The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that has six strings. It is played with both hands by strumming or plucking the strings with either a guitar pick or the finger/fingernails of one hand, while fretting with the fingers of the other hand; the sound of the vibrating strings is projected either acoustically, by means of the hollow chamber of the guitar, or through an electrical amplifier and a speaker. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning; the modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument. There are three main types of modern acoustic guitar: the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, the archtop guitar, sometimes called a "jazz guitar"; the tone of an acoustic guitar is produced by the strings' vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar, which acts as a resonating chamber.
The classical guitar is played as a solo instrument using a comprehensive finger-picking technique where each string is plucked individually by the player's fingers, as opposed to being strummed. The term "finger-picking" can refer to a specific tradition of folk, blues and country guitar playing in the United States; the acoustic bass guitar is a low-pitched instrument, one octave below a regular guitar. Electric guitars, introduced in the 1930s, use an amplifier and a loudspeaker that both makes the sound of the instrument loud enough for the performers and audience to hear, given that it produces an electric signal when played, that can electronically manipulate and shape the tone using an equalizer and a huge variety of electronic effects units, the most used ones being distortion and reverb. Early amplified guitars employed a hollow body, but solid wood guitars began to dominate during the 1960s and 1970s, as they are less prone to unwanted acoustic feedback "howls"; as with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of electric guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars, which are used in rock music.
The loud, amplified sound and sonic power of the electric guitar played through a guitar amp has played a key role in the development of blues and rock music, both as an accompaniment instrument and performing guitar solos, in many rock subgenres, notably heavy metal music and punk rock. The electric guitar has had a major influence on popular culture; the guitar is used in a wide variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as a primary instrument in genres such as blues, country, folk, jota, metal, reggae, rock and many forms of pop. Before the development of the electric guitar and the use of synthetic materials, a guitar was defined as being an instrument having "a long, fretted neck, flat wooden soundboard, a flat back, most with incurved sides." The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and in the Americas. A 3,300-year-old stone carving of a Hittite bard playing a stringed instrument is the oldest iconographic representation of a chordophone and clay plaques from Babylonia show people playing an instrument that has a strong resemblance to the guitar, indicating a possible Babylonian origin for the guitar.
The modern word guitar, its antecedents, has been applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times and as such causes confusion. The English word guitar, the German Gitarre, the French guitare were all adopted from the Spanish guitarra, which comes from the Andalusian Arabic قيثارة and the Latin cithara, which in turn came from the Ancient Greek κιθάρα. Which comes from the Persian word "sihtar"; this pattern of naming is visible in setar and sitar. The word "tar" at the end of all of these words is a Persian word that means "string". Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar. Although the development of the earliest "guitars" is lost in the history of medieval Spain, two instruments are cited as their most influential predecessors, the European lute and its cousin, the four-string oud. At least two instruments called "guitars" were in use in Spain by 1200: the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca; the guitarra morisca had a rounded back, wide fingerboard, several sound holes.
The guitarra Latina had a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers "moresca" or "morisca" and "latina" had been dropped, these two cordophones were referred to as guitars; the Spanish vihuela, called in Italian the "viola da mano", a guitar-like instrument of the 15th and 16th centuries, is considered to have been the single most important influence in the development of the baroque guitar. It had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a cut waist, it was larger than the contemporary four-course guitars. By the 16th century, the vihuela's construction had more in common with the modern guitar, with its curved one-piece ribs, than with the viols, more like a larger version of the contemporary four-course guita
The Algerian mandole is steel-string fretted instrument resembling an elongated mandolin, popular in Algerian Kabyle and Chaabi music and Nuba. The name can cause confusion, as "mandole" is a French word for mandola, the instrument from which the Algerian mandole developed; the Algerian mandole is not however a mandola. The instrument has been called a "mandoluth" when describing the instrument played by the Algerian-French musician, Hakim Hamadouche. However, the luthier for one of Hakim's instruments describes it as a mondole; the Algerian mandole is a stringed instrument, with an almond shaped body, built in a box like a guitar, but almond shaped like the mandola with a flat back, raised fingerboard, wide neck. It can have eight, ten, or twelve strings in doubled courses, may have additional frets between frets to provide quarter tones. Quarter tones are used to play music with Turkish melodies. A variation is to have the thickest strings be single strings instead of double courses. Sound hole is diamond shaped, but can be round, sometimes with rosettes.
