A spillway is a structure used to provide the controlled release of flows from a dam or levee into a downstream area the riverbed of the dammed river itself. In the United Kingdom, they may be known as overflow channels. Spillways destroy the dam. Floodgates and fuse plugs may be designed into spillways to regulate reservoir level; such a spillway can be used to regulate downstream flows – by releasing water in small amounts before the reservoir is full, operators can prevent sudden large releases that would happen if the dam were overtopped. Other uses of the term "spillway" include bypasses of dams or outlets of channels used during high water, outlet channels carved through natural dams such as moraines. Water flows over a spillway only during flood periods – when the reservoir cannot hold the excess of water entering the reservoir over the amount used. In contrast, an intake tower is a structure used to release water on a regular basis for water supply, hydroelectricity generation, etc. A spillway is located at the top of the reservoir pool.
Dams may have bottom outlets with valves or gates which may be operated to release flood flow, a few dams lack overflow spillways and rely on bottom outlets. There are two main types of spillways: controlled and uncontrolled. A controlled spillway has mechanical gates to regulate the rate of flow; this design allows nearly the full height of the dam to be used for water storage year-round, flood waters can be released as required by opening one or more gates. An uncontrolled spillway, in contrast, does not have gates; the rate of discharge is controlled only by the depth of water above the reservoir's spillway. Storage volume in the reservoir above the spillway crest can only be used for the temporary storage of floodwater. In an intermediate type, normal level regulation of the reservoir is controlled by the mechanical gates. If inflow to the reservoir exceeds the gate's capacity, an artificial channel called either an auxiliary or emergency spillway, blocked by a fuse plug dike will operate.
The fuse plug is designed to over-top and wash out in case of a large flood, greater than the discharge capacity of the spillway gates. Although it may take many months to restore the fuse plug and channel after such an operation, the total damage and cost to repair is less than if the main water-retaining structures had been overtopped; the fuse plug concept is used where it would be costly to build a spillway with capacity for the probable maximum flood. A chute spillway is a common and basic design which transfers excess water from behind the dam down a smooth decline into the river below; these are designed following an ogee curve. Most they are lined on the bottom and sides with concrete to protect the dam and topography, they may have a controlling device and some are thinner and multiply lined if space and funding are tight. In addition, they are not always intended to dissipate energy like stepped spillways. Chute spillways can be ingrained with a baffle of concrete blocks but have a'flip lip' and/or dissipator basin which creates a hydraulic jump, protecting the toe of the dam from erosion.
Stepped channels and spillways have been used for over 3,000 years. Despite being superseded by more modern engineering techniques such as hydraulic jumps in the mid twentieth century, since around 1985 interest in stepped spillways and chutes has been renewed due to the use of new construction materials and design techniques; the steps produce considerable energy dissipation along the chute and reduce the size of the required downstream energy dissipation basin. Research is still active on the topic, with newer developments on embankment dam overflow protection systems, converging spillways and small weir design. A bell-mouth spillway is designed like an inverted bell where water can enter around the entire perimeter; these uncontrolled spillways are called morning glory, or glory hole spillways. In areas where the surface of the reservoir may freeze, this type of spillway is fitted with ice-breaking arrangements to prevent the spillway from becoming ice-bound. In some cases bell-mouth spillways are gate controlled.
The spillway at Hungry Horse Dam, in Montana, U. S. the highest morning glory structure in the world, is controlled by a 64-by-12-foot ring gate. One of the most well-known of these spillways is the one in Covão dos Conchos reservoir lake, in Portugal, constructed to look like a natural formation; the largest bell-mouth spillway is in Geehi Dam, in New South Wales, measuring 105 ft in diameter at the lake's surface. A siphon makes use of the difference in the height between the intake and the outlet to create a pressure difference needed to remove excess water. Siphons however require priming or the removal of air in the bend in order for them to function and most siphon spillways are designed with a system that makes use of water to remove the air and automatically prime the siphon. One such design is the volute siphon which makes use of water forced into a spiral vortex by volutes or fins on a funnel that draw air out of the system; the priming happens automatically when the water level rises above the inlets that are used to drive the priming process.
