0.17%, is water. Larry Bagwell is the elected mayor.
As of the census of 2000, there were 17,754 people, 7,227 households, 5,058 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,668.8 people per square mile. There were 7,932 housing units at an average density of 745.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 85.35% White, 11.81% African American, 0.14% Native American, 0.52% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.25% from other races, 0.90% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.82% of the population. There were 7,227 households out of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.9% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.0% were non-families. 25.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.90. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.5% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 23.6% from 45 to 64, 14.7% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $38,204, the median income for a family was $47,867. Males had a median income of $35,399 versus $25,443 for females; the per capita income for the city was $20,965. About 8.4% of families and 10.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.2% of those under age 18 and 11.9% of those age 65 or over. The City of Easley maintains its own city police department, which has jurisdiction inside the city limits of Easley; the current chief of police is Tim Tollison. The department is located at the Easley Law Enforcement Center on Northwest Main Street in downtown Easley. There are 42 sworn police officers working for the department along with 3 civilians; the department is made up of an administration division, uniform patrol division, a detective division. The Administration Division is made up of the chief of police, deputy chief of police, uniform patrol captain, detective captain.
The Uniform Patrol Division is made up of patrol team one, patrol team two, patrol team three, patrol team four, two school resource officers, a reserve officer. The Detective Division is made up of 3 investigations officers; the rank structure is nepotistic. New officers are patrolmen, before rising to master patrol officer,then detective sergeant lieutenant captain major, finally
John Laurens was an American soldier and statesman from South Carolina during the American Revolutionary War, best known for his criticism of slavery and his efforts to help recruit slaves to fight for their freedom as U. S. soldiers. In 1779, Laurens gained approval from the Continental Congress for his plan to recruit a brigade of 3,000 slaves by promising them freedom in return for fighting; the plan was defeated by political opposition in South Carolina, Laurens was killed in the Battle of the Combahee River in August 1782. John Laurens was born in Charleston, South Carolina on October 28, 1754, to Henry Laurens and Eleanor Ball Laurens, both of whose families were prosperous as planters cultivating rice. By the 1750s, Henry Laurens and his business partner George Austin had become wealthy as owners of one of the largest slave trading houses in North America. John was the eldest of the five children. John and his two younger brothers, Henry Jr. and James, were tutored at home, but after the death of their mother, their father took them to England for their education.
His two sisters and Mary, remained with an uncle in Charleston. In October 1771, Laurens' father moved with his sons to London, Laurens was educated in Europe from the ages of 16 to 22. For two years beginning in June 1772, he and one brother attended school in Geneva, where they lived with a family friend; as a youth, Laurens had expressed considerable interest in science and medicine, but upon returning to London in August 1774, he yielded to his father's wish that he study law. In November 1774, Laurens began his legal studies at the Middle Temple. Laurens' father returned to Charleston, leaving Laurens as guardian to his brothers, both enrolled in British schools. On October 26, 1776, Laurens married the daughter of a mentor and family friend. Laurens' brother-in-law was William Manning, Governor of the Bank of England and Member of Parliament. Laurens remained determined to join the Continental Army and fight for his country, rather than to complete law school in England and raise a family there.
He embarked for Charleston in December 1776, leaving his pregnant wife behind in London with her family. Laurens arrived at Charleston in April 1777; that summer he accompanied his father from Charleston to Philadelphia, where his father was to serve in the Continental Congress. Henry Laurens, finding himself unable to prevent his son from joining the Continental Army, used his influence to obtain a position of honor for his 23-year-old son. General George Washington invited Laurens to join his staff in early August, as a volunteer aide-de-camp. Washington wrote: I mean to delay the actual Appointment of my fourth Aide de Camp a while longer. Laurens became close friends with two of his fellow aides-de-camp, Alexander Hamilton and the Marquis de Lafayette, he became known for his reckless courage upon first seeing combat on September 11, 1777, at the Battle of Brandywine during the Philadelphia campaign. Lafayette observed, "It was not his fault that he was not killed or wounded he did everything, necessary to procure one or t'other."
