Department of Pasco
Pasco is a region in central Peru. Its capital is Cerro de Pasco; the region is divided into 3 provinces, which are composed of 28 districts. The provinces, with their capitals in parentheses, are: Daniel Alcídes Carrión Oxapampa Pasco El Sira Communal Reserve San Matías–San Carlos Protection Forest Yanachaga–Chemillén National Park Yanesha Communal Reserve Gobierno Regional Pasco – Pasco Regional Government official website
Peru the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures. Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE; the Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in Lima.
Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, following the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru secured independence in 1824. In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific with Chile. Throughout the 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, social unrest, internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Alberto Fujimori was elected to the presidency in 1990. Fujimori left the presidency in 2000 and was charged with human rights violations and imprisoned until his pardon by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in 2017. After the president's regime, Fujimori's followers, called Fujimoristas, have caused political turmoil for any opposing faction in power causing Pedro Pablo Kuczynski to resign in March 2018; the sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is classified as an emerging market with a high level of human development and an upper middle income level with a poverty rate around 19 percent.
It is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9% and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing and fishing; the country forms part of The Pacific Pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru ranks high in social freedom. Peru has a population of 32 million, which includes Amerindians, Europeans and Asians; the main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine and music; the name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama City, in the early 16th century.
When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans. Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, son of an Inca princess and a conquistador, he said the name Birú was that of a common Indian happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor Pedro Arias de Ávila, went on to relate more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language. The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru. Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after independence; the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, terracing.
Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money. The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC; these early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed around the coastal and Andean regions throughout Peru. The Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Peru's Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture; the Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious centre in Chavín de Huantar. After the decline of the Chavin culture around the beginning of the 1st century AD, a series of localized and specialized cultures rose and fell
Department of Lima
The Department of Lima is located in the central coast of the country, its regional seat is Huacho. Lima Province, which contains the city of Lima, the country's capital, is located west of the Department of Lima; the region is bordered by the Ancash Region on the north, the Huánuco Region, Pasco Region, Junín Region on the east, the Huancavelica Region on the southeast, the Ica Region on the south, the Pacific Ocean and the Lima Province on the west. The region has a coastal and an Andean zone, has a great diversity of natural regions: the Costa or Chala up to the Janka or Cordillera; the predominating regions are the Yunga and Quechua The Lachay National Reserve, a unique mist-fed eco-system of wild plant and animal species, is a natural reserve located in the region. Lunahuaná District of Cañete Province, is located 38 km away from the city of San Vicente de Cañete; the Incahuasi Archeological complex is located there. Lunahuaná has the sun shines during most of the year. Lunahuaná has become an adventure sports paradise, such as: Canotaje, Parapente & Ala Delta.
Whitewater rafting is possible due to the Cañete River, which has rapids up to level 4. The main settlement in this district is the town of Lunahuaná; the remains of early Andean inhabitants and harpoon fishermen from more than 10,000 years ago, are to be found in the Lima region. These remains were found in Chivateros, near the Chillón River, in various other places; these persons incorporated nets, farming and weaving to their everyday objects. The inhabitants of the coast lived in the lomas and the valleys, where they built temples and dwelling complexes, leading to huge ceremonial centers, such as the Huacoy on the Chillón River. There are finely ornamented temples with figures modeled in clay. Lithic prehistoric projectile points of Paijan type were found at Ancon 40 kilometres north-east of Lima in the Chillón River Valley; the 5,000-year-old ruins known as El Paraíso, Peru are located in this area. A temple at the site is believed to be about 5,000 years old. In 2006, a team of archeological researchers led by Robert Benfer announced their findings from a four-year excavation at Buena Vista, Peru in the Chillón River valley a few miles north of present-day Lima.
They had discovered a 4200-year-old observatory constructed by an early Andean civilization, a three-dimensional sculpture, unique for the time period in this region, sophisticated carvings. The observatory is on top of a 33-foot pyramidal mound and has architectural features for sighting the astronomical solstices; the discovery pushes back the time for the development of complex civilization in the area and has altered scholars' understanding of Preceramic period cultures in Peru. The Lima culture arose in this area to Lurín, it was distinguished by painted adobe buildings. During this time, the Huari conquest took place, thus giving rise to Huari-style ceramics, together with a local style known as Nievería; as the population grew, their culture changed. With the decline of the Huari, whose most important center was Cajamarquilla, new local cultures arose; the Chancay are the most well known. They developed large urban centers and a considerable textile production, as well as mass-produced ceramics.