Other spillway types include an ogee crest which over-tops a dam, a side channel that wraps around the topography of a dam and a labyrinth which uses
Lavon is a city in Collin County, United States. The population was 2,219 at the 2010 census, compared to 387 at the 2000 census. Lavon is located in southeastern Collin County at 33°01′36″N 96°26′18″W; the center of town is 1 mile southeast of Lavon Dam on the East Fork of the Trinity River, forming Lavon Lake. Texas State Highway 78 passes through Lavon, leading north 11 miles to Farmersville and southwest 16 miles to Garland. Texas State Highway 205 departs from Highway 78 on the west side of Lavon and leads south 6 miles to Rockwall. According to the United States Census Bureau, Lavon has a total area of 2.4 square miles, of which 0.01 square miles, or 0.39%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 387 people, 136 households, 116 families residing in the town; the population density was 306.9 people per square mile. There were 146 housing units at an average density of 115.8/sq mi. The racial makeup of the town was 93.02% White, 1.03% Native American, 0.78% Asian, 2.07% from other races, 3.10% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.49% of the population. There were 136 households out of which 36.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 77.2% were married couples living together, 5.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 14.0% were non-families. 11.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.85 and the average family size was 3.03. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.8% under the age of 18, 5.9% from 18 to 24, 34.9% from 25 to 44, 23.0% from 45 to 64, 11.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $57,083, the median income for a family was $61,250. Males had a median income of $42,143 versus $31,250 for females; the per capita income for the town was $20,711. None of the families and 1.3% of the population were living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and 10.5% of those over 64.
The 2010 Census showed the population to be 2,219. Lavon is served by the Community Independent School District. City of Lavon official website The Wylie News, newspaper of record for Lavon
Collin County, Texas
Collin County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 United States Census, the county's population was 782,341, making it the seventh-most populous county in Texas and the 63rd-largest county by population in the United States; the 2017 Census Bureau estimate for Collin County's population is 969,603. Its county seat is McKinney. Collin County is part of Texas Metropolitan Statistical Area. A small portion of the city of Dallas is in the county. Both the county and the county seat were named after Collin McKinney, one of the five men who drafted the Texas Declaration of Independence and the oldest of the 59 men who signed it. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 886 square miles, of which 841 square miles is land and 45 square miles is covered by water. Lavon Lake Grayson County Fannin County Hunt County Rockwall County Dallas County Denton County As of the 2015 Texas Population Estimate Program, the population of the county was 923,201, non-Hispanic whites 535,165.
Black Americans 84,858. Other non-Hispanic 146,109. Hispanics and Latinos 157,069; as of the census of 2010, there were 782,341 people. According to U. S. Census figures released in 2006, the racial makeup of the county was as follows: 77.21% White, 7.26% African American, 10.02% Asian, 0.45% Native American, 5.06% of other or mixed race. 12.8% Hispanic of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 491,675 people, 181,970 households, 132,292 families residing in the county; the population density was 580 people per square mile. There were 194,892 housing units at an average density of 230 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 81.39% White, 4.79% Black or African American, 0.47% Native American, 6.92% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 4.26% from other races, 2.11% from two or more races. 10.27% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 181,970 households out of which 40.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.10% were married couples living together, 7.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.30% were non-families.
22.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.18. As of the 2010 census, there were about 4.4 same-sex couples per 1,000 households in the county. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.70% under the age of 18, 7.40% from 18 to 24, 37.90% from 25 to 44, 20.70% from 45 to 64, 5.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 99.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $70,835, the median income for a family was $81,856. Males had a median income of $57,392 versus $36,604 for females; the per capita income for the county was $33,345. About 3.30% of families and 4.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.10% of those under age 18 and 7.10% of those age 65 or over. Based on median household income, as of 2006, Collin County is the second richest county in Texas after Fort Bend, is considered one of the wealthiest counties in the United States.
However, Collin - like other Texas counties - has one of the nation's highest property tax rates. In 2007, it was #21 for property taxes as percentage of the homes value on owner occupied housing, it ranked in the Top 100 for amount of property taxes paid and for percentage of taxes of income. Part of this is due to the Robin Hood plan school financing system in Texas. Collin County, like all counties in Texas, is governed by a Commissioners Court; the court consists of the county judge, elected county-wide, four commissioners who are elected by the voters in each of four precincts. Collin County is a Republican stronghold in congressional elections; the last Democrat to win the county was Lyndon Johnson in 1964. The factors caused Collin to swing hard to the Republican Party in the 1960s and 1970s: and the expansion of the Dallas suburbs into Collin County; the following school districts lie within Collin County: Allen Independent School District Anna Independent School District Farmersville Independent School District Lovejoy Independent School District McKinney Independent School District Melissa Independent School District Plano Independent School District Princeton Independent School District Wylie Independent School DistrictThe following districts lie within the county: Bland Independent School District Blue Ridge Independent School District Celina Independent School District Community Independent School District Frisco Independent School District Leonard Independent School District Prosper Independent School District Royse City Independent School District Trenton Independent School District Van Alstyne Independent School District Whitewright Independent School District Collin College opened its first campus on Highway 380 in McKinney in 1985.
The college has grown to seven campuses/locations—two in McKinney and two in Plano and as well as Frisco and Rockwall. Dallas Baptist University has an extension site in Frisco, DBU Frisco; the majority of the University of Texas at Dallas campus in Richardson, Texas lies within Collin County. Collin County Parks and Open Spaces Bratonia Park Myers Park Parkhill Prairie Sister Grove Park Trinity Tr
Lavon Lake is a fresh water reservoir located in southeast Collin County, Texas on the East Fork of the Trinity River near Wylie, off of State Highway 78. It is called Lake Lavon for commercial and recreational purposes but Lavon Lake is its official name according to the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, it was called Lavon Reservoir. Length: 9,540 feet Maximum Depth: 38 ft Surface Area: 21,400 acres Conversion storage capacity: 275,000 acre feet Conservation Pool Elevation: 492 feet msl Spillway level is 503.5 feet Shoreline Length: 121 miles Wildlife Management Area: 6,400 acres Date Impounded: September 14, 1953 Owned by: United States Government Operated by: U. S. Army Corps of EngineersPURPOSE: Flood control Water supply Recreation The lake serves as a water source for thousands of North Texas residents. Lavon Lake is a part of the North Texas Municipal Water District system. Started in 1948 and completed in 1953 the Lavon Dam was created to impound the upstream East Fork of the Trinity River, many of its tributaries and the areas surrounding them.
The reservoir was designed for preventing seasonal flooding of rich bottomland in northeastern Collin County and water storage. Its construction stimulated land development along the shores of the lake and recreational use of the water and adjacent land areas. In 1962, Congressional approval was given to modify the project to increase storage for water supply because of the growing water supply need of the area. Part of the modification was to add recreation as a purpose for the lake; this focused management and development toward of public use, recreational activities, stewardship of the water and land areas. Lavon Lakes's dominant fish species are the largemouth bass, white bass, blue catfish, crappie. Trinity River Authority U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Lavon Lake U. S. Army Corps of Engineers: Lavon Lake Learn about fishing at Lake Lavon
Dallas the City of Dallas, is a city in the U. S. state of Texas and the seat of Dallas County, with portions extending into Collin, Denton and Rockwall counties. With an estimated 2017 population of 1,341,075, it is the ninth most-populous city in the U. S. and third in Texas after Houston and San Antonio. It is the eighteenth most-populous city in North America as of 2015. Located in North Texas, the city of Dallas is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in the Southern United States and the largest inland metropolitan area in the U. S. that lacks any navigable link to the sea. It is the most populous city in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in the country at 7.3 million people as of 2017. The city's combined statistical area is the seventh-largest in the U. S. as of 2017, with 7,846,293 residents. Dallas and nearby Fort Worth were developed due to the construction of major railroad lines through the area allowing access to cotton and oil in North and East Texas.
