Battery Park City
Battery Park City is a residential 92-acre planned community on the west side of the southern tip of the island of Manhattan in New York City. It is bounded by the Hudson River on the west, the Hudson River shoreline on the north and south, the West Side Highway on the east. More than one-third of the development is parkland; the land upon which it is built was created by land reclamation on the Hudson River using over 3 million cubic yards of soil and rock excavated during the construction of the World Trade Center, the New York City Water Tunnel, certain other construction projects, as well as from sand dredged from New York Harbor off Staten Island. The neighborhood, the site of Brookfield Place, along with numerous buildings designed for housing and retail, is named for adjacent Battery Park. Battery Park City is part of Manhattan Community District 1 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10280 and 10282, it is patrolled by the 1st Precinct of the New York City Police Department. Battery Park City is bounded on the east by West Street, which separates the area from the Financial District of Lower Manhattan.
To the west and south, the area is surrounded by the Hudson River. The development consists of five major sections. Traveling north to south, the first neighborhood has high-rise residential buildings, the Stuyvesant High School, a Regal Entertainment Group movie theater, the Battery Park City branch of the New York Public Library, it is the site of the 463-suite Conrad New York luxury hotel, which contains restaurants and bars such as the Loopy Doopy Rooftop Bar, ATRIO Wine Bar Restaurant, Mexican-themed El Vez, three Danny Meyer-branded restaurants. Other restaurants located in that hotel, as well as a DSW store and a New York Sports Club branch, were closed in 2009 after the takeover of the property by Goldman Sachs. Former undeveloped lots in the area have been developed into high-rise buildings. Nearby is Brookfield Place, a complex of several commercial buildings known as the World Financial Center. Current residential neighborhoods of Battery Park City are divided into northern and southern sections, separated by Brookfield Place.
The northern section consists of large, 20–45-story buildings, all various shades of orange brick. The southern section, extending down from the Winter Garden, located in Brookfield Place, contains residential apartment buildings such as Gateway Plaza and the Rector Place apartment buildings. In this section lies the majority of Battery Park City's residential areas, in three sections: Gateway Plaza, a high-rise building complex; these subsections contain most of the area's residential buildings, along with park space, supermarkets and movie theaters. Construction of residential buildings began north of the World Financial Center in the late 1990s, completion of the final lots took place in early 2011. Additionally, a park restoration was completed in 2013. Throughout the 19th century and early 20th century, the area adjoining today's Battery Park City was known as Little Syria with Lebanese, Greeks and other ethnic groups. In 1929, the land was the proposed site of a $50,000,000 residential development that would have served workers in the Wall Street area.
The Battery Tower project was left unfinished after workers digging the foundation ran into forty feet of old bulkheads, sunken docks, ships. Construction was never restarted. By the late 1950s, the once-prosperous port area of downtown Manhattan was occupied by a number of dilapidated shipping piers, casualties of the rise of container shipping which drove sea traffic to Port Elizabeth, New Jersey; the initial proposal to reclaim this area through landfill was offered in the early 1960s by private firms and supported by the mayor. That plan became complicated when Governor Nelson Rockefeller announced his desire to redevelop a part of the area as a separate project; the various groups reached a compromise, in 1966 the governor unveiled the proposal for what would become Battery Park City. The creation of architect Wallace K. Harrison, the proposal called for a'comprehensive community' consisting of housing, social infrastructure and light industry; the landscaping of the park space and the Winter Garden was designed by M. Paul Friedberg.
In 1968, the New York State Legislature created the Battery Park City Authority to oversee development. Rockefeller named Charles J. Urstadt as the first chairman of the authority’s board that year, he served as the chief executive officer from 1973 to 1978. Urstadt served as the authority’s vice chair from 1996 to 2010; the New York State Urban Development Corporation and ten other public agencies were involved in the development project. For the next several years, the BPCA made slow progress. In April 1969, it unveiled a master plan for the area, approved in October. In early 1972, the BPCA issued $200 million in bonds to fund construction efforts, with Harry B. Helmsley designated as the developer; that same year, the city approved plans to alter the number of apartments designated for lower and upper income renters. Urstadt said. In addition to the change in the mix of units, the city approved adding nine acres, which extended the northern boundary from Reade Street to Duane Street. Landfill material from construction of the World Trade Center was used to add fill for the southern portion.
