Rule of law
The rule of law is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as: "The authority and influence of law in society when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior. The phrase "the rule of law" refers to a political situation, not to any specific legal rule. Use of the phrase can be traced to 16th-century Britain, in the following century the Scottish theologian Samuel Rutherford employed it in arguing against the divine right of kings. John Locke wrote that freedom in society means being subject only to laws made by a legislature that apply to everyone, with a person being otherwise free from both governmental and private restrictions upon liberty. "The rule of law" was further popularized in the 19th century by British jurist A. V. Dicey. However, the principle, if not the phrase itself, was recognized by ancient thinkers; the rule of law implies that every person is subject to the law, including people who are lawmakers, law enforcement officials, judges. In this sense, it stands in contrast to a monarchy or oligarchy where the rulers are held above the law.
Lack of the rule of law can be found in both democracies and monarchies, for example, because of neglect or ignorance of the law, the rule of law is more apt to decay if a government has insufficient corrective mechanisms for restoring it. Although credit for popularizing the expression "the rule of law" in modern times is given to A. V. Dicey, development of the legal concept can be traced through history to many ancient civilizations, including ancient Greece, Mesopotamia and Rome. In the West, the ancient Greeks regarded the best form of government as rule by the best men. Plato advocated a benevolent monarchy ruled by an idealized philosopher king, above the law. Plato hoped that the best men would be good at respecting established laws, explaining that "Where the law is subject to some other authority and has none of its own, the collapse of the state, in my view, is not far off. More than Plato attempted to do, Aristotle flatly opposed letting the highest officials wield power beyond guarding and serving the laws.
In other words, Aristotle advocated the rule of law: It is more proper that law should govern than any one of the citizens: upon the same principle, if it is advantageous to place the supreme power in some particular persons, they should be appointed to be only guardians, the servants of the laws. The Roman statesman Cicero is cited as saying, roughly: "We are all servants of the laws in order to be free." During the Roman Republic, controversial magistrates might be put on trial when their terms of office expired. Under the Roman Empire, the sovereign was immune, but those with grievances could sue the treasury. In China, members of the school of legalism during the 3rd century BC argued for using law as a tool of governance, but they promoted "rule by law" as opposed to "rule of law", meaning that they placed the aristocrats and emperor above the law. In contrast, the Huang–Lao school of Daoism rejected legal positivism in favor of a natural law that the ruler would be subject to. There has been an effort to reevaluate the influence of the Bible on Western constitutional law.
In the Old Testament, the book of Deuteronomy imposes certain restrictions on the king, regarding such matters as the numbers of wives he might take and of horses he might acquire. According to Professor Bernard M. Levinson, "This legislation was so utopian in its own time that it seems never to have been implemented...." The Deuteronomic social vision may have influenced opponents of the divine right of kings, including Bishop John Ponet in sixteenth-century England. In Islamic jurisprudence rule of law was formulated in the seventh century, so that no official could claim to be above the law, not the caliph. However, this was not a reference to secular law, but to Islamic religious law in the form of Sharia law. Alfred the Great, Anglo-Saxon king in the 9th century, reformed the law of his kingdom and assembled a law code which he grounded on biblical commandments, he held that the same law had to be applied to all persons, whether rich or poor, friends or enemies. This was inspired by Leviticus 19:15: "You shall do no iniquity in judgment.
You shall not favor the wretched and you shall not defer to the rich. In righteousness you are to judge your fellow."In 1215, Archbishop Stephen Langton gathered the Barons in England and forced King John and future sovereigns and magistrates back under the rule of law, preserving ancient liberties by Magna Carta in return for exacting taxes. This foundation for a constitution was carried into the United States Constitution. In 1481, during the reign of Ferdinand II of Aragon, the Constitució de l'Observança was approved by the General Court of Catalonia, establishing the submission of royal power to the laws of the Principality of Catalonia; the first known use of this English phrase occurred around AD 1500. Another early example of the phrase "rule of law" is found in a petition to James I of England in 1610, from the House of Commons: Amongst many other points of happiness and freedom which your majesty's subjects of this kingdom have enjoyed under your royal progenitors and queens of this realm, there is none which they have accou
A coast guard or coastguard, is a maritime security organization of a particular country. The term implies different responsibilities in different countries, from being a armed military force with customs and security duties to being a volunteer organization tasked with search and rescue functions and lacking any law enforcement powers. However, a typical coast guard's functions are distinct from typical functions of both the navy and a transportation police; the predecessor of the modern Her Majesty's Coastguard of the United Kingdom was established in 1809 as the Waterguard, devoted to the prevention of smuggling as a department of the HM Customs and Excise authority. At the time, due to high UK taxation on liquors such as brandy, on tobacco, etc. smuggling in cargoes of these from places such as France and Holland, was an attractive proposition for many, the barrels of brandy and other contraband being landed from the ships on England's beaches at night from small boats and sold-on for profit, as depicted in the Doctor Syn series of books by Russell Thorndike.
The Coastguard was responsible for giving assistance to shipwrecks. Each Waterguard station was issued with a Manby mortar, invented by Captain George William Manby in 1808; the mortar fired a shot with a line attached from the shore to the wrecked ship and was used for many years. This began the process. In 1821 a committee of inquiry recommended that responsibility for the Preventative Waterguard be transferred to the Board of Customs; the Treasury agreed and directed that the preventative services, which consisted of the Preventative Water Guard and riding officers should be placed under the authority of the Board of Customs and in future should be named the "Coastguard". In 1845 the Coastguard was subordinated to the Admiralty. In 1829 the first UK Coastguard instructions were published and dealt with discipline and directions for carrying out preventative duties, they stipulated that, when a wreck took place, the Coastguard was responsible for taking all possible action to save lives, to take charge of the vessel and to protect property.
In the United States, the United States Coast Guard was created in 1915 by the merger of two other federal agencies. The first, the United States Revenue Cutter Service, was a maritime customs enforcement agency that assumed a supporting role to the United States Navy in wartime; the second, the United States Life-Saving Service, was formed in 1848 and consisted of life saving crews stationed at points along the eastern seaboard. The Coast Guard absorbed the United States Lighthouse Service and the Bureau of Navigation and Steamboat Inspection. Among the responsibilities that may be entrusