Softball is a variant of baseball played with a larger ball on a field that has base lengths of 60 feet, a pitcher's mound that ranges from 35-43 feet away from home plate, a homerun fence, 220 feet away from home plate. It was invented in 1887 in Chicago, United States as an indoor game; the game moves at a faster pace than traditional baseball. There is less time for the base runner to get to first; the name softball was given to the game in 1926, because the ball used to be soft, however in modern day usage, the balls are hard. A tournament held in 1933 at the Chicago World's Fair spurred interest in the game; the Amateur Softball Association of America governs the game in the United States and sponsors annual sectional and World Series championships. The World Baseball Softball Confederation regulates rules of play in more than 110 countries, including the United States and Canada. Women's fast pitch softball became a Summer Olympic sport in 1996, but it and baseball were dropped from the 2012 Games.
There are three types of softball. In the most common type, slow-pitch softball, the ball, which can measure either 11 or 12 inches in circumference depending on gender and league, must arch on its path to the batter, there are 10 players on the field at once. In fastpitch softball, the pitch is fast, there are nine players on the field at one time, bunting and stealing bases are permitted. Modified softball restricts the "windmill" wind-up used by fastpitch pitchers, although the pitcher is allowed to throw as hard as possible with the restricted back swing. Softball rules vary somewhat from those of baseball. Two major differences are that the ball must be pitched underhand—from 46 ft for men or 43 ft for women as compared with 60.5 ft in baseball—and that seven innings instead of nine constitute a regulation game. Despite the name, the ball used in softball is not soft, it is about 12 in in circumference, 3 in larger than a baseball. Softball recreational leagues for children use 11-inch balls until they participate in travel ball around age 12 and adjust to a 12-inch sized ball.
The infield in softball is smaller than on an adult or high school baseball diamond but identical to that used by Little League Baseball. In fast pitch softball the entire infield is dirt, whereas the infield in baseball is grass except at the bases and on the pitcher's mound which are dirt. Softball mounds are flat, while baseball mounds are a small hill. Softballs are pitched underhand; this changes the arc of the ball. For example, depending if the pitcher pitches a fastball, in softball the ball would most rise while in baseball because the pitcher is on a hill, the ball would drop; the earliest known softball game was played in Chicago, Illinois on Thanksgiving Day, 1887. It took place at the Farragut Boat Club at a gathering to hear the outcome of the Yale University and Harvard University football game; when the score was announced and bets were settled, a Yale alumnus threw a boxing glove at a Harvard supporter. The Harvard fan swung at the rolled up glove. George Hancock, a reporter there, called out "Play ball!" and the game began, with the boxing glove tightened into a ball, a broom handle serving as a bat.
This first contest ended with a score of 41–40. The ball, being soft, was fielded barehanded. George Hancock is credited as the game's inventor for his development of a 17" ball and an undersized bat in the next week; the Farragut Club soon set rules for the game, which spread to outsiders. Envisioned as a way for baseball players to maintain their skills during the winter, the sport was called "Indoor Baseball". Under the name of "Indoor-Outdoor", the game moved outside in the next year, the first rules were published in 1889. In 1895 Lewis Rober, Sr. of Minneapolis organized outdoor games as exercise for firefighters. Rober's version of the game used a ball 12 inches in circumference, rather than the 16-inch ball used by the Farragut club, the Minneapolis ball prevailed, although the dimensions of the Minneapolis diamond were passed over in favor of the dimensions of the Chicago one. Rober may not have been familiar with the Farragut Club rules. Fire Station No. 19 in Minneapolis, Rober's post from 1896 to 1906, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in part for its association with the sport's development.
The first softball league outside the United States was organized in Toronto in 1897. The name "softball" dates back to 1926; the name was coined by Walter Hakanson of the YMCA at a meeting of the National Recreation Congress. The name softball had spread across the United States by 1930. By the 1930s, similar sports with different rules and names were being played all over the United States and Canada. By 1936, the Joint Rules Committee on Softball had standardized the rules and naming throughout the United States. Sixteen-inch softball sometimes referred to as "mush ball" or "super-slow pitch", is a direct descendant of Hancock's original game. Defensive players are not allowed to wear fi
Aldi is the common brand of two German family owned discount supermarket chains with over 10,000 stores in 20 countries, an estimated combined turnover of more than €50 billion. Based in Germany, the chain was founded by brothers Karl and Theo Albrecht in 1946 when they took over their mother's store in Essen, in operation since 1913; the business was split into two separate groups in 1960, that became Aldi Nord, headquartered in Essen, Aldi Süd, headquartered in Mülheim. In 1962, they introduced the name Aldi, pronounced. In Germany, Aldi Nord and Aldi Süd have been financially and separate since 1966, although both divisions' names may appear as if they were a single enterprise with certain store brands or when negotiating with contractor companies; the formal business name is Aldi Einkauf GmbH & Compagnie, oHG. Aldi's German operations consist of Aldi Nord's 35 individual regional companies with about 2,500 stores in western and eastern Germany, Aldi Süd's 32 regional companies with 1,600 stores in western and southern Germany.
Internationally, Aldi Nord operates in Denmark, the Benelux countries, Portugal and Poland, while Aldi Süd operates in Ireland, Great Britain, Switzerland, China, Italy and Slovenia. Both Aldi Nord and Aldi Süd operate in the United States with 1,600 stores as of 2017; the earliest roots of the company trace back to 1913, when the mother of Karl and Theo Albrecht opened a small store in a suburb of Essen. Their father was employed as a miner and as a baker's assistant. Karl Albrecht was born in 1920, Theo Albrecht in 1922. Theo Albrecht completed an apprenticeship in his mother's store, while Karl Albrecht worked in a delicatessen. Karl Albrecht took over a food shop run by F. W. Judt who advertised that they were the "cheapest food source". Karl Albrecht served in the German Army during World War II. In 1946, the brothers took over their mother's business and soon opened another retail outlet nearby. By 1950, the Albrecht brothers owned 13 stores in the Ruhr Valley; the brothers' idea, new at the time, was to subtract the legal maximum rebate of 3% before sale.
The market leaders at the time, which were co-operatives, required their customers to collect rebate stamps, to send them at regular intervals to reclaim their money. The Albrecht brothers rigorously removed merchandise that did not sell from their shelves, cutting costs by neither advertising nor selling fresh produce, keeping the size of their retail outlets small; the brothers split the company in 1960 over a dispute. Karl believed. At the time, they jointly owned 300 shops with a cash flow of DM90 million yearly. In 1962, they introduced the name Aldi—short for Albrecht-Diskont. Aldi Nord and Aldi Süd have been financially and separate since 1966, although both divisions' names may appear as if they were a single enterprise with certain store brands or when negotiating with contractor companies; the individual groups were owned and managed jointly by the brothers. Karl Albrecht, who died in 2014, retained ownership of Aldi Süd with a personal wealth of €17.2 billion that made him the richest man in Germany.
The co-owners of Aldi Nord and Theo Albrecht Jr. came close behind at €16 billion. After Berthold's death, Aldi Nord continues to be controlled by the Albrecht family through its Markus and Jakobus foundations, which hold a combined 80.5 per cent of the company's issued capital. Aldi started to expand internationally in 1967, when Aldi Süd acquired the grocery chain Hofer in Austria. In 1976, Aldi opened its first store in the United States in Iowa, and, in 1979, Aldi Nord acquired Trader Joe's. After German reunification and the fall of the Iron Curtain, Aldi experienced a rapid expansion; the brothers retired as CEOs in 1993. The Aldi Nord group consists of 35 independent regional branches with 2,500 stores. Aldi Süd is made up of 31 companies with 1,600 stores; the border between their territories is known as ″Aldi-Äquator″ and runs from the Rhine via Mülheim an der Ruhr, Marburg and Gießen east to just north of Fulda. The former East Germany is served by Aldi Nord, except for one Aldi Süd in Sonneberg, whose regional office is in Bavaria.
The regional branches are organised as limited partnerships with a regional manager for each branch who reports directly to the head office in Essen or Mülheim an der Ruhr. In December 2002, a survey conducted by the German market research institute Forsa found 95% of blue-collar workers, 88% of white-collar workers, 84% of public servants, 80% of self-employed Germans shop at Aldi. One of Aldi's direct competitors internationally is Lidl; the Aldi group operates over 10,000 stores worldwide. Aldi Nord is responsible for its stores in Belgium, the Netherlands, France, Spain and Portugal, operates the Trader Joe's markets in the United States. Aldi Süd's responsibilities are in the United States, Austria and Italy, Great Britain, Ireland and Switzerland. Aldi Süd's first Switzerland store opened in 2005, while it has operated in Hungary since 2007. Aldi Süd had invested an estimated €800m in
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of, a 20-metre pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each player. Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, by the fielding side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground; when ten players have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches, they communicate with two off-field scorers. There are various formats ranging from Twenty20, played over a few hours with each team batting for a single innings of 20 overs, to Test matches, played over five days with unlimited overs and the teams each batting for two innings of unlimited length.
Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, a hard, solid spheroid made of compressed leather with a raised sewn seam enclosing a cork core, layered with wound string. Cricket's origins are uncertain and the earliest definite reference is in south-east England in the middle of the 16th century, it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the second half of the 19th century. The game's governing body is the International Cricket Council, which has over 100 members, twelve of which are full members who play Test matches; the game's rules are held in a code called the Laws of Cricket, owned and maintained by Marylebone Cricket Club in London. The sport is followed in the Indian subcontinent, the United Kingdom, southern Africa and the West Indies, its globalisation occurring during the expansion of the British Empire and remaining popular into the 21st century.
Women's cricket, organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. The most successful side playing international cricket is Australia, having won seven One Day International trophies, including five World Cups, more than any other country, having been the top-rated Test side more than any other country. Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement. In cricket's case, a key difference is the existence of a solid target structure, the wicket, that the batsman must defend; the cricket historian Harry Altham identified three "groups" of "club ball" games: the "hockey group", in which the ball is driven to and fro between two targets. It is believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the medieval period. Although there are claims for prior dates, the earliest definite reference to cricket being played comes from evidence given at a court case in Guildford on Monday, 17 January 1597.
The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a 59-year-old coroner, John Derrick, who gave witness that: "Being a scholler in the ffree schoole of Guldeford hee and diverse of his fellows did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies". Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c. 1550 by boys in Surrey. The view that it was a children's game is reinforced by Randle Cotgrave's 1611 English-French dictionary in which he defined the noun "crosse" as "the crooked staff wherewith boys play at cricket" and the verb form "crosser" as "to play at cricket". One possible source for the sport's name is the Old English word "cryce" meaning a staff. In Samuel Johnson's Dictionary, he derived cricket from "cryce, Saxon, a stick". In Old French, the word "criquet" seems to have meant a kind of stick. Given the strong medieval trade connections between south-east England and the County of Flanders when the latter belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch "krick", meaning a stick.
Another possible source is the Middle Dutch word "krickstoel", meaning a long low stool used for kneeling in church and which resembled the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of Bonn University, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de sen. Gillmeister has suggested that not only the name but the sport itself may be of Flemish origin. Although the main object of the game has always been to score the most runs, the early form of cricket differed from the modern game in certain key technical aspects; the ball was bowled underarm by the bowler and all along the ground towards a batsman armed with a bat that, in shape, resembled a hockey stick.
BMX, an abbreviation for bicycle motocross or bike motocross, is a cycle sport performed on BMX bikes, either in competitive BMX racing or freestyle BMX, or else in general on- or off-road recreation. BMX began when young cyclists appropriated motocross tracks for fun and stunts evolving specialized BMX bikes and competitions. BMX began during the early 1970s in the United States when children began racing their bicycles on dirt tracks in southern California, inspired by the motocross stars of the time; the size and availability of the Schwinn Sting-Ray and other wheelie bikes made them the natural bike of choice for these races, since they were customized for better handling and performance. BMX racing was a phenomenon by the mid-1970s. Children were racing standard road bikes off-road, around purpose-built tracks in California; the 1972 motorcycle racing documentary On Any Sunday is credited with inspiring the movement nationally in the United States. By the middle of that decade, the sport achieved critical mass, manufacturers began creating bicycles designed for the sport.
George E. Esser founded the National Bicycle League as a non-profit bicycle motocross sanctioning organization in 1974. Before they set up the NBL, Esser and his wife, sanctioned motorcycle races with the American Motocross Association, their two sons and Brian, raced motorcycles, but enjoyed riding and racing BMX with their friends. It was their sons’ interest, the lack of BMX organizations in the East, which prompted Esser to start the NBL in Florida. By 1977, the American Bicycle Association was organized as a national sanctioning body for the growing sport. Freestyle BMX is now one of the staple events at the annual Summer X Games Extreme Sports competition and the Etnies Backyard Jam, held on the East and West coasts of the United States; the popularity of the sport has increased due to its relative ease and availability of places to ride and do tricks. In the UK, BMX was a craze which took off in the early 1980s 1982/3, when it became the "must have" bicycle for children and teenagers. A small niche area, BMX exploded at this time into the dominant bicycle for the younger rider, with older teenagers and adults becoming known names through publications like BMX Bi weekly, featuring big names like Tim March and Andy Ruffell.