Jacob's Pillow Dance
Jacob's Pillow is a dance center and performance space located in Becket, Massachusetts, in the Berkshires. The organization is known for the oldest internationally acclaimed Summer dance festival in the United States; the facility includes a professional school and extensive archives as well as year-round community programs. The facility itself was listed as a National Historic Landmark District in 2003; the Jacob's Pillow mission is to support dance creation, presentation and preservation. The site of Jacob's Pillow in Becket, Massachusetts was settled in 1790 by the Carter family; because of the zigzagging road leading to the hilltop property, it became known as "Jacob's Ladder", a pillow-shaped rock on the property prompted the farm to acquire the name "Jacob's Pillow". The farm was purchased in 1931 by modern dance pioneer Ted Shawn as a dance retreat. Shawn and his wife, Ruth St. Denis, led the regarded Denishawn Company, which had popularized dance forms rooted in theater and cultural traditions outside European ballet.
They were influential in training a host of dance pioneers, including Martha Graham, Charles Weidman, Doris Humphrey, Jack Cole. Shawn's objective was to establish a dance organization for American men; the early corps of his all-male company built many of the structures on the Jacob's Pillow campus. This effort came to an end in 1940 with the advent of the Second World War. Significant debt forced Shawn to consider sale of the property. In 1940 he leased the property to dance teacher Mary Washington Ball, but her summer festival was financially unsuccessful. British ballet stars Alicia Markova and Anton Dolin learned of Shawn's financial difficulties, decided to acquire the property. With financial backing and fundraising support from millionaire Reginald Wright, $50,000 was raised to purchase the property and construct a theater building; the summer dance festival was revived, Shawn was retained as its director until his death in 1972. In 2003, the Jacob's Pillow property was declared a National Historic Landmark District by the federal government as "an exceptional cultural venue that holds value for all Americans."
It is the only dance entity in the U. S. to receive this honor. In March 2011, Jacob's Pillow was named a recipient of the 2010 National Medal of Arts, a national award of distinction; the Pillow presents international dance in many forms and traditions, 200 free events each season, including performances, tours, films and talks with artists from all over the world, culminating in 80,000 visitors annually. Pillow founder Ted Shawn was instrumental in beginning the careers of Martha Graham and Jack Cole, the Pillow has continued this mentoring role in the careers of artists such as Alvin Ailey, José Limón, Mark Morris. Companies such as Dance Theatre of Harlem, the Parsons Dance Company, Trey McIntyre Project made their debuts at the Pillow, international groups such as The Royal Danish Ballet, Nederlands Dans Theatre, Black Grace and Hofesh Shechter Company have made their U. S. debuts here. World premieres have been commissioned from choreographers such as Merce Cunningham and Paul Taylor, artists such as Margot Fonteyn and Mikhail Baryshnikov have been showcased in works.
Performances at Jacob's Pillow take place on three stages. The Ted Shawn Theatre has a capacity of 620 reserved seats; the Doris Duke Studio Theatre, built in 1990 as a flexible, experimental space, has 220 seats. Talks by Pillow Scholars-in-Residence take place before every performance in these two theaters. Additionally, Post-Show Talks happen in the Ted Shawn Theatre on Thursdays and in the Doris Duke Studio Theatre on Fridays, giving audiences an opportunity to engage with artists in moderated Q&A sessions; the third stage is Inside/Out, which presents free performances of established and emerging artists from all over the world in an informal, outdoor venue set against a panoramic vista of the Berkshire hills. Wednesdays and Fridays feature emerging artists, Saturdays showcase the dancers of The School at Jacob's Pillow; each performance at Inside/Out concludes with a Q&A session with the artists. Artist featured in Inside/Out include: Pilobolus Dance Theater, Nadine Bommer Dance Company, Reggie "Regg Roc" Gray, Michelle Dorrance with Dormeshia Sumbry-Edwards, Dušan Týnek Dance Theatre, Manuel Vignoulle, Laurie M. Taylor.
Another facet of Jacob's Pillow's ongoing educational efforts is the PillowTalk series, which covers the art of dance and artists performing each week through intimate panel discussions, film screenings, book signings. Exhibits are free and open to the general public, as are The Archives, which offer the opportunity to view videos, read books, access the Pillow's computer catalog, or view The Pillow's permanent collections of programs and photographs. Free historical walking tours are available to the public weekly during the summer; the School at Jacob's Pillow's conservatory-style curriculum includes five programs: Ballet, Cultural Traditions, Contemporary Traditions, Jazz/Musical Theater, Choreographers’ Lab. The dancers’ schedule includes six days each week with four professional-level studio classes each day, coaching sessions, weekly performances for the public, master classes with Festival artists, talks led by Scholars-in-Residence, study assignments in the Pillow's rare and extensive Archives, attendance at all Festival performances and events.