The construction of the Interstate Highway System reinforced Dallas's prominence as a transportation hub, with four major interstate highways converging in the city and a fifth interstate loop around it. Dallas developed as a strong industrial and financial center and a major inland port, due to the convergence of major railroad lines, interstate highways and the construction of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, one of the largest and busiest airports in the world. A "beta" global city, the economy of Dallas has been considered diverse with dominant sectors including defense, financial services, information technology, telecommunications, transportation. Dallas is home to 9 Fortune 500 companies within the city limits; the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex hosts additional Fortune 500 companies, including American Airlines, ExxonMobil and J. C. Penney. Over 41 colleges and universities are in its metropolitan area, the most of any metropolitan area in Texas; the city has a population from a myriad of ethnic and religious backgrounds and the sixth-largest LGBT population in the United States as of 2016.
WalletHub named Dallas the fifth most-diverse city in the U. S. in 2018. Preceded by thousands of years of varying cultures, the Caddo people inhabited the Dallas area before Spanish colonists claimed the territory of Texas in the 18th century as a part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. France claimed the area but never established much settlement. In 1819, the Adams-Onís Treaty between the United States and Spain defined the Red River as the northern boundary of New Spain placing the future location of Dallas well within Spanish territory; the area remained under Spanish rule until 1821, when Mexico declared independence from Spain, the area was considered part of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. In 1836, with a majority of Anglo-American settlers, gained independence from Mexico and formed the Republic of Texas. Three years after Texas achieved independence, John Neely Bryan surveyed the area around present-day Dallas, he established a permanent settlement near the Trinity River named Dallas in 1841.
The origin of the name is uncertain. The official historical marker states it was named after Vice President George M. Dallas of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. However, this is disputed. Other potential theories for the origin include his brother, Commodore Alexander James Dallas, as well as brothers Walter R. Dallas or James R. Dallas. A further theory gives the origin as the village of Dallas, Scotland, similar to the way Houston, Texas was named after Sam Houston whose ancestors came from the Scottish village of Houston, Renfrewshire; the Republic of Texas was annexed by the United States in 1845 and Dallas County was established the following year. Dallas was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1856. With the construction of railroads, Dallas became a business and trading center and was booming by the end of the 19th century, it became an industrial city, attracting workers from Texas, the South, the Midwest. The Praetorian Building in Dallas of 15 stories, built in 1909, was the first skyscraper west of the Mississippi and the tallest building in Texas for some time.
It marked the prominence of Dallas as a city. A racetrack for thoroughbreds was built and their owners established the Dallas Jockey Club. Trotters raced at a track in Fort Worth; the rapid expansion of population increased competition for jobs and housing. In 1921, the Mexican president Álvaro Obregón along with the former revolutionary general visited Downtown Dallas's Mexican Park in Little Mexico; the small neighborhood of Little Mexico was home to a Latin American population, drawn to Dallas by factors including the American Dream, better living conditions, the Mexican Revolution. On November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated on Elm Street while his motorcade passed through Dealey Plaza in Downtown Dallas; the upper two floors of the building from which alleged assassin Lee Harvey Oswald shot Kennedy, the Texas School Book Depository, have been converted into a historical museum covering the former president's life and accomplishments. On July 7, 2016, multiple shots were fired at a peaceful protest in Downtown Dallas, held against the police killings of two black men from other states.
The gunman identified as Micah Xavier Johnson, began firing at police officers at 8:58 p.m. killing five officers and injuring nine. Two bystanders were injured; this marked the deadliest day for U. S. law enforcement since the September 11 attacks. Johnson told police during a standoff that he
A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams. Reservoirs created by dams not only suppress floods but provide water for activities such as irrigation, human consumption, industrial use and navigability. Hydropower is used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity. A dam can be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations. Dams serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions; the earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan, dating to 3,000 BC. The word dam can be traced back to Middle English, before that, from Middle Dutch, as seen in the names of many old cities; the first known appearance of dam occurs in 1165. However, there is one village, mentioned in 1120; the word seems to be related to the Greek word taphos, meaning "grave" or "grave hill". So the word should be understood as "dike from dug out earth".
