Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered a branch of the humanities. In North America archaeology is a sub-field of anthropology, while in Europe it is viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology is distinct from palaeontology, the study of fossil remains, it is important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world. Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and analysis of data collected to learn more about the past. In broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research, it draws upon anthropology, art history, ethnology, geology, literary history, semiology, textual criticism, information sciences, statistics, paleography, paleontology and paleobotany. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, has since become a discipline practiced across the world. Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Since its early development, various specific sub-disciplines of archaeology have developed, including maritime archaeology, feminist archaeology and archaeoastronomy, numerous different scientific techniques have been developed to aid archaeological investigation. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, opposition to the excavation of human remains.
The science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with particular attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts, as well as historical sites. Antiquarianism focused on the empirical evidence that existed for the understanding of the past, encapsulated in the motto of the 18th-century antiquary, Sir Richard Colt Hoare, "We speak from facts not theory". Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. In Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Flavio Biondo, an Italian Renaissance humanist historian, created a systematic guide to the ruins and topography of ancient Rome in the early 15th century, for which he has been called an early founder of archaeology. Antiquarians of the 16th century, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, drawing and interpreting the monuments that they encountered.
One of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England. John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other field monuments in southern England, he was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings. He attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out by the Spanish military engineer Roque Joaquín de Alcubierre in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, both of, covered by ash during the Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79; these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and human shapes, as well the unearthing of frescos, had a big impact throughout Europe. However, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard; the father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington. He undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798.
Cunnington made meticulous recordings of Neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, the terms he used to categorize and describe them are still used by archaeologists today. One of the major achievements of 19th-century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy; the idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton and Charles Lyell. The application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites. In the third and fourth decades of the 19th-century, archaeologists like Jacques Boucher de Perthes and Christian Jürgensen Thomsen began to put the artifacts they had found in chronological order. A major figure in the development of archaeology into a rigorous science was the army officer and ethnologist, Augustus Pitt Rivers, who began excavations on his land in England in the 1880s, his approach was methodical by the standards of the time, he is regarded as the first scientific archaeologist.
He arranged his artifacts by type or "typologically, within types by date or "chronologically"
Dettingen unter Teck
Dettingen is a municipality in the district of Esslingen in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. Dettingen is located 40 km southeast of Stuttgart and 4 km south of Kirchheim unter Teck at an elevation of between 329 to 520 metres. 463 hectares of the municipal area is forested. The village lies at the foot of hence the second part of its name. Dettingen 1683/1685 in Kieserschen forest stock book The Lauter valley show evidence of settlement from ancient times; the Lautertal Limes, a Roman border fortification known colloquially as the Sybillenspur, runs through the middle of the valley and the village. South of today's village lies the Roman fort of Dettingen unter Teck. Dettingen was first mentioned around 1100. Unusually, there is a high number of castles and noble family seats on its territory - no less than six. None of the castles has survived; the resident noble families had the majority of manorial rights on the Dettingen estates. Suzerainty over Dettingen was exercised by the House of Württemberg from as early as 1381.
Dettingen's vintners were active during the German Peasants' War of 1525. During the Thirty Years' War the village was badly damaged, its population was reduced by war and plague to around one third. In the early 17th century, the village had around 1300 inhabitants, in 1654 there were just 511; the settlement was slow to recover. In 1715, 160 farmsteads were uninhabited and 300 acres of fields and vineyards lay fallow. In 1803, Dettingen had about 1800 inhabitants. In 1939, the Schempp-Hirth aerodrome was commandeered by the Luftwaffe as a military airfield, it was small and therefore not used by the air force. At the end of the Second World War, Dettingen was hit hard, 20 April 1945 was its fateful day. Days before German troops had sought and found refuge in Dettingen during their retreat to the Swabian Jura; the barns and cellars were full of German soldiers when, around 4 pm, Allied fighter-bombers began a systematic bombardment of the village. Explosive and incendiary bombs were dropped burning down 69 houses and setting 39 barns ablaze.
The church, the town hall, the Schlössle, the old school, the kindergarten and fire station were destroyed by fire, the cattle burned in their cowsheds. Ten local residents and 13 soldiers died. One day the Americans invaded and occupied the village; until 1938, Dettingen belonged to Oberamt Kirchheim to the county of Nürtingen and from 1973 to the county of Esslingen. The number of inhabitants are estimates, census results or official extrapolations of statistica office Stuttgart. Year Population 1654: ca. 511 1700: ca. 1.000 3 December 1834: ¹ 2.192 1 December 1871: ¹ 1.907 1 December 1900: ¹ 2.048 17 May 1939: ¹ 2.366 13 September 1950: ¹ 3.131 6 June 1961: ¹ 3.616 27 May 1970: ¹ 4.047 25 May 1987: ¹ 5.055 31 December 1995: 5.355 31 December 2000: 5.438 31 December 2005: 5.642 31 December 2010: 5.698 The local council in Dettingen has 14 members. Communal elections in Baden-Württemberg 25 May 2014 had the following official results; the local council are the mayor as president. The mayor has one vote.
1932–1945 Wilhelm Faßnacht 1945–1948 Gottlieb Lauxmann 1948–1957 Julius Mahle 1957–1972 Richard Käser 1972–1996 Günter Fischer since 1996: Rainer HaußmannOn the 4. March 2012 Rainer Haußmann was re-elected for a third period; the Teck Railway runs since 1899 from Wendlingen, Dettingen, Owen to Oberlenningen. The Royal Württemberg State Railways built the - now restored and used elsewhere - station building as a unit station type IIa; the station can be found in 1:87 as a model on many model railroads, including name, incidentally at the largest model railway in the world in miniature wonderland in Hamburg. 2009, Teck Railway was electrified to Kirchheim and has since been on the S-Bahn Stuttgart traveled, the more distance over Dettingen after Oberlenningen is per direction per hour from a regional train operates. Dettingen belongs to the district of Esslingen the Transport and Tariff Association Stuttgart and is the Tarifwabe Kirchheim / Teck. Former Dettingen station Albert Pflüger, Member of Landtag Hans Schwenkel: Heimatbuch des Kreises Nürtingen.
Würzburg 1953, S. 177–206. Der Landkreis Esslingen. Herausgegeben vom Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg i. V. mit dem Landkreis Esslingen, Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Ostfildern 2009, ISBN 978-3-7995-0842-1, Band 1, Seite 403. Albert Schüle: Heimatbuch der Gemeinde Dettingen unter Teck. Herausgegeben von der Gemeinde Dettingen unter Teck, Gottlieb & Osswald, Kirchheim 1981. Karl Buck: Luftfahrt an der Teck – Geschichte und Geschichten zur Fliegerei im Land an der Teck 1928–1958. Fluggelände und Privatlandeplatz, Flugzeugbau. Buck, Ulm 2008, ISBN 978-3-00-023757-7
Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes
The Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes, or ORL, is a 550-kilometre-long section of the former external frontier of the Roman Empire between the rivers Rhine and Danube. It runs from Rheinbrohl to Eining on the Danube; the Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes is an archaeological site and, since 2005, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Together with the Lower Germanic Limes it forms part of the Limes Germanicus; the term limes meant "border path" or "swathe" in Latin. In Germany, "Limes" refers to the Rhaetian Limes and Upper Germanic Limes, collectively referred to as the Limes Germanicus. Both sections of limes are named after the adjacent Roman provinces of Germania Superior. In the Roman limites we have, for the first time in history defined territorial borders of a sovereign state that were visible on the ground to friend and foe alike. Most of the Upper German-Rhaetian Limes did not follow rivers or mountain ranges, which would have formed natural boundaries for the Roman Empire, it includes the longest land border in the European section of the limes, interrupted for only a few kilometres, by a section that follows the River Main between Großkrotzenburg and Miltenberg.
By contrast, elsewhere in Europe, the limes is defined by the rivers Rhine and Danube. The function of the Roman military frontiers has been discussed for some time; the latest research tends to view at least the Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes not as a military demarcation line, but rather a monitored economic boundary for the non-Roman lands. The limes, it is argued, was not suitable for fending off systematic external attacks. Thanks to a skillful economic policy, the Roman Empire extended its influence far to the northeast, beyond the frontier. Evidence of this are the many border crossings which, although guarded by Roman soldiers, would have enabled a brisk trade, the numerous Roman finds in "Free Germania". Attempts were also made, to settle Roman legions beyond the limes or, more to recruit auxiliaries; as a result, the Romanization of the population extended beyond the limes. Interest in the limes as the remains of a site dating to the Roman period was rekindled in Germany at the time of the Renaissance and Renaissance humanism.
This was bolstered by the rediscovery of the Germania and Annales of Tacitus in monastic libraries in the 15th and early 16th centuries. Scholars like Simon Studion researched discovered forts. Studion led archaeological excavations of the Roman camp of Benningen on the Neckar section of the Neckar-Odenwald Limes. Local limes commissions were established but were confined to small areas, for example, in the Grand Duchy of Hesse or Grand Duchy of Baden, due to the political situation. Johann Alexander Döderlein was the first person to record the course of the limes in the Eichstätt region. In 1723, he was the first to interpret the meaning of the limes and published the first scholarly treatise about it in 1731. Only after the foundation of the German Empire could archaeologists begin to study more the route of the limes, about which there had only been a rudimentary knowledge; as a result, they were able to make the first systematic excavations in the second half of the 19th century. In 1892, the Imperial Limes Commission was established for this purpose in Berlin, under the direction of the ancient historian, Theodor Mommsen.
The work of this commission is considered pioneering for reworking of Roman provincial history. Productive were the first ten years of research, which worked out the course of the Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes and named the camps along the border; the research reports on the excavations were published from 1894 to the dissolution of the Commission in 1937. The individual reports went under the title of The Upper Rhaetian Limes of the Roman Empire, published in fifteen volumes, of which seven cover the route of the limes and eight cover the various camps and forts; the documents of the Imperial Limes Commission are now in the custody of the Roman-Germanic Commission of the German Archaeological Institute. The RLK numbered the sections of the route, the forts and the watchtowers on the individual sections. In the course of this work the 550-kilometre-long route of the limes was surveyed, divided into sections and described; this division followed the administrative boundaries in 19th-century Germany and not that of ancient Rome: Section 1: Rheinbrohl – Bad Ems Section 2: Bad Ems – Adolfseck near Bad Schwalbach Section 3: Adolfseck near Bad Schwalbach – Taunus – Köpperner Tal Section 4: Köpperner Tal – Wetterau – Marköbel Section 5: Marköbel – Großkrotzenburg am Main Section 6a: Hainstadt – Wörth am Main Section 6b: Trennfurt – Miltenberg Section 7: Miltenberg – Walldürn – Buchen-Hettingen Section 8: Buchen-Hettingen – Osterburken – Jagsthausen Section 9: Jagsthausen – Öhringen – Mainhardt – Welzheim – Alfdorf-Pfahlbronn Section 10: Wörth am Main – Bad Wimpfen Section 11: Bad Wimpfen – Köngen Section 12: Alfdorf-Pfahlbronn – Lorch – Rotenbachtal near Schwäbisch Gmünd – Aalen – Stödtlen Section 13: Mönchsroth – Weiltingen-Ruffenhofen - Gunzenhausen Section 14: Gunzenhausen – Weißenburg – Kipfenberg Section 15: Kipfenberg – Eining Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes in general Dietwulf Baatz: Der römische Limes.
Archäologische Ausflüge zwischen Rhein und Donau. 4th edn. Gebrüder Mann, Berlin, 2000, ISBN 3-7861-1701-2. Thomas Becker
Römerstein is a municipality in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Townhall is in Böhringen; the community is located on the Swabian Alb, in the northeastern corner of the district of Reutlingen. The community is named after the Römerstein, the highest hill of the region at 875 m; the municipality is located about 22 kilometers east of Reutlingen on the plateau of the Swabian Alb at an altitude of 803 m above sea level. NN. Römerstein reaches an elevation of 874 m above sea level at its highest point; the municipality is bordered by Lenningen Wiesensteig, Laichingen, Gutsbezirk Münsingen, Bad Urach and grave Stetten. The community consists of the independent municipalities Böhringen and Zainingen; the former municipalities Donnstetten and Zainingen today form localities within the definition of Baden-Württemberg municipal code with independent local councils and mayors. Böhringen includes the village of Böhringen, the hamlet of Strohweiler, the homestead Aglishardt. Donnstetten includes the village of Donnstetten and the Haus Römersteinhäuser, an observation tower erected in 1912 on the Römerstein.
Zainingen consists only the village of the same name. In the municipality of Römerstein are several traces of former places which no longer exist. In the territory of the village Donnstetten are the two deserted villages of Beuren, attested by a toponym, Roter Hof Presumably the settlement was in the Roman settlement back Clarenna; the identification of the Roman town Clarenna, passed down through the Peutingertafel is, with the archaeological finds in Donnstetten likely, but not certain. → Main article: Castle Donnstetten The municipality Römerstein originated during the Baden-Württemberg district reform on 1 January 1975 as a merger of the independent municipalities Böhringen Donnstetten and Zainingen. The entire current community area was part of the district of Münsingen and came with its resolution 1973 the district of Reutlingen. Coat of Böhringen Böhringen was 1090 documentary mentioned for the first time together with the Hofgut Aglishardt; the place was part of Kirchheimer hundred. About the Men of Sperbereck Böhringen came in the 15th century to Württemberg.
In the Thirty Years' War the city was completely destroyed. In World War II there was in the last days of the war heavy destruction. Coat of Donnstetten Already 776 Donnstetten was in a document of Lorsch called Tunnesstate. 1603 it became part of Württemberg. Coat of Zainingen Zainingen was first 788 as Zeininger marca in Lorsch codex mentioned. 1383 was the place to Württemberg. The St. George's Church in Donnstetten district Already in 1192 the St. Gallus Church in Böhringen mentioned; the church was first mentioned in Zainingen 1275th Donnstetten which belonged ecclesiastically to Zainingen, since 1447 has the status of a separate parish. Since the introduction of the Reformation, the places are Lutheran coined. In Römerstein Today there are three Protestant churches, the Protestant parish Böhringen with St. Gallus Church, the Protestant parish Zainingen with Martin Church and the Protestant church Donnstetten-Westerheim with the St. George's Church; the members of the United Methodist Church gather in Laichingen, while the Catholics of the parish of St. Joseph are assigned in Bad Urach.
The administrative center is Böhringen, local administrative bodies are in Donnstetten and Zainingen. The council Römerstein has 14 members; the local elections on 25 May 2014 led to the following official results. The turnout was 64.4%. The council consists of the mayor as chairman; the mayor is entitled to vote in the municipal council. Free Bürgerliste Römerstein 45.3% 6 seats Independent Citizens List Römerstein 54.7% 8 seats The mayor is elected for a term of eight years. 1975-1999: Hans Sigel 1999-2013: Michael Donth 0000: Matthias Winter Blazon: "About a double row of black and silver geschachten sign foot in Blue a flying upwards golden hawk." In Donnstetten is a local history museum in the parish barn. German Red Cross, the local association Römerstein: Founded in 1976 as a result of local government reform from the three DRC -Ortsgruppen Böhringen and Zainingen. Swabian Albverein eV, local group Zainingen: Founded in 1949 in Zainingen Accordion and Concertina Club Römerstein e. V. founded in 1951 in *Donnstetten Vocal Group "Frohsinn" Böhringen Founded in 1887 Liederkranz Donnstetten founded 1843 Musikverein Zainingen e. V. founded in 1920 Musikverein "harmony" Donnstetten, founded in 1895 as a mouth Erich's Chapel Sportfreunde Donnstetten founded, April 3, 1948 Sportverein Zainingen, founded March 14, 1926 TSV Böhringen founded in 1919 FC Römerstein founded 2005 The St. Gallus Church in Böhringen was built in neo-Gothic style in the years 1885-86, the choir dates from 1498th The Church of St. George in Donnstetten was built in the 15th century.
St Martin's Church in Zainingen. The foundation year is not known, but a stone in the wall behind the church organ records that it was in place
A ditch in military engineering is an obstacle, designed to slow down or break up an attacking force, while a trench is intended to provide cover to the defenders. In military fortifications the side of a ditch farthest from the enemy and closest to the next line of defence is known as the scarp while the side of a ditch closest to the enemy is known as the counterscarp. In early fortifications, ditches were used in combination with ramparts to slow down the enemy whilst defensive fire could be brought to bear from the relative protection afforded by the rampart and the palisade. In medieval fortification, a ditch was constructed in front of a defensive wall to hinder mining and escalade activities from an attacker; when filled with water, such a defensive ditch is called a moat. However, moats may be dry. Star forts designed by military engineers like Vauban, comprised elaborate networks of ditches and parapets calculated so that the soil for the raised earthworks was provided, as nearly as possible by the excavations whilst maximising defensive firepower.
Today ditches are obsolescent as an anti-personnel obstacle, but are still used as anti-vehicle obstacles. A fence concealed in a ditch is called a ha-ha. Scarp: the inner side of the ditch is called the scarp slope; this may be revetted with masonry or brickwork, in which case, it is called the "scarp wall". Cordon: a course of protruding masonry along the top of a scarp wall, intended to make it harder for an enemy to stand a ladder against it. Rampart: the actual wall of the fort which can be made of earth or masonry, is topped by a parapet for the defenders to fire over, slopes away from the ditch. Berm: a ledge between the scarp wall and the exterior slope of the rampart, designed to increase the stability of the rampart and prevent any falling debris from compromising the ditch. Faussebraye: a secondary parapet between the rampart and the inner edge of the ditch. Carnot wall: a loopholed wall between the rampart and the inner edge of the ditch. Chemin de ronde: a pathway running along the berm, behind the faussebraye or Carnot wall.