Laurens behaved at the Battle of Germantown, in which he was wounded on October 4, 1777: Washington's forces surprise-attacked the British north of Philadelphia. At one point, the Americans were stymied by a large stone mansion occupied by the enemy. After several attempts to take the building failed, Laurens and a French volunteer, the chevalier Duplessis-Mauduit, came up with their own daring plan, they gathered some straw to set on place at the front door of the house. According to another officer's account of Laurens's actions that day, "He rushed up to the door of Chew's House, which he forced open, fighting with his sword with one hand, with the other he applied the wood work a flaming brand, what is remarkable, retired from under the tremendous fire of the house, with but a slight wound." Laurens was struck by a musket ball that went through part of his right shoulder, he made a sling for his arm from his uniform sash. Two days after the Battle of Germantown, on October 6, 1777, he was given his official appointment as one of General Washington's aides-de-camp, was commissioned with the rank of lieutenant colonel.
From November 2 to December 11, 1777, Washington and several aides, including Laurens, were quartered at the Emlen House, north of Philadelphia in Camp Hill, which served as Washington's headquarters through the Battle of White Marsh. After spending the remainder of the winter of 1777–1778 encamped at Valley Forge, Laurens marched to New Jersey with the rest of the Continental Army at the end of June 1778, to face the British at the Battle of Monmouth. Near the start of battle, Laurens had his horse shot out from under him while he did reconnaissance for Baron von Steuben. On December 23, 1778, Laurens engaged in a duel with General Charles Lee just outside Philadelphia, after Laurens took offense to Lee's slander of Washington's character. Lee was wounded in the side by Laurens' first shot and the affair was ended by the men's seconds, Alexander Hamilton and Evan Edwards, before they could fire a second time; as the British stepped up operations in the South, Laurens promoted the idea of arming slaves and granting them freedom in return for their service.
He had written, "We Americans at least in the Southern Colonies, cannot contend with a good Grace, for Liberty, until we shall have enfranchised our Slaves." Laurens was set apart from other leaders in Rev
Interstate 385 is an Interstate Highway located in the Upstate region of South Carolina. I-385 is a spur route of Interstate 85; the highway provides a connection between Columbia. After exit 42, Interstate 385 turns into a Business Spur and becomes East North Street and — for northbound motorists only — Beattie Place; the spur promptly ends at US 29 near the Bon Secours Wellness Arena in downtown Greenville. The explosive economic growth of southern Greenville county is attributed to I-385 and its connection to the city of Greenville and the major cities of Atlanta and Charlotte; this area is known by locals as the "Golden Strip". I-385 features a rather unusual rest area in the median strip near Laurens, that serves both directions of traffic, it was completed as part of the original design of the U. S. 276 expressway in 1958, modeled after the type of single median-located rest areas shared by both north and southbound traffic. The design is similar to many of those built on turnpikes; the general idea — but none of the specifics — of I-385 were present on the 1955 Yellow Book map of the Greenville area.
Of note is that Interstate 85 would have used the US 29 corridor from Greenville east towards Spartanburg based on the diagram. The portion of I-385 that replaced US 276 was the first phase built of an SC DOT plan that predated the Interstate System to upgrade and bypass existing through routes, the goal of forming a single limited-access highway from Greenville to the port of Charleston via the State Capital of Columbia; this plan was scrapped as soon as the future I-26 was added to the act of Congress that set into motion the Interstate System. As a result, I-26 was one of the first Interstates in the south to open in significant mileage. Prior to 1985, I-385 was only signed as such from downtown Greenville to I-85; the portion of the freeway from US 276 in Mauldin to the southern terminus at I-26 was signed as US 276. When the connecting portion was completed, the entire freeway was signed as I-385. For seven months ending July 23, 2010, northbound traffic could not use a 15-mile section of I-385 in Laurens County due to a $60.9 million project to pave the portion extending from South Carolina Highway 101 to the I-385-I-26 interchange near Clinton, SC in concrete.
The closing of a major highway generated controversy. Closing the interstate for construction saved $34 million. Between 2002 and 2012, I-385 was widened from 2 to 3 lanes in each direction from just north of exit 24 near Fountain Inn to just south of Woodruff Rd/SC 146, with the portion between exits 31 and 35 resurfaced in concrete. Beginning in February 2016 and expected to continue through 2020, the I-385/I-85 interchange is being reconstructed to decrease congestion and related accidents. Interstate 385 Business is an unsigned boulevard grade business spur of I-385 along North Street, between Stone Avenue and Church Street, it connected to US 123 and SC 183 MLC. Signage existed for this spur route, but by 2007 has been removed. Media related to Interstate 385 at Wikimedia Commons Mapmikey's South Carolina Highways Page: I-385