The shift to freestyle from racing came in 1985 with popular styling moving from chrome frames and contrasting components in black blue or red being the norm, to brightly coloured bikes in one colour only, including their mag wheels and matching tyres. Because BMX exploded into Britain's streets so it was inevitable that it would implode with similar speed, when the children who rode the bikes left school and went to work; this was indeed the case, as by 1986/7 sales in the UK had dropped off with the new ATB or "mountain bike" taking off and soon to become the generic adult bicycle, again from California where it had begun in the mid 1970s. In April 1981, the International BMX Federation was founded, the first world championships were held in 1982. Since January 1993, BMX has been integrated into the Union Cycliste Internationale. In 2003, the International Olympic Committee made BMX a full medal Olympic sport for 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing, Māris Štrombergs and Anne-Caroline Chausson became the first Olympic champions.
Many talented BMX riders go on to other cycling sports like downhill, including Australian Olympian Jared Graves, Eric Carter and youth BMX racer Aaron Gwin. Multiple world and Olympic champion track sprinter Chris Hoy began as a BMX rider. BMX bike BMX racing Freestyle BMX Dirt jumping Pump track Glossary of cycling Media related to BMX at Wikimedia Commons
Albury–Wodonga is the broad settlement incorporating the twin Australian cities of Albury and Wodonga, which are separated geographically by the Murray River and politically by a state border: Albury on the north of the river is part of New South Wales while Wodonga on the south bank is in Victoria. Although in many senses the centre operates as one community, it has parallel municipal governments and state government services. However, the fact that Melbourne is closer than Sydney and the fact that Victorian radio and television broadcasts in the region, resulting in the predominance of Australian rules football in the local media outlets, gives Albury close cultural and social links to Victoria, despite its location in southern New South Wales. Albury–Wodonga was selected as the primary focus of the federal Whitlam government's scheme to arrest the uncontrolled growth of Australia's large coastal cities by encouraging decentralisation. Grand plans were made to turn Albury–Wodonga into a major inland city.
Some industries were enticed to move there, a certain amount of population movement resulted. However, due to the subsequent Fraser Government's repudiation of Labor's decentralisation policies, the plan to populate inland areas and cities other than the State capitals was abandoned. No other Commonwealth Government since, either conservative or Labor, has made any attempt at repopulating inland areas, thus the current Albury–Wodonga population is far below the 300,000 projected by Gough Whitlam in the 1970s. The population increased by 1.1% per year on average from 81,540 in 2008 to 86,274 in 2013. The industrial employment sector has meant that Albury–Wodonga, unusually for an Australian inland city, is not dependent on agriculture. According to the most available figures from the Australian Bureau of Statistics, the average income of the Albury area is $36K per year, below the $42K average for the state of New South Wales. Christmas Eye, a seasonal epidemic of corneal ulceration which predominantly occurs only within a particular region of Australia Albury City Council City of Wodonga Council
Electorates of the Australian states and territories
A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting; the area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia. State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one. In New South Wales and South Australia, MLCs represent the entire state, in Tasmania they represent single-member districts, in Victoria and Western Australia they represent a region formed by grouping electoral districts together. There are five electorates for the Legislative Assembly, each with five members each, making up 25 members in total. There are 93 electoral districts in New South Wales. There are 25 single-member electoral divisions in the Northern Territory, 17 former divisions.
There are 93 electoral districts in Queensland, for the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Information about the QLD electoral districts for the 2006 elections can be obtained from the Electoral Commission of Queensland website. There are 47 single-member electoral districts in South Australia, for the South Australian House of Assembly. There are 15 electoral divisions in Tasmania for the upper house Legislative Council. In the lower house the five federal divisions are used, but electing 5 members each There are 88 electoral districts in Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. There are 59 single-member electoral districts in Western Australia for the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. 42 are in the Perth metropolitan area and 17 are in the rest of the state. Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives Local government in Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories
North Albury, New South Wales
North Albury is a suburb of the city of Albury, New South Wales, located north of the Albury Central Business District. At the 2011 census, North Albury had a population of 5,967. North Albury lies on the flat area adjacent to Nail Can Hill, on the Murray River floodplain, is bordered by Glenroy to the west, Lavington to the north, Thurgoona to the east, Central Albury to the south. North Albury is a residential area. Features of the area include Albury Racecourse, Albury Showground, Pioneer Cemetery, Frederick Park and 5 schools. North albury has its own local football club located in the middle of North Albury, they are the North Albury Football Club. North Albury is bound to the north by Union Street, to the east by Dallinger Road and Fallon Street, to the south by the Bungambrawatha Creek and Ryan Road and to the west by Burrows Road. North Albury is residential. Most of the area is flat, except for a few hills, it contains schools including Albury North Public School. At the 2011 Census, the population of North Albury was 5,976.
The most common religious affiliation was Catholic, followed by'No Religion' Anglican, the weekly median household income was $802, below the Australian average of $1234. The median age was 37. North Albury Football Club