Lausanne is the capital city and biggest town of the canton of Vaud in Romandy, Switzerland. A municipality, it is situated on the shores of Lake Léman, it faces the French town of Évian-les-Bains, with the Jura Mountains to its north-west. Lausanne is located 62 kilometres northeast of Geneva; the municipality Lausanne has a population of about 140,000, making it the fourth largest city in Switzerland, with the entire agglomeration area having about 420,000 inhabitants. The metropolitan area of Lausanne-Geneva was over 1.2 million inhabitants in 2000. Lausanne is a focus of international sport, hosting the International Olympic Committee, the Court of Arbitration for Sport and some 55 international sport associations, it lies in a noted wine-growing region. The city has a 28-station metro system, making it the smallest city in the world to have a rapid transit system. Lausanne will host the 2020 Winter Youth Olympics; the Romans built a military camp, which they called Lousanna, at the site of a Celtic settlement, near the lake where Vidy and Ouchy are situated.
By the 2nd century AD, it was known in 280 as lacu Lausonio. By 400, it was civitas Lausanna, in 990 it was mentioned as Losanna. After the fall of the Roman Empire, insecurity forced the residents of Lausanne to move to its current centre, a hilly site, easier to defend; the city which emerged from the camp was ruled by the Bishop of Lausanne. It came under Bern from 1536 to 1798, a number of its cultural treasures, including the hanging tapestries in the Cathedral, were permanently removed. Lausanne has made repeated requests to recover them. After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, Lausanne became a place of refuge for French Huguenots. In 1729, a seminary was opened by Benjamin Duplan. By 1750, 90 pastors had been sent back to France to work clandestinely. Official persecution ended in 1787. During the Napoleonic Wars, the city's status changed. In 1803, it became the capital of a newly formed Swiss canton, under which it joined the Swiss Federation. In 1964, the city played host to the Swiss National Exhibition, displaying its newly found confidence to play host to major international events.
From the 1950s to 1970s, a large number of Italians and Portuguese immigrated to Lausanne, settling in the industrial district of Renens and transforming the local diet. The city has served as a refuge for European artists. While under the care of a psychiatrist at Lausanne, T. S. Eliot composed most of his 1922 poem The Waste Land. Ernest Hemingway visited from Paris with his wife during the 1920s, to holiday. In fact, many creative people — such as historian Edward Gibbon and Romantic era poets Shelley and Byron — have "sojourned and worked in Lausanne or nearby"; the city has been traditionally quiet, but in the late 1960s and early 1970s, a series of demonstrations took place that exposed tensions between young people and the police. In the early 1980s, the Lôzane Bouge protests demanded the city "open an autonomous centre, lower cinema ticket prices, liberalise cannabis and end the process of keeping records on homosexuals, all accompanied by leaflets and songs in the street". Protests occurred against the G8 meetings.
The most important geographical feature of the area surrounding Lausanne is Lake Geneva. Lausanne is built on the southern slope of the Swiss plateau, with a difference in elevation of about 500 metres between the lakeshore at Ouchy and its northern edge bordering Le Mont-sur-Lausanne and Épalinges. Lausanne boasts a dramatic panorama over the Alps. In addition to its southward-sloping layout, the centre of the city is the site of an ancient river, the Flon, covered since the 19th century; the former river forms a gorge running through the middle of the city south of the old city centre following the course of the present Rue Centrale, with several bridges crossing the depression to connect the adjacent neighbourhoods. Due to the considerable differences in elevation, visitors should make a note as to which plane of elevation they are on and where they want to go, otherwise they will find themselves tens of metres below or above the street which they are trying to negotiate; the name Flon is used for the metro station located in the gorge.