The names of more than 40 places from the Middle Dutch era such as Amsterdam and Rotterdam bear testimony to the use of the word in Middle Dutch at that time. Early dam building took place in the Middle East. Dams were used to control the water level, for Mesopotamia's weather affected the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; the earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan, 100 kilometres northeast of the capital Amman. This gravity dam featured an 9-metre-high and 1 m-wide stone wall, supported by a 50 m-wide earth rampart; the structure is dated to 3000 BC. The Ancient Egyptian Sadd-el-Kafara Dam at Wadi Al-Garawi, located about 25 km south of Cairo, was 102 m long at its base and 87 m wide; the structure was built around 2800 or 2600 BC as a diversion dam for flood control, but was destroyed by heavy rain during construction or shortly afterwards. During the Twelfth Dynasty in the 19th century BC, the Pharaohs Senosert III, Amenemhat III and Amenemhat IV dug a canal 16 km long linking the Fayum Depression to the Nile in Middle Egypt.
Two dams called Ha-Uar running east-west were built to retain water during the annual flood and release it to surrounding lands. The lake called "Mer-wer" or Lake Moeris is known today as Birket Qarun. By the mid-late third millennium BC, an intricate water-management system within Dholavira in modern-day India was built; the system included 16 reservoirs and various channels for collecting water and storing it. One of the engineering wonders of the ancient world was the Great Dam of Marib in Yemen. Initiated somewhere between 1750 and 1700 BC, it was made of packed earth – triangular in cross section, 580 m in length and 4 m high – running between two groups of rocks on either side, to which it was linked by substantial stonework. Repairs were carried out during various periods, most important around 750 BC, 250 years the dam height was increased to 7 m. After the end of the Kingdom of Saba, the dam fell under the control of the Ḥimyarites who undertook further improvements, creating a structure 14 m high, with five spillway channels, two masonry-reinforced sluices, a settling pond, a 1,000 m canal to a distribution tank.
These extensive works were not finalized until 325 AD and allowed the irrigation of 25,000 acres. Eflatun Pınar is a Hittite spring temple near Konya, Turkey, it is thought to be from the time of the Hittite empire between the 15th and 13th century BC. The Kallanai is constructed of unhewn stone, over 300 m long, 4.5 m high and 20 m wide, across the main stream of the Kaveri river in Tamil Nadu, South India. The basic structure dates to the 2nd century AD and is considered one of the oldest water-diversion or water-regulator structures in the world, still in use; the purpose of the dam was to divert the waters of the Kaveri across the fertile delta region for irrigation via canals. Du Jiang Yan is the oldest surviving irrigation system in China that included a dam that directed waterflow, it was finished in 251 BC. A large earthen dam, made by Sunshu Ao, the prime minister of Chu, flooded a valley in modern-day northern Anhui province that created an enormous irrigation reservoir, a reservoir, still present today.
Roman dam construction was characterized by "the Romans' ability to plan and organize engineering construction on a grand scale." Roman planners introduced the then-novel concept of large reservoir dams which could secure a permanent water supply for urban settlements over the dry season. Their pioneering use of water-proof hydraulic mortar and Roman concrete allowed for much larger dam structures than built, such as the Lake Homs Dam the largest water barrier to that date, the Harbaqa Dam, both in Roman Syria; the highest Roman dam was the Subiaco Dam near Rome. Roman engineers made routine use of ancient standard designs like embankment dams and masonry gravity dams. Apart from that, they displayed a high degree of inventiveness, introducing most of the other basic dam designs, unknown until then; these include arch-gravity dams, arch dams, buttress dams and multiple arch buttress dams, all of which were known and employed by the 2nd century AD. Roman workforces were the first to build dam bridges, such as the Bridge of Valerian in Iran
Trinity River (Texas)
The Trinity River is a 710-mile-long river in Texas, is the longest river with a watershed within the U. S. state of Texas. It rises in extreme northern Texas, a few miles south of the Red River; the headwaters are separated by the high bluffs on the southern side of the Red River. Robert Cavelier de La Salle, in 1687, called the stream the "River of Canoes"; the name "Trinity" came three years in 1690 from Alonso de León, who called the stream the "La Santísima Trinidad". The Trinity River has four branches: the West Fork, the Clear Fork, the Elm Fork, the East Fork; the West Fork Trinity River has its headwaters in Archer County. From there it flows southeast, through the man-made reservoirs Lake Bridgeport and Eagle Mountain Lake flowing eastward through Lake Worth and the city of Fort Worth; the Clear Fork Trinity River begins north of Weatherford and flows southeastward through Lake Weatherford and Benbrook Lake reservoirs, northeastward, where it joins the West Fork near downtown Fort Worth and continues as the West Fork.
The Elm Fork Trinity River flows south from near Gainesville through Ray Roberts Lake and east of the city of Denton through Lewisville Lake. The West Fork and the Elm Fork merge as they form the Trinity River; the East Fork Trinity River begins near McKinney and flows through Lavon Lake Lake Ray Hubbard before joining the Trinity River just southeast of Dallas. The Trinity flows southeast from Dallas across a fertile floodplain and the pine forests of eastern Texas, many of which were settled during the period of the Republic of Texas; the Trinity crosses Texas State Highway 31 in Henderson County, near where the first county seat, was established. 65 miles north of the mouth, an earthen dam was built in 1968 to form Lake Livingston. It flows onward to the south, into Trinity Bay, an arm of Galveston Bay, an inlet of the Gulf of Mexico, its river mouth is near the town of southeast of Houston. Clear Fork of the Trinity River East Fork of the Trinity River Elm Fork of the Trinity River West Fork of the Trinity River Bachman Branch Cedar Creek Mountain Creek Fossil Creek Johnson Creek Red Oak Creek Richland Creek White Rock Creek Rowlett Creek Big Creek Fourmile Creek Five Mile Creek Ten Mile Creek Plans from the 1890s for a shipping channel along the length of the Trinity River were scrapped because it would have required extensive dredging to make the river navigable, although several overpasses were built with high clearances in anticipation of the shipping channel.
Locks were built 13 miles downstream of Dallas in the early 1900s. Original federal plans called for building 36 locks and dams from Trinity Bay near Houston to Dallas; the first built was Dam No. 1 in the city of Dallas at McCommas Bluff. Lock construction came to a standstill in the wake of World War I, however. Only Lock and Dam Nos. 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 20 and 25 were built. There are no plans for addressing these old locks located in various spots along the Trinity River. However, the Corps is working nearby on the Dallas Floodway Extension Project; the DFE Project is under construction and is helping to fulfill their mission, as directed by Congress in cooperation with the city of Dallas. It is helping to lower flood risk, provide ecosystem restoration and recreation to the citizens of Dallas; the Trinity River Corridor Project is intended to transform the Trinity River flood zone in downtown Dallas into the nation's largest urban park, featuring three signature bridges designed by acclaimed architect Santiago Calatrava.
A similar project is planned by the Tarrant Regional Water District, City of Fort Worth, Tarrant County, Streams & Valleys Inc. and U. S. Army Corps of Engineers to develop an area north of "downtown" as "uptown" along the Trinity River; this plan promotes a large mixed-use development adjacent to the central city area of Fort Worth, with a goal to prevent urban sprawl by promoting the growth of a healthy, vibrant urban core. The Trinity River Vision lays the groundwork to enable Fort Worth's central business district to double in size over the next forty years. Major flooding occurred on the Trinity River in the years 1844, 1866, 1871, 1890, but a major event in the spring of 1908 set in motion the harnessing of the river. On 26 May 1908, the Trinity River reached a width of 1.5 miles. Five people died, 4,000 were left homeless, property damage was estimated at $2.5 million. Now the wreckage of a shed or outhouse would move by, followed by a drowned swine or other livestock; the construction forces of the Texas & Pacific worked feverishly to safeguard the long trestle carrying their tracks across the stream.
This whole structure turned on its side down-stream, broke loose from the rest of the track at one end and swung out into the middle of the current and began breaking up, first into large sections and into smaller pieces, rushing madly along to some uncertain destination. Dallas was without power for three days, all telephone and telegraph service was down, rail service was canceled; the only way to reach Oak Cliff was by boat. West Dallas was hit harder than any other part of the city—the Dallas Times Herald said "indescribable suffering" plagued the area. Much to the horror of residents, thousands of livestock drowned in the flood and some became lodged in the tops of trees; the stench of their decay hung over the city. After the disastrous flood, the city's citizenry wa