Cunette: a narrow channel that runs along the floor of the ditch for drainage purposes. Bartardeau: a type of masonry dam across a ditch, part wet and part dry. Counterscarp: the outer slope or wall of the ditch. Sally port: a small door allowing the defenders to enter the ditch should it be occupied by the enemy. Caponier: a masonry or brick structure extending into the ditch or traversing across it. Counterscarp gallery: a passage constructed behind the counterscarp wall and pierced with loopholes, which enables the defenders to fire on attackers who have entered the ditch. Glacis: an earth slope angled away from the ditch. Covered way: a path running between the outer edge of the ditch and the glacis, allowing defending troops to move around the exterior of the fort. Place-of-arms: an open area of the covered way at an angle of the ditch, where defenders could assemble for a sally or counter attack. Border barrier
An archaeological site is a place in which evidence of past activity is preserved, which has been, or may be, investigated using the discipline of archaeology and represents a part of the archaeological record. Sites may range from those with few or no remains visible above ground, to buildings and other structures still in use. Beyond this, the definition and geographical extent of a "site" can vary depending on the period studied and the theoretical approach of the archaeologist, it is invariably difficult to delimit a site. It is sometimes taken to indicate a settlement of some sort although the archaeologist must define the limits of human activity around the settlement. Any episode of deposition such as a hoard or burial can form a site as well. Development-led archaeology undertaken as cultural resources management has the disadvantage of having its sites defined by the limits of the intended development. In this case however, in describing and interpreting the site, the archaeologist will have to look outside the boundaries of the building site.
According to Jess Beck in "How Do Archaeologists find sites?" the areas with a large number of artifacts are good targets for future excavation, while areas with small number of artifacts are thought to reflect a lack of past human activity.” Many areas have been discovered by accident. The most common person to have found artifacts are farmers who are plowing their fields or just cleaning them up find archaeological artifacts. Many people who are out hiking and pilots find artifacts they end up reporting them to archaeologist to do further investigation; when they find sites, they have to first record the area and if they have the money and time for the site they can start digging. There are many ways to find sites, one example can be through surveys. Surveys involve walking around analyzing the land looking for artifacts, it can involve digging, according to the Archaeological Institute of America, “archaeologists search areas that were to support human populations, or in places where old documents and records indicate people once lived.”
This helps archaeologists in the future. In case there was no time, or money during the finding of the site, archaeologists can come back and visit the site for further digging to find out the extent of the site. Archaeologist can sample randomly within a given area of land as another form of conducting surveys. Surveys are useful, according to Jess Beck, “it can tell you where people were living at different points in the past.” Geophysics is a branch of survey becoming more and more popular in archaeology, because it uses different types of instruments to investigate features below the ground surface. It is not as reliable, because although they can see what is under the surface of the ground it does not produce the best picture. Archaeologists have to still dig up the area in order to uncover the truth. There are two most common types of geophysical survey, which is, magnetometer and ground penetrating radar. Magnetometry is the technique of mapping patterns of magnetism in the soil, it uses an instrument called a magnetometer, required to measure and map traces of soil magnetism.
The ground penetrating radar is a method. It uses electro magnetic radiation in the microwave band of the radio spectrum, detects the reflected signals from subsurface structures. There are many other tools that can be used to find artifacts, but along with finding artifacts, archaeologist have to make maps, they do so by taking data from surveys, or archival research and plugging it into a Geographical Information Systems and that will contain both locational information and a combination of various information. This tool is helpful to archaeologists who want to explore in a different area and want to see if anyone else has done research, they can use this tool to see what has been discovered. With this information available, archaeologists can expand their research and add more to what has been found. Traditionally, sites are distinguished by the presence of both features. Common features include the remains of houses. Ecofacts, biological materials that are the result of human activity but are not deliberately modified, are common at many archaeological sites.
In the cases of the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic eras, a mere scatter of flint flakes will constitute a site worthy of study. Different archaeologists may see an ancient town, its nearby cemetery as being two different sites, or as being part of the same wider site; the precepts of landscape archaeology attempt to see each discrete unit of human activity in the context of the wider environment, further distorting the concept of the site as a demarcated area. Furthermore, geoarchaeologists or environmental archaeologists would consider a sequence of natural geological or organic deposition, in the absence of human activity, to constitute a site worthy of study. Archaeological sites form through human-related processes but can be subject to natural, post-depositional factors. Cultural remnants which have been buried by sediments are in many environments more to be preserved than exposed cultural remnants. Natural actions resulting in sediment being deposited include aeolian natural processes. In jungles and other areas of lush plant growth, decomposed vegetative sediment can result in layers of soil deposited over remains.
Colluviation, the burial of a site by sediments moved by gravity can happen at sites on slopes. Human a