The School at Jacob's Pillow is known for its faculty. Faculty of The School at Jacob's Pillow have included Susan Jaffe, Amanda McKerrow, Chet Walker, Nikolaj Hubbe
National Gallery of Art Sculpture Garden
The National Gallery of Art Sculpture Garden is the most recent addition to the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D. C. in the United States. It is located on the National Mall between the National Gallery's West Building and the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History. Completed and opened to the public on 23 May 1999, the location provides an outdoor setting for exhibiting several pieces from the museum's contemporary sculpture collection; the collection is centered on a fountain which, from December to March, is converted to an ice-skating rink. The outdoor Pavilion Café lies adjacent to the garden. Laurie Olin and his firm, OLIN, were the landscape architects. Claes Oldenburg.
Seattle is a seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. It is the seat of Washington. With an estimated 730,000 residents as of 2018, Seattle is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America. According to U. S. Census data released in 2018, the Seattle metropolitan area’s population stands at 3.87 million, ranks as the 15th largest in the United States. In July 2013, it was the fastest-growing major city in the United States and remained in the Top 5 in May 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. In July 2016, Seattle was again the fastest-growing major U. S. city, with a 3.1% annual growth rate. Seattle is the northernmost large city in the United States; the city is situated on an isthmus between Puget Sound and Lake Washington, about 100 miles south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the fourth-largest port in North America in terms of container handling as of 2015; the Seattle area was inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers.
Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived from Illinois via Portland, Oregon, on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851; the settlement was moved to the eastern shore of Elliott Bay and named "Seattle" in 1852, in honor of Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. Today, Seattle has high populations of Native, Scandinavian and Asian Americans, as well as a thriving LGBT community that ranks 6th in the United States for population. Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century, the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. Growth after World War II was due to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing; the Seattle area developed into a technology center from the 1980s onwards with companies like Microsoft becoming established in the region. Internet retailer Amazon was founded in Seattle in 1994, major airline Alaska Airlines is based in SeaTac, serving Seattle's international airport, Seattle–Tacoma International Airport.
The stream of new software and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Owing to its increasing population in the 21st century and the state of Washington have some of the highest minimum wages in the country, at $15 per hour for smaller businesses and $16 for the city's largest employers. Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs existed along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District; the jazz scene nurtured the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson, others. Seattle is the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix, as well as the origin of the bands Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Alice in Chains, Foo Fighters and the alternative rock movement grunge. Archaeological excavations suggest that Native Americans have inhabited the Seattle area for at least 4,000 years. By the time the first European settlers arrived, the people occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Bay.
The first European to visit the Seattle area was George Vancouver, in May 1792 during his 1791–95 expedition to chart the Pacific Northwest. In 1851, a large party led by Luther Collins made a location on land at the mouth of the Duwamish River. Thirteen days members of the Collins Party on the way to their claim passed three scouts of the Denny Party. Members of the Denny Party claimed land on Alki Point on September 28, 1851; the rest of the Denny Party set sail from Portland and landed on Alki point during a rainstorm on November 13, 1851. After a difficult winter, most of the Denny Party relocated across Elliott Bay and claimed land a second time at the site of present-day Pioneer Square, naming this new settlement Duwamps. Charles Terry and John Low remained at the original landing location and reestablished their old land claim and called it "New York", but renamed "New York Alki" in April 1853, from a Chinook word meaning "by and by" or "someday". For the next few years, New York Alki and Duwamps competed for dominance, but in time Alki was abandoned and its residents moved across the bay to join the rest of the settlers.
David Swinson "Doc" Maynard, one of the founders of Duwamps, was the primary advocate to name the settlement after Chief Seattle of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. The name "Seattle" appears on official Washington Territory papers dated May 23, 1853, when the first plats for the village were filed. In 1855, nominal land settlements were established. On January 14, 1865, the Legislature of Territorial Washington incorporated the Town of Seattle with a board of trustees managing the city; the Town of Seattle was disincorporated on January 18, 1867, remained a mere precinct of King County until late 1869, when a new petition was filed and the city was re-incorporated December 2, 1869, with a mayor–council government. The corporate seal of the City of Seattle carries the date "1869" and a likeness of Chief Sealth in left profile. Seattle has a history of boom-and-bust cycles, like many other cities near areas of extensive natural and mineral resources. Seattle has risen several times economically gone into precipitous decline, but it has used those periods to rebuild solid infrastructure
Brentwood, Los Angeles
Brentwood is an affluent neighborhood in the Westside of Los Angeles, California. Part of a Mexican land grant, the neighborhood began its modern development in the 1880s, it is the home of seven private and two public schools. Brentwood was part of the Rancho San Vicente y Santa Monica, a Mexican land-grant ranch sold off in pieces by the Sepúlveda family after the Mexican–American War. Modern development began after the establishment of the 600-acre Pacific Branch of the National Home for Disabled Soldiers and Sailors in the 1880s. A small community sprang up outside that facility's west gate. Annexed by the City of Los Angeles on June 14, 1916, Westgate's 49 square miles included large parts of what is now the Pacific Palisades and a small portion of today's Bel-Air. Westgate Avenue is one of the last reminders of that namesake. Local traditions include the annual decoration of San Vicente Boulevard's coral trees with holiday lights and a Maypole erected each year on the lawn of the Archer School for Girls, carrying on that set by the Eastern Star Home housed there.