Instruments have been created with a scale length of 25.5 inches, but as long as 27 inches. Overall instrument length is 990mm. Width 340mm, depth 75mm; the scale length puts the mandole in the baritone or bass range of instruments, such as the mando-cello. The instrument can be tuned as a guitar, oud or mandocello, depending on the music it will be used to play and player preference; when tuning it as a guitar the strings will be tuned A2 A2 D3 D3 G3 G3 B3 B3. Strings in parenthesis are dropped for a four course instrument. Using a common Arabic oud tuning D2 D2 G2 G2 A2 A2 D3 D3. For a mandocello tuning using fifths C2 C2 G2 G2 D3 D3 A3 A3; the mandole was reborn in Algeria. The North African variant was created in 1932 by the Italian luthier Jean Bélido, following recommendations made by Algerian musician El Hadj M'Hamed El Anka. El Anka, known for his contributions to Chaabi music, had learned to play the mandola while young, he found the mandolas used in Andalusian orchestras to be "too sharp and little amplified".
Bélido, a music teacher and luthier in Bab El Oued, changed the size of the "demi-mandole" being played, increasing it, changing the soundboard structure, case thickness and strings. The instrument he created is closest to the mando-cello in the mandolin family. Mohammed Rouane, Algerian musician, former guitarist of the flamenco group Mediterraneo and pioneer of Casbah Jazz. Kader Fahem, a Berber Kabylian who plays Andalusian Flamenco with his mandole. Abderrahmane Abdelli Moh Alileche and raised in Kabylia, performs music for 10-silk-stringed mandole - or "agember" in Tamazight language - in the San Francisco Bay Area. Mohamed Abdennour El Hachemi Guerouabi targets younger audience, introduces changes in his compositions that will make him a distinctive and Master of Chaâbi Amar Ezzahi Boudjemaa El Ankis Dahmane El Harrachi Takfarinas plays electric mandole that has two necks Cheikh El Hasnaoui Lounès Matoub Kabylie, used music as political tool until killed. Project Coast - mandole player from Wales, UK creates music on a mandole made by French luthier, François Baudemont Rachid Chaffa, mandole maker for artists Guerrouabi, Amar Ezzahi, Boudjemaa El Ankis and Maatoub Lounas.
Video of Mohamed Rouane featuring mandole as main instrument. Africa, Atlas of Plucked Instruments Video of Hakim Hamadouche playing a mandole Interview: Rachid Taha. Instrument called mandolute here. A history of the instrument Short bio of El Anka with a good photo of one of his mandoles Mandole with F-style scroll and two necks, played by Takfarinas. Electric mandole, built without wood
The bağlama is a stringed musical instrument. It is sometimes referred to as the saz, it is sometimes referred to as the "cura", although the term "saz" refers to a family of plucked string instruments, long-necked lutes used in Ottoman classical music, Turkish folk music, Iranian music, Azerbaijani music, Kurdish music, Assyrian music, Armenian music and in parts of Syria and the Balkan countries. According to The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, "the terms'bağlama' and'saz' are used somewhat interchangeably in Turkey." Like the Western lute and the Middle-Eastern oud, it has a much longer neck. It can be played with a fingerpicking style known as şelpe. In the music of Greece the name baglamas is given to a related instrument; the Turkish settlement of Anatolia from the late eleventh century onward saw the introduction of a two-string Turkmen dutar, played in some areas of Turkey until recent times. The most used string folk instrument in Turkey, the bağlama has seven strings divided into courses of two and three.
It can be tuned in various ways and takes different names according to region and size: Bağlama, Divan Sazı, Bozuk, Çöğür, Kopuz Irızva, Tambura, etc. The cura is the smallest member of the bağlama family: larger than the cura is the tambura, tuned an octave lower; the Divan sazı, the largest instrument in the family, is tuned one octave lower still. A bağlama has three main parts, the bowl, made from mulberry wood or juniper, spruce or walnut, the spruce sound board and a neck of beech or juniper; the tuning pegs are known as burgu. Frets are tied to the sap with fishing line; the bağlama is played with a mızrap or tezene made from cherrywood bark or plastic. In some regions, it is played with the fingers in a style known as Şerpe. There are electric bağlamas, which can be connected to an amplifier; these can have either double pickups. The Azerbaijani saz was used by Ashiqs; the art of Azerbaijani Ashiqs combines poetry, storytelling and vocal and instrumental music into a traditional performance art.
