Andean preceramic refers to the early period of human occupation in the Andean area of South America that preceded the introduction of ceramics. This period is called pre-ceramic or aceramic; the earliest humans that came to South America are known as Paleo-Indians. This period is known as the Lithic stage. After this came the period, known as Archaic, although there are some different classifications of this period; the precise classification is complicated because somewhat different terminologies tend to be used for North America and Mesoamerica. Andean preceramic period would include some cultures that belong to Archaic stages. Zaña Valley in northern Peru contains the earliest known canals in South America; these were small preceramic stone-lined canals which drew water from streams in the Andes Mountains region. These canals may have been built as early as 6,700 years ago. A lot of archaeological work has been done in Peru in relation to the preceramic cultures. While Norte Chico civilization has now been studied extensively, there are many other sites.
This ancient period is studied most extensively in relation to the archaeology of Peru. In particular, the Norte Chico civilization is important; the most impressive achievement of this civilization was its monumental architecture, including large earthwork platform mounds and sunken circular plazas. These preceramic peoples were building massive irrigation and water management projects. Archaeological evidence suggests a early use of textiles, in particular the use of cotton. Recent studies indicate that maize played a big role in this civilization starting as early as 3000 BC, contrary to previous beliefs. Beans and sweet potato were grown. Norte Chico sites are notable for exceptional collective density, as well as individual size. Haas argues that the density of sites in such a small area is globally unique for a nascent civilization. During the third millennium BC, Norte Chico may have been the most densely populated area of the world; the Supe, Pativilca and Huaura River valleys each have several related sites.
Caral is an important center of this civilization. The city was inhabited between 2000 BCE, enclosing an area of more than 60 hectares. Caral was first documented and analyzed by Dr. Ruth Shady Solís and other Peruvian archaeologists in the late 1990s. A 2001 paper in Science, providing a survey of the Caral research, a 2004 article in Nature, describing fieldwork and radiocarbon dating across a wider area, revealed Norte Chico's full significance and led to widespread interest; as a result, Norte Chico has pushed back the horizon for complex societies in the Peruvian region by more than one thousand years. Huaricanga in the Norte Chico region, is believed to be the earliest city of this civilization, thus it would have been the oldest city in the Americas, it existed around 3500 BCE."Besides the lack of pottery, a remarkable feature of this civilization is the apparent absence of any artistic or religious symbolism. Or at least they have not been identified so far. There is evidence for the worship of certain deities, such as the Staff God, a leering figure with a hood and fangs.
The Staff God is a major deity of Andean cultures, it has been suggested that its use so early points to the worship of common symbols of gods for a long period of time. Sophisticated government is assumed to have been required to manage the ancient Norte Chico. Questions still remain over its organization the influence of food resources on politics; some scholars suggested that Norte Chico was founded on seafood and maritime resources, rather than on the development of an agricultural cereal and crop surpluses, as has been considered essential to the rise of other ancient civilizations. Yet now these views are being revised because of strong evidence for maize consumption. Several major preceramic archaeological sites are located in the valleys of the Casma River and its tributary the Sechin River; the largest among them is Sechin Alto. The dates for these sites start at c. 3600 BCE. The Kotosh Religious Tradition is a term used by archaeologists to refer to the ritual buildings that were constructed in the mountain drainages of the Andes between circa 3000 and c.1800 BCE, during the Andean preceramic.
Archaeologists have excavated a number of these ritual centers. These sites are all located in highland zones that are lower than the Puna, yet there are considerable distances separating them. In spite of this, all these cases of highland preceramic public architecture are remarkably similar. El Paraiso, Peru is a large early center in the Ancón-Chillón Valley, that may be somewhat related to the Norte Chico tradition, it is from the same time frame as the above. It is just one including Ancon. Another important site is Bandurria, Peru, on the Huaura River, featuring monumental architecture that may go back to mid-fourth millennium BC. In the northern peruvian coast stand out sites such as Huaca Prieta, were the earliest recorded use of indigo dye to date was found and Huaca Ventarron, its painted murals are the oldest discovered in the Americas. In Ecuador, the Preceramic period is believed to have started around 9000 BC, lasted until around 4200 BC. According to Jeffrey Quilter, Ecuador yielded plentiful evidence of early dense occupations of the h
Huánuco is a city in central Peru. It had a population of 196,627 as of 2017 and in 2015 it had a population of 175,068, it is the capital of the Huánuco District. It is the seat of the diocese of Huánuco; the metropolitan city of Huanuco is 170,000 hab. It has three districts, Huanuco and Pillco Marca. In this city, the Higueras river meets one of the largest rivers in the country; the city of Huánuco was founded by Spanish conquistador Gómez de Alvarado in 1539, in the Inca town of Yarowilca. In 1541, the city was moved to its current location in the Pillco Valley. Huánuco has a mild semi-arid climate; the temperatures are pleasant throughout the year due to its elevation. C. S. Colegio de Ciencias CNA UNHEVAL G. U. E. Leoncio Prado C. S. San Luis Gonzaga Universidad Nacional "Hermilio Valdizán" Universidad Privada "Huánuco" Mariano Ignacio Prado - President and General, born in 1825. Leoncio Prado - Colonel and hero. Javier Pulgar Vidal - Famous geographer, born in Panao Province. Daniel Alomía Robles - Musical composer and ethnologist born in 1871, famous for El Cóndor Pasa Johan Fano- Professional football player It is served by the Alférez FAP David Figueroa Fernandini Airport.
One of the main highways of the country passes by Huanuco, communicating Lima-Callao with Tingo Maria and Pucallpa in the Peruvian Amazonia. Administrative divisions of Peru Killa Rumi Noticias de Huanuco Huanuco Huánuco Súper VIP Huánuco - Catholic Encyclopedia article
Guitarrero Cave is located in the Callejón de Huaylas valley in Yungay Province, in the Ancash region of Peru. The cave stands 2,580 m meters above sea level. Guitarrero Cave has evidence of human use around 8,000 BCE and as early as 10,560 BCE. A human's mandible and teeth found in the cave have been carbon dated to 10,610 BCE. Above all that, there were a series of Archaic period campfires, dated between 8,500 and 7,000 BCE. Wood, bone and fiber cordage were among the artifacts that were recovered from the level, as well as willow leaf, tanged and concave base Ichuna/Arcata projectile points. A single grinding slab and a bone flesher were recovered from this part of the area. Levels were included in the Early and Middle Horizon occupations, cist tombs, wall paintings between about the 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. In the 1960s, archeologists discovered artifacts in an extraordinary state of preservation at the site. Remarkably, textiles and leather tools, basketry have been preserved intact; some of the evidence of early domesticated beans Phaseolus, chili and other cultivars have been argued for Guitarrero.
Fiberwork found in the cave dates back over ten-thousand years – the earliest found in South America. The cave held utilitarian containers made by twisting and knotting plant fibers; the people of Guitarrero Cave are possible ancestors of the Chavín culture. Some of the earliest cultivated plants in South America have been found in the cave, they include: Ají pepper: first appears at Guitarrero cave in 8,500 BCE Oca: first appears 8,500–7,500 BCE Aji: first appears 8,000–7,500 BCE Common bean: first appears 8,000–7,500 BCE Pallar bean: first appears 8,000–7,5000 BCE Lúcuma: first appears 8,000–5,500 BCE Ulluku: first appears 6,000 BCE at the cave es:Tres Ventanas in Peru, next at Guitarrero cave 5,500 BCE. Zapallo: first appears 7,000 BCE Maize or corn: first traces but not conclusively identified from 6,200 BCE. Maize has been identified in the Ayacucho Region of south central Peru as early as 4,400 and 3,100 BCE. Andean preceramic Stone-Miller, Rebecca. Art of the Andes: from Chavín to Inca.
London: Thames and Hudson, 2002. ISBN 978-0-500-20363-7
Peru the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures. Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE; the Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in Lima.
Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, following the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru secured independence in 1824. In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific with Chile. Throughout the 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, social unrest, internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Alberto Fujimori was elected to the presidency in 1990. Fujimori left the presidency in 2000 and was charged with human rights violations and imprisoned until his pardon by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in 2017. After the president's regime, Fujimori's followers, called Fujimoristas, have caused political turmoil for any opposing faction in power causing Pedro Pablo Kuczynski to resign in March 2018; the sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is classified as an emerging market with a high level of human development and an upper middle income level with a poverty rate around 19 percent.
It is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9% and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing and fishing; the country forms part of The Pacific Pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru ranks high in social freedom. Peru has a population of 32 million, which includes Amerindians, Europeans and Asians; the main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine and music; the name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama City, in the early 16th century.
When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans. Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, son of an Inca princess and a conquistador, he said the name Birú was that of a common Indian happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor Pedro Arias de Ávila, went on to relate more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language. The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru. Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after independence; the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, terracing.
Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money. The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC; these early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed around the coastal and Andean regions throughout Peru. The Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Peru's Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture; the Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious centre in Chavín de Huantar. After the decline of the Chavin culture around the beginning of the 1st century AD, a series of localized and specialized cultures rose and fell
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools c. 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems. The earliest writing systems appeared c. 5,300 years ago, but it took thousands of years for writing to be adopted, it was not used in some human cultures until the 19th century or until the present. The end of prehistory therefore came at different dates in different places, the term is less used in discussing societies where prehistory ended recently. Sumer in Mesopotamia, the Indus valley civilization, ancient Egypt were the first civilizations to develop their own scripts and to keep historical records. Neighboring civilizations were the first to follow. Most other civilizations reached the end of prehistory during the Iron Age; the three-age system of division of prehistory into the Stone Age, followed by the Bronze Age and Iron Age, remains in use for much of Eurasia and North Africa, but is not used in those parts of the world where the working of hard metals arrived abruptly with contact with Eurasian cultures, such as the Americas, Oceania and much of Sub-Saharan Africa.
These areas with some exceptions in Pre-Columbian civilizations in the Americas, did not develop complex writing systems before the arrival of Eurasians, their prehistory reaches into recent periods. The period when a culture is written about by others, but has not developed its own writing is known as the protohistory of the culture. By definition, there are no written records from human prehistory, so dating of prehistoric materials is crucial. Clear techniques for dating were not well-developed until the 19th century; this article is concerned with human prehistory, the time since behaviorally and anatomically modern humans first appeared until the beginning of recorded history. Earlier periods are called "prehistoric". Beginning The term "prehistory" can refer to the vast span of time since the beginning of the Universe or the Earth, but more it refers to the period since life appeared on Earth, or more to the time since human-like beings appeared. End The date marking the end of prehistory is defined as the advent of the contemporary written historical record.
The date varies from region to region depending on the date when relevant records become a useful academic resource. For example, in Egypt it is accepted that prehistory ended around 3200 BCE, whereas in New Guinea the end of the prehistoric era is set much more at around 1900 common era. In Europe the well-documented classical cultures of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome had neighbouring cultures, including the Celts and to a lesser extent the Etruscans, with little or no writing, historians must decide how much weight to give to the highly prejudiced accounts of these "prehistoric" cultures in Greek and Roman literature. Time periods In dividing up human prehistory in Eurasia, historians use the three-age system, whereas scholars of pre-human time periods use the well-defined geologic record and its internationally defined stratum base within the geologic time scale; the three-age system is the periodization of human prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies: Stone Age Bronze Age Iron Age The notion of "prehistory" began to surface during the Enlightenment in the work of antiquarians who used the word'primitive' to describe societies that existed before written records.
The first use of the word prehistory in English, occurred in the Foreign Quarterly Review in 1836. The use of the geologic time scale for pre-human time periods, of the three-age system for human prehistory, is a system that emerged during the late nineteenth century in the work of British and Scandinavian archeologists and anthropologists; the main source for prehistory is archaeology, but some scholars are beginning to make more use of evidence from the natural and social sciences. This view has been articulated by advocates of deep history; the primary researchers into human prehistory are archaeologists and physical anthropologists who use excavation and geographic surveys, other scientific analysis to reveal and interpret the nature and behavior of pre-literate and non-literate peoples. Human population geneticists and historical linguists are providing valuable insight for these questions. Cultural anthropologists help provide context for societal interactions, by which objects of human origin pass among people, allowing an analysis of any article that arises in a human prehistoric context.
Therefore, data about prehistory is provided by a wide variety of natural and social sciences, such as paleontology, archaeology, geology, comparative linguistics, molecular genetics and many others. Human prehistory differs from history not only in terms of its chronology but in the way it deals with the activities of archaeological cultures rather than named nations or individuals. Restricted to material processes and artifacts rather than written records, prehistory is anonymous; because of this, reference terms that prehistorians use, such as Neanderthal or Iron Age are modern labels with definitions sometimes subject to debate. The concept of a "Stone Age" is found useful in the archaeology of most of the world, though in the archaeology of the Americas it is called by different names and begins with a Lithic sta
The Marañón River is the principal or mainstem source of the Amazon River, arising about 160 km to the northeast of Lima and flowing through a eroded Andean valley in a northwesterly direction, along the eastern base of the Cordillera of the Andes, as far as 5° 36′ southern latitude. Although the term "Marañon River" was applied to the river all the way to the Atlantic Ocean, nowadays the Marañon River is thought to end at the confluence with the Ucayali River, after which most cartographers label the ensuing waterway the Amazon River; the Marañón River is Peru's second longest river according to a 2005 statistical publication by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. The Marañon River was considered the source of the Amazon River starting with the 1707 map published by Padre Samuel Fritz, who indicated the great river “has its source on the southern shore of a lake, called Lauricocha, near Huánuco." Fritz's reasoning was based on the fact that the Marañon River is the largest river branch one encounters when journeying upstream, something evident on his map.
For most of the 18th–19th centuries and into the 20th century, the Marañon River was considered the source of the Amazon. The Marañon River continues to claim the title of the "mainstem source" or "hydrological source" of the Amazon due to its contribution of the highest annual discharge rates; the initial section of the Marañon contains a plethora of pongos, which are gorges in the jungle areas with difficult rapids. The Pongo de Manseriche is the final pongo on the Marañon located just before the river enters the flat Amazon basin, it is 5 km long and located between the confluence with the Rio Santiago, the village of Borja. According to Captain Carbajal, who attempted ascent through the Pongo de Manseriche in the little steamer "Napo," in 1868, it is a vast rent in the Andes about 600 m deep, narrowing in places to a width of only 30 m, the precipices "seeming to close in at the top." Through this canyon the Marañón leaps along, at the rate of 20 km/h. The pongo is known for wrecking many drownings.
Downstream of the Pongo de Manseriche the river has islands, there is nothing visible from its low banks but an immense forest-covered plain known as the selva baja or Peruvian Amazonia. It is home to indigenous peoples such as the Urarina of the Chambira Basin, the Candoshi, the Cocama-Cocamilla peoples. A 552 km section of the Marañon River between Puente Copuma and Corral Quemado is a class IV raftable river, similar in many ways to the Grand Canyon of the United States and has been labeled the "Grand Canyon of the Amazon". Most of this section of the river is in a canyon, up to 3000 m deep on both sides – over twice the depth of the Colorado's Grand Canyon, it is in dry desert-like terrain, much of which receives only 250–350 mm/rain per year with parts such as from Balsas to Jaén known as the hottest "infierno" area of Peru. The Marañon Grand Canyon section flows by the village of Calemar, where Peruvian writer Ciro Alegría based one of his most important novels: La serpiente de oro. One of the first popular descents of the Marañon River occurred In 1743 the Frenchman Charles Marie de La Condamine, who journeyed from the Chinchipe confluence all the way to the Atlantic Ocean.
La Condamine did not descend the initial section of the Marañon by boat due to the plethora of pongos. From where he began his boating descent at the Chiriaco confluence, La Condamine still had to confront several pongos, including the Pongo de Huaracayo and the Pongo de Manseriche; the upper Marañon River has seen a number of descents. An attempt to paddle the river was made by Herbert Rittlinger in 1936. Sebastian Snow was an adventurer who journeyed down most of the river by trekking to Chiriaco River starting at the source near Lake Niñacocha. In 1976 and/or 1977 Laszlo Berty descended the section from Chagual to the jungle in raft. In 1977, a group composed of Tom Fisher, Steve Gaskill, Ellen Toll, John Wasson spent over a month descending the river from Rondos to Nazareth with kayaks and a raft. In 2004, Tim Biggs and companions kayaked the entire river from the Nupe River to Iquitos. In 2012, Rocky Contos descended the entire river with various companions along the way; the Marañon River may supply 20 hydroelectric mega-dams planned in the Andes, it has been speculated that most of the power is destined for export to Brazil, Chile or Ecuador.
Dam survey crews have drafted construction blueprints and the Environmental Impact Statements have been available since November 2009 for the Veracruz dam and since November 2011 the Chadin2 dam. A 2011 law stated "national demand" for the hydroelectric energy, while in 2013 Peruvian president Ollanta Humala explicitly made a connection with mining. Construction of the 406 MW dam in Chaglla District started in 2012. Opposition arose because the dams are expected to disrupt the major source of the Amazon, alter normal silt deposition into the lower river, damage habitat and migration patterns for fish and other aquatic life, displace thousands of residents along the river, damage a national treasure "at least as nice as the Grand Canyon in the USA". Residents have launched efforts to halt the dams along the river with conservation groups such as SierraRios and International Rivers. Potential ecological impacts of 151 ne