This building was the exterior establishing shot for the "Mar Vista Rest Home" that provided a key scene in the 1974 film Chinatown. On November 6, 1961, a construction crew working in Sherman Oaks in the San Fernando Valley north of Brentwood on the far side of the Santa Monica Mountains noticed smoke and flames in a nearby pile of rubbish. Within minutes, Santa Ana winds gusting up to 60 mph sent burning brush aloft and over the ridge into Brentwood. More than 300 police officers helped evacuate 3,500 residents during the 12-hour fire, some 2,500 firefighters battled the blaze, pumping water from neighborhood swimming pools to douse flames. Pockets of the fire smoldered for several days; as firefighters battled what was to become a Bel Air disaster, another fire erupted in Santa Ynez Canyon to the west. That blaze was contained the next day after consuming nearly 10,000 acres and nine structures and burning to within a mile of Bel Air and Brentwood; the fires were the fifth-worst conflagration in the nation's history at the time, burning 16,090 acres, destroying more than 484 homes and 190 other structures and causing an estimated $30 million in damage.
Brentwood was the site of the 1994 stabbing deaths of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman, outside Simpson's Bundy Drive condominium townhouse. Nicole's ex-husband, football player and actor O. J. Simpson, was acquitted of the murders, but was found liable for the deaths in a civil trial; the district is located at the base of the Santa Monica Mountains, bounded by the San Diego Freeway on the east, Wilshire Boulevard on the south, the Santa Monica city limits on the southwest, the border of Topanga State Park on the west and Mulholland Drive along the ridgeline of the mountains on the north. In local parlance, it is known as one of the "Three Bs", along with Bel Air. Brentwood, like nearby Santa Monica, has a temperate climate influenced by marine breezes off the Pacific Ocean. Residents wake to a "marine layer," a cover of clouds brought in at night which burns off by mid-morning; the topography is split into two characters, broadly divided by Sunset Boulevard: the area north of Sunset is defined by ridges and canyons of the Santa Monica Mountains.
The southern district features underground springs which bubble up into a small creek along "the Gully" near the Brentwood Country Club, in the "Indian Springs" portion of the University High School campus the site of a Native American Tongva village. The 2000 U. S. census counted 31,344 residents in the 15.22-square-mile Brentwood neighborhood—or 2,059 people per square mile, among the lowest population densities for the city and the county. In 2008, the city estimated that the population had increased to 33,312. In 2000 the median age for residents was 35, old for city and county neighborhoods; the percentages of residents aged 50 and older were among the county's highest. The racial breakdown is whites, 84.2%. Iran and the United Kingdom were the most common places of birth for the 21.1% of the residents who were born abroad—which was a low percentage for Los Angeles as a whole. The median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was $112,927, considered high for the city and the county. Renters occupied 48.4% of the housing stock, house- or apartment-owners held 51.6%.