This art is one of the symbols of Azerbaijani culture and considered an emblem of national identity and the guardian of Azerbaijani language and music. Characterized by the accompaniment of the kopuz, a stringed musical instrument, the classical repertoire of Azerbaijani Ashiqs includes 200 songs, 150 literary-musical compositions known as dastans, nearly 2,000 poems and numerous stories. Since 2009 the art of Azerbaijani Ashiqs has been inscribed on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity; the bağlama is a synthesis of historical musical instruments in Central Asia and pre-Turkish Anatolia. It is descended from the Turkic komuz; the kopuz, or komuz, differs from the bağlama in that it has a leather-covered body and two or three strings made of sheep gut, wolf gut, or horsehair. It has a fingerboard without frets. Bağlama translates as "something, tied up" a reference to the tied-on frets of the instrument; the word bağlama is first used in 18th-century texts. The French traveler Jean Benjamin de Laborde, who visited Turkey during that century, recorded that "the bağlama or tambura is in form like the cogur, but smaller."
He was referring to the smallest of the bağlama family, the cura. According to the historian Hammer, metal strings were first used on a type of komuz with a long fingerboard known as the kolca kopuz in 15th-century Anatolia; this was the first step in the emergence of the çöğür, a transitional instrument between the komuz and the bağlama. According to 17th-century writer Evliya Çelebi, the cogur was first made in the city of Kütahya in western Turkey. To take the strain of the metal strings the leather body was replaced with wood, the fingerboard was lengthened and frets were introduced. Instead of five hair strings there were now twelve metal strings arranged in four groups of three. Today, the cogur is smaller than a medium-size bağlama. There are three string groups, or courses, with strings double or tripled; these string groups can be tuned in a variety of ways, known as düzen. For the bağlama düzeni, the most common tuning, the courses are tuned from top downward, A-G-D; some other düzens are Kara Düzen, Misket Düzeni, Müstezat, Abdal Düzeni, Rast Düzeni.
Name Bağlama düzeni Bozuk düzen, kara düzen Misket düzeni Fa müstezat düzeni Abdal düzeni Zurna düzeni Do müstezat düzeni Aşık düzeni (La, Re, Mi The musical scale of the bağlama differs from that of many western instruments – such as the guitar – in that it features ratios that are close to quarter tones. The traditional ratios for bağlama frets are listed by Yalçın Tura: Fret 1: 18/17 Fret 2: 12/11 Fret 3: 9/8 Fret 4: 81/68 Fret 5: 27/22 Fret 6: 81/64 Fret 7: 4/3 Fret 8: 24/17 Fret 9: 16/11 Fret 10: 3/2 Fret 11: 27/17 Fret 12: 18/11 Fret 13: 27/16 Fret 14: 16/9 Fret 15: 32/17 Fret 16: 64/33 Fret 17: 2/1However, as confirmed by Okan Öztürk, instrument makers now set frets on the bağlama with the aid of fret calculators and tuners based on the 24-tone equal temperament. Asik Veysel Muharrem Ertaş Neşet Ertaş (1
The oud is a short-neck lute-type, pear-shaped stringed instrument with 11 or 13 strings grouped in 5 or 6 courses used predominantly in Western Asia and North Africa: in Egypt, Sudan, Lebanon, Kurdistan, Arabia, Greece, Turkey and other ethnic music like Jewish music, North African Chaabi and Spanish Andalusian. The oud is similar to modern lutes, to Western lutes; the modern oud is most derived from the Persian barbat. Similar instruments have been used in the Middle East, North Africa, Central Asia for thousands of years, including from Mesopotamia, North Africa, the Caucasus, the Levant; the oud, as a fundamental difference with the western lute, has a smaller neck. It is the direct ancestor of the European lute; the oldest surviving oud is thought to be at the Museum of Musical Instruments. An early description of the "modern" oud was given by 11th-century musician and author Al-Hasan Ibn al-Haytham in his compendium on music Ḥāwī al-Funūn wa Salwat al-Maḥzūn; the first known complete description of the ‛ūd and its construction is found in the epistle Risāla fī-l-Luḥūn wa-n-Nagham by 9th-century Philosopher of the Arabs Yaʻqūb ibn Isḥāq al-Kindī.