The municipality includes the villages of Vidy, Ouchy, Chailly, La Sallaz, Montblesson, Vers-chez-les-Blanc and Chalet-à-Gobet as well as the exclave of Vernand. Lausanne is located at the limit between the extensive wine-growing regions of la Côte. Lausanne has an area, as of 2009, of 41.38–41.33 square kilometers. Of this area, 6.64 km2 or 16.0% is used for agricultural purposes, while 16.18 km2 or 39.1% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 18.45 km2 or 44.6% is settled, 0.05 km2 or 0.1% is either rivers or lakes and 0.0
SS Cambria was a British cargo-passenger steamship wrecked off the north-west of Ireland on 19 October 1870 with the loss of 178 lives. The iron-hulled ship was built at the Robert Duncan & Co. shipyard in Port Glasgow for the Anchor Line, to operate on the trans-Atlantic route. She was launched on 1 March 1869, sailed on her maiden voyage on 8 May, sailing from Glasgow, calling at Moville in County Donegal, before heading across the Atlantic to New York City. Cambria departed New York on 8 October 1870 under the command of Captain George Carnahan, carrying a general cargo, a crew of 74, 105 passengers, on only her twelfth Atlantic crossing. Around 11.00 pm on 19 October the ship was sailing in heavy seas when she struck Tor Beg rock, half a mile north-west of Inishtrahull Island, about 6 miles north-east of Malin Head. Lifeboats were launched, he had left the ship aboard a lifeboat with about 15 other passengers. The boat immediately capsized and all the occupants thrown into the sea; when M'Gartland regained consciousness he found himself clinging to the boat, which had righted itself.
After climbing back into the boat and he found no one aboard except the corpse of a lady passenger dressed in black silk. M'Gartland drifted for several hours before being rescued by the SS Enterprise. Four lifeboats were found empty at the Giant's Causeway, while the stern of the ship drifted ashore at Islay, Scotland
Annesley Old Church or the Church of All Saints, Annesley Park, is a disused church in a ruinous condition which stands on a mound near to Annesley Hall, Nottinghamshire. The building remains are Grade I are surrounded by a graveyard; the site is scheduled as an ancient monument. The church is built in stone and measures 35 metres by 14.5 metres. The standing remains include the roofless west tower, chancel and a large 14th-century lady chapel to the south; the Lady Chapel, known as the "Felley Chantry” after the priory at Felley to whom the patronage once belonged, contained three fine sedilia and a piscina and a large east window with reticulated stone tracery. The surrounding graveyard contains a variety of 17th- and 18th-century grave markers; the present building, constructed by the Annesley family in 1356, replaced a previous Norman building on the same site. After the Annesley estate had passed by marriage to the Chaworths, Patrick Chaworth, 3rd Viscount Chaworth, in 1686 built the flight of steps leading up to the church and arranged for a carving of his coat of arms, or Achievement, to be fixed one of the tower walls in the church.
As the village of Annesley developed into a mining community it was decided to build a new church on a site nearer to the growing colliery community. The new church, All Saints' Church, was consecrated in 1874. Occasional services Harvest Festivals, continued to be held in the old church until 1942. Following the cessation of use the building deteriorated and Viscount Chaworth's achievement was transferred to the new church; when the Annesley estate was sold in 1973 the buildings fell into a state of total disrepair and were sold by the Church Commissioners to Ashfield District Council for a nominal £1. In 2012 Ashfield District Council completed a programme of preservation and restoration to make the site safe and accessible to visitors; the ruined building was Grade I listed in 1966 and scheduled as an Ancient Monument in 1977. It is on the Heritage at Risk register. In 2011 it was announced that the Heritage Lottery Fund would make an award of £450,000 to help Ashfield District Council to fund its conservation.
The project was intended to conserve what remains of the church buildings and make the site more accessible for visitors. The Annesley Old Church Project was a three-year project that included phases that sought to restore the ruins and promote the use of the site for community events and activities; the church is mentioned in the writings of both Lord D. H. Lawrence. "Annesley Old Church". Southwell and Nottingham Church History Project. Retrieved 16 October 2012