The average household size of two people was considered low for Los Angeles. The 5.7 % of families headed by single parents was low for county neighborhoods. San Vicente Boulevard is divided by a wide median on; this green belt replaced a Pacific Electric trolley track, the trees have been named a City of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument. The site of the crime scene in the O. J. Simpson murder case is located on South Bundy Drive between Montana Avenue. Brentwood features a number of residential subdistricts: Brentwood Circle: gated community east of Barrington and north of Sunset Brentwood Glen: an area bounded by Sunset, the 405 Freeway, the Veterans Administration Bundy Canyon: home to Mount St. Mary's College and the Getty Center Crestwood Hills: includes a cluster of architecturally significant mid-century modern residences located in the northern part of Kenter Canyon Kenter Canyon: the larger canyon containing Crestwood Hills, between Bundy Canyon and Mandeville Canyon Mandeville Canyon: westernmost part of Brentwood, north of Sunset.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
National Building Museum
The National Building Museum is located at 401 F Street NW in Washington, D. C. United States, it is a museum of "architecture, engineering and urban planning". It was created by an act of Congress in 1980, is a private non-profit institution; the museum hosts various temporary exhibits in galleries around the spacious Great Hall. The building, completed in 1887, served as the Pension Building, housing the United States Pension Bureau, hosted several presidential inaugural balls, it is an important early large-scale example of Renaissance Revival architecture, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1985. The National Building Museum is housed in the former Pension Bureau building, a brick structure completed in 1887 and designed by Montgomery C. Meigs, the U. S. Army quartermaster general, it is notable for several architectural features, including the spectacular interior columns and a frieze, sculpted by Caspar Buberl, stretching around the exterior of the building and depicting Civil War soldiers in scenes somewhat reminiscent of those on Trajan's Column as well as the Horsemen Frieze of the Parthenon.
The vast interior, measuring 316 × 116 feet, has been used to hold inauguration balls. After the Civil War, the United States Congress passed legislation that extended the scope of pension coverage for veterans and their survivors and dependents, notably their widows and orphans; the number of staff needed to implement and administer the new benefits system ballooned to over 1,500, required a new building from which to run it all. Meigs was chosen to construct the new building, he departed from the established Greco-Roman models, the basis of government buildings in Washington, D. C. until and which continued after the Pension Building's completion. Meigs based his design on Italian Renaissance precedents, notably Rome's Palazzo Farnese and the Palazzo della Cancelleria. Included in his design was a frieze sculpted by Caspar Buberl; because a sculpture of that size was well out of Meigs's budget, he had Buberl create 28 different scenes, totaling 69 feet in length, which were mixed and modified to create the continuous 1,200-foot parade of over 1,300 figures.
Because of the 28 sections' modification and mixture, it is only in careful examination that the frieze is seen to be the same figures repeated several times. The sculpture includes infantry, artillery and medical components, as well as a good deal of the supply and quartermaster functions, for it was in that capacity that Meigs had served during the Civil War. Meigs's correspondence with Buberl reveals that Meigs insisted that a black teamster, who "must be a negro, a plantation slave, freed by war", be included in the quartermaster panel; this figure was to assume a central position, over the building's west entrance. Built before modern artificial ventilation, the building was designed to maximize air circulation: all offices not only had exterior windows, but opened onto the court, designed to admit cool air at ground level and exhaust hot air at the roof. Made of brick and tile, the stairs were designed for the limitations of disabled and aging veterans, having a gradual ascent with low steps.
In addition, each step slanted from back to front to allow easy drainage: a flight could be washed by pouring water from the top. When Philip Sheridan was asked to comment on the building, his biting reply echoed the negative sentiment of much of the Washington establishment of the day: "Too bad the damn thing is fireproof." A similar quote is attributed to William Tecumseh Sherman casting doubt on the truth of the Sheridan tale. The completed building, sometimes called "Meigs Old Red Barn", required more than 15 million bricks, according to the wit of the day, were each counted by the parsimonious Meigs; the building was used for federal government offices until the 1960s when it had fallen into a state of disrepair and was considered for demolition. After pressure from conservationists, the government commissioned a report by architect Chloethiel Woodard Smith of possible other uses for the building, her 1967 report suggested a museum dedicated to the building arts. The building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1969.
In 1980, Congress created the National Building Museum as a non-profit institution. The building itself was formally renamed the National Building Museum in 1997; every year, the annual Christmas in Washington program was filmed at the museum, with the President and First Lady until the show's cancellation in 2015. The National Building Museum Shop was honored in 2007 as the "Best Museum Store" in the country by Niche magazine, "Best All-Around Museum Shop" in the region by The Washington Post, a "Top Shop" by the Washingtonian, named best museum shop in D. C. by National Geographic Traveler's blog, Intelligent Travel, in July 2009. In 2010, The Huffington Post included the National Building Museum in a story, "Museums with Amazing Gift Shops"; the Museum Shop sells books about the built environment and an array of housewares, educational toys and items for an office, all with an emphasis on design. On June 7, 2008, Hillary Clinton suspended her campaign for the Democratic presidential nomination with a farewell rally inside the museum.
Several of Clinton's most recognized quotes and sayings were first spoken on this date to several hundreds of supporters, including "If we can blast fifty women into space, we will someday launch a woman into the White House." The National Building Museum presen