Kindī's description stands thus: " length will be: thirty-six joint fingers – with good thick fingers – and the total will amount to three ashbār. And its width: fifteen fingers, and its depth seven and a half fingers. And the measurement of the width of the bridge with the remainder behind: six fingers. Remains the length of the strings: thirty fingers and on these strings take place the division and the partition, because it is the sounding length; this is. For the depth, seven fingers and a half and this is the half of the width and the quarter of the length, and the neck must be one third of the length and it is: ten fingers. Remains the vibrating body: twenty fingers, and that the back be well rounded and its "thinning" towards the neck, as if it had been a round body drawn with a compass, cut in two in order to extract two ‛ūds". In Pre-Islamic Arabia and Mesopotamia, the oud had only three strings, with a small musical box and a long neck without any tuning pegs, but during the Islamic era the musical box was enlarged, a fourth string was added, the base for the tuning pegs or pegbox was added.
In the first centuries of Arabian civilisation, the oud had four courses, tuned in successive fourths. Curt Sachs said they were called maṭlaṭ, maṭnā and zīr. "As early as the ninth century" a fifth string ḥād was sometimes added "to make the range of two octaves complete". It was highest in pitch, placed lowest in its positioning in relation to other strings. Modern tuning preserves the ancient succession of fourths, with adjunctions which may be tuned differently following regional or personal preferences. Sachs gives one tuning for this arrangement of five pairs of strings, d, e, a, d', g'. Historical sources indicate, he was well-known for founding a school of music in Andalusia, one of the places where the oud or lute entered Europe. Another mention of the fifth string was made by Al-Hasan Ibn al-Haytham in Ḥāwī al-Funūn wa Salwat al-Maḥzūn; the Arabic: العود denotes a thin piece of wood similar to the shape of a straw. It may refer to the wooden plectrum traditionally used for playing the oud, to the thin strips of wood used for the back, or to the wooden soundboard that distinguishes it from similar instruments with skin-faced bodies.
Henry George Farmer considers the similitude between al-ʿawda. Oud means "from wood" and "stick" in Arabic. Multiple theories have been proposed for the origin of the Arabic name. A music scholar by the name of Eckhard Neubauer suggested that oud may be an Arabic borrowing from the Persian word rōd or rūd, which meant string. Another researcher, archaeomusicologist Richard J. Dumbrill, suggests that rud came from the Sanskrit rudrī and transferred to Arabic through a Semitic language. However, another theory according to Semitic language scholars, is that the Arabic ʿoud is derived from Syriac ʿoud-a, meaning "wooden stick" and "burning wood"—cognate to Biblical Hebrew ’ūḏ, referring to a stick used to stir logs in a fire. Names for the instrument in different languages include Arabic: عود ʿūd or ʿoud, Armenian: ուդ, Syriac: ܥܘܕ ūd, Greek: ούτι oúti, Hebrew: עוּד ud, Persian: بربط barbat, Turkish: ud or ut, Azeri: ud, Somali: cuud or kaban; the complete history of the development of the lute family is not compiled at this date, but archaeomusicologists have worked to piece together a lute family history.
The influential organologist Curt Sachs distinguished between the "long-necked lute" and the short-necked variety. Douglas Alton Smith argues the long-necked variety should not be called lute at all because it existed for at least a millennium before the appearance of the short-necked instrument that evolved into what is now known the lute. Musicologist Richard Dumbrill today uses the word more categorically to discuss i
The water organ or hydraulic organ is a type of pipe organ blown by air, where the power source pushing the air is derived by water from a natural source or by a manual pump. The water organ lacks a bellows, blower, or compressor; the hydraulic organ is confused with the hydraulis. The hydraulis is the name of a Greek instrument created by Ctesibius of Alexandria; the hydraulis has a reservoir of air, inserted into a cistern of water. The air is pushed into the reservoir with hand pumps, exits the reservoir as pressurized air to blow through the pipes; the reservoir is open on the bottom, allowing water to maintain the pressure on the air as the air supply fluctuates from either the pumps pushing more air in, or the pipes letting air out. On the water organ, since the 15th century, the water is used as a source of power to drive a mechanism similar to that of the barrel organ, which has a pinned barrel that contains a specific song to be played; the hydraulis in ancient Greek is imagined as an automatic organ, but there is no source evidence for it.
A hydraulis is an early type of pipe organ that operated by converting the dynamic energy of water into air pressure to drive the pipes. Hence its name hydraulis "water pipe." It is attributed to the Hellenistic scientist Ctesibius of Alexandria, an engineer of the 3rd century BC. The hydraulis was the world's first keyboard instrument and was the predecessor of the modern church organ. Unlike the instrument of the Renaissance period, the main subject of the article on the pipe organ, the ancient hydraulis was played by hand, not automatically by the water-flow. Water is supplied from some height above the instrument through a pipe, air is introduced into the water stream by aspiration into the main pipe from a side-pipe holding its top above the water source. Both water and air arrive together in the camera aeolis. Here and air separate and the compressed air is driven into a wind-trunk on top of the camera aeolis, to blow the organ pipes. Two perforated ‘splash plates’ or ‘diaphragms’ prevent water spray from getting into the organ pipes.
The water, having been separated from the air, leaves the camera aeolis at the same rate as it enters. It drives a water wheel, which in turn drives the musical cylinder and the movements attached. To start the organ, the tap above the entry pipe is turned on and, given a continuous flow of water, the organ plays until the tap is closed again. Many water organs had simple water-pressure regulating devices. At the Palazzo del Quirinale, the water flows from a hilltop spring, coursing through the palace itself into a stabilizing ‘room’ some 18 metres above the camera aeolis in the organ grotto; this drop provides sufficient wind to power the restored six-stop instrument. Among Renaissance writers on the water organ, Salomon de Caus was informative, his book of 1615 includes a short treatise on making water organs, advice on tuning and registration, many fine engravings showing the instruments, their mechanisms and scenes in which they were used. It includes an example of suitable music for water organ, the madrigal Chi farà fed' al cielo by Alessandro Striggio, arranged by Peter Philips.
Water organs were described in the numerous writings of the famous Ctesibius, Philo of Byzantium and Hero of Alexandria. Like the water clocks of Plato's time, they were not regarded as playthings but might have had a particular significance in Greek philosophy, which made use of models and simulacra of this type. Hydraulically blown organ pipes were used to imitate birdsong, musicologists Susi Jeans and Arthur W. J. G. Ord-Hume have suggested. For the latter, solar heat was used to syphon water from one closed tank into another, thereby producing compressed air for sounding the pipes. Characteristics of the hydraulis have been inferred from mosaics, literary references, partial remains. In 1931, the remains of a hydraulis were discovered in Hungary, with an inscription dating it to 228 AD; the leather and wood of the instrument had decomposed, but the surviving metal parts made it possible to reconstruct a working replica now in the Aquincum Museum in Budapest. The exact mechanism of wind production is debated, nothing is known about the music played on the hydraulis, but the tone of the pipes can be studied.
The Talmud mentions the instrument as not appropriate for the Jerusalem Temple. After its invention by the Greeks, the hydraulis continued to be used through antiquity in the Roman world. In the Middle Ages, Eastern Roman and Muslim inventors developed, among other pieces, an automatic hydraulic organ, a'musical tree' at the palace of Khalif al-Muqtadir, a long-distance hydraulic organ that could be heard from sixty miles away. By the end of the 13th century hydraulic automata had reached Italy
The Greek diaspora, Hellenic diaspora or Omogenia refers to the communities of Greek people living outside Greece, Cyprus which are the traditional Greek homelands, North Macedonia, parts of the Balkans, southern Russia, Asia Minor, the region of Pontus, Eastern Anatolia, the South Caucasus, southern Italy and Cargèse in Corsica. The term refers to communities newly established by Greek migration outside these traditional areas during the 20th and 21st centuries; the Greek diaspora is one of the oldest and largest in the world, with an attested presence from Homeric times to the present. Examples of its influence range from the role played by Greek expatriates in the emergence of the Renaissance, through liberation and nationalist movements involved in the fall of the Ottoman Empire, to commercial developments such as the commissioning of the world's first supertankers by shipping magnates Aristotle Onassis and Stavros Niarchos. In Archaic Greece and colonizing activities of the Greek tribes from the Balkans and Asia Minor propagated Greek culture and language around the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins.
Greek city-states were established in Sicily, southern Italy, northern Libya, eastern Spain, the south of France, the Black Sea coast, the Greeks founded over 400 colonies in these areas. Alexander the Great's conquest of the Achaemenid Empire marked the beginning of the Hellenistic period, characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization in Asia and Africa. Many Greeks migrated to the new Hellenistic cities founded in Alexander's wake, as geographically-dispersed as Uzbekistan and Kuwait. Seleucia and Alexandria were among the largest cities in the world during Hellenistic and Roman times. Greeks spread across the Roman Empire, in the eastern territories the Greek language became the lingua franca; the Roman Empire was Christianized in the fourth century AD, during the late Byzantine period the Greek Orthodox form of Christianity became a hallmark of Greek identity. In the seventh century, Emperor Heraclius adopted Medieval Greek as the official language of the Byzantine Empire. Greeks continued to live around the Levant and Black Sea, maintaining their identity among local populations as traders and settlers.
Soon afterwards, the Arab-Islamic Caliphate seized the Levant, North Africa and Sicily from the Byzantine Greeks during the Byzantine–Arab Wars. The Greek populations remained in these areas of the Caliphate and helped translate ancient Greek works into Arabic, thus contributing to early Islamic philosophy and science. After the Byzantine–Ottoman Wars, which resulted in the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and the Ottoman conquest of Greek lands, many Greeks fled Constantinople and found refuge in Italy, they brought ancient Greek writings, lost in the West, contributing to the Renaissance. Most of these Greeks settled in Venice and Rome. Between the fall of the Empire of Trebizond to the Ottomans in 1461 and the second Russo-Turkish War in 1828-29, thousands of Pontic Greeks migrated from the Pontic Alps and eastern Anatolia to Georgia and other southern regions of the Russian Empire, the Russian province of Kars in the South Caucasus. Many Pontic Greeks fled their homelands in Pontus and northeastern Anatolia and settled in these areas to avoid Ottoman reprisals after supporting the Russian invasions of eastern Anatolia in the Russo-Turkish Wars from the late 18th to the early 20th century.
Others resettled in search of new opportunities in trade, farming, the church, the military, the bureaucracy of the Russian Empire. Greeks spread through many provinces of the Ottoman Empire and took major roles in its economic life the Phanariots; the Phanariots helped administer the Ottoman Empire's Balkan domains in the 18th century. Other Greeks settled outside the southern Balkans, moving north in service to the Orthodox Church or as a result of population transfers and massacres by Ottoman authorities after Greek rebellions against Ottoman rule or suspected Greek collaboration with Russia in the Russo-Turkish wars fought between 1774 and 1878. Greek Macedonia was most affected by the population upheavals, where the large, indigenous Ottoman Muslim population could form local militias to harass and exact revenge on the Greek-speaking Christian Orthodox population. A larger-scale movement of Greek-speaking peoples in the Ottoman period was Pontic Greeks from northeastern Anatolia to Georgia and parts of southern Russia the province of Kars Oblast in the southern Caucasus after the short-lived Russian occupation of Erzerum and the surrounding region during the 1828-29 Russo-Turkish War.
An estimated one-fifth of Pontic Greeks left their homeland in the mountains of northeastern Anatolia in 1829 as refugees, following the Tsarist army as it withdrew back into Russian territory. The Pontic Greek refugees who settled in Georgia and the southern Caucasus assimilated with preexisting Caucasus Greek communities; those who settled in Ukraine and southern Russia became a sizable proport
The domra is a long-necked Russian folk string instrument of the lute family with a round body and three or four metal strings. In 1896, a student of Vasily Vasilievich Andreyev found a broken instrument in a stable in rural Russia, it was thought that this instrument may have been an example of a domra, although no illustrations or examples of the traditional domra were known to exist in Russian chronicles. A three-stringed version of this instrument was redesigned in 1896, introduced into the orchestra of Russian folk instruments; the three-stringed domra uses a tuning in 4ths. A four-stringed version was developed employing a violin tuning by Moscow instrument maker, Liubimov, in 1905. In recent times, scholars have come to the conclusion that the term "domra" described a percussive instrument popular in Russia, that the discovered instrument was either a variant of the balalaika or a mandolin. Today, it is the three-stringed domra, used exclusively in Russia, it is played with a plectrum, is used to play the lead melody in Russian balalaika ensembles.
The basic domra is tuned as follows: Three strings: EAD tuning Four strings: GDAE tuning Instruments are made in various sizes including piccolo, alto, tenor and contrabass. Piccolo: b1 e2 a2 Prima: e1 a1 d2 Soprano: b e1 a1 Alto: e a d1 Tenor: B e a Bass: E A d Contrabass: 1E 1A D Contrabass: 1A D G Tamara Volskaya is considered to be one of the leading contemporary performers on the domra, she is a Merited Artist of Russia, a Laureate of the USSR competition, a Professor at the Mussorgsky Ural State Conservatory in Yekaterinburg, Russia. Other prominent domrists include: Tatjana Ossipova Michail Sawtschenko Viktor Kalinsky Victor Solomin Balalaika The Andreyev State Russian Orchestra