At this stage in the mid-fifteenth century, the Incas arrived from their base in the Andes. They conquered and absorbed the regional cultures and occupied important sites such as Pachacamac, turning it into an administrative center; the region is divided into 10 provinces, which are composed of 171 districts. Lima Barranca Cajatambo Cañete Canta Huaral Huarochirí Huaura Oyón Yauyos Nor Yauyos-Cochas Landscape Reserve Lima Region Information Hub – Lima Region Information Hub official website Lima Region Tourism Board – Lima Region Tourism Board official website North Lima Region – Lima Region: Social and Tourist Information Lima Travel Guide – General facts and travel information about Lima Gobierno Regional Lima – Lima Regional Government official website
Siula Grande is a mountain in the Huayhuash mountain range in the Peruvian Andes. It has a subpeak, Siula Chico, 6,260 m high. In 1985 Siula Grande was climbed by Simon Yates, their ascent was made famous by Simpson's book Touching the Void, which describes the ascent and subsequent harrowing descent of the mountain. The book was made into a film of the same title in 2003 and a play in 2018. Although they ascended the West face, thereby became the first to reach the summit by that route, they chose to descend the North Ridge, the route of the first ascent and descent in 1936; this was made impossible by severe weather which in turn caused Joe Simpson to fall and break his leg. All subsequent west face climbers have rappelled back down the face; this is a partial list of first ascents by new routes made. 28 July 1936 North Ridge by Erwin Schneider from Austria. 21 June 1966 fourth ascent, by Obster and Manfred Sturm via the North ridge en route to Siula Chico 1985 West Face by Joe Simpson and Simon Yates 1999 Peru West Face Touching The Void by Carlos Buhler.
Buhler's route followed the Yates/Simpson route for much of the ascent, Buhler called it "Avoiding the Touch" 13 July 2001 "Southern Discomfort", south face by Michel van der Spek, Jay Burbee, Jeremy Frimer 17 July 2001 Noches de "Juerga", west face 3 July 2002 Northeast Face, Los Rapidos by Slovenes Marjan Kovač and Pavle Kozjek August 2002 Mammut Tracks, west face, by Rogier van Rijn and Eva Oomen Siula Chico is a subpeak about 6,260 m high separated from Siula Grande by an 6,000-metre col. Mountaineers considered the easiest route to its summit was via Siula Grande's summit and it was so climbed by Manfred Sturm's 1966 expedition. Spanish alpinists Jordi Corominas and Oriol Baro made the first ascent of Chico's west face, second ascent of the peak, in May 2007. According to some researchers the glaciers between Siula Grande and Yerupaja show a broad increase in the number and frequency of crevasses, bergschrunds; as a result, climbing routes used in the 70s are today considered impracticable.
Sturm, Manfred. The Road to Siula Chico. Translated by Carter, H. Adams. Deutscher Alpenverein.* "Peru". American Alpine Journal. 2002. Archived from the original on October 31, 2008. Retrieved 2007-12-01. Lambert, Erik. "First Ascent of Siula Chico's West Face". Alpinist.com. Retrieved 2007-12-01
Dos de Mayo Province
The Dos de Mayo Province is one of eleven provinces of the Huánuco Region in Peru. The capital of this province is the city of La Unión. North: Huamalíes Province East: Leoncio Prado Province South: Huánuco Province, Yarowilca Province and Lauricocha Province West: Ancash Region Some of the highest mountains of the province are listed below: The province is divided into nine districts, which are: Chuquis La Unión Marías Pachas Quivilla Ripán Shunqui Sillapata Yanas The province is inhabited by indigenous citizens of Quechua descent. Spanish, however, is the language which the majority of the population learnt to speak in childhood, 39.87% of the residents started speaking using the Quechua language. Qiwllaqucha Wanuku Pampa
Queropalca District is one of seven districts of the province Lauricocha in Peru. The Waywash mountain range traverses the district; the highest peak of the district is Yerupaja at 6,635 m, the highest elevation of the range. Other mountains are listed below: Allqay Chawpi Hanka Chinkana Kasha Kuntur Waqanan Llamt'a Mit'urahu Parya Runtuy T'uyu Hirka Mit'uqucha Ninaqucha Qarwaqucha
2007 Peru Census
The 2007 Peru Census was a detailed enumeration of the Peruvian population. It was conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática on Sunday, October 21, 2007, its full name in Spanish is XI Censo de Población y VI de Vivienda. The previous census performed in Peru was the 2005 Census, the following census was the 2017 Peru Census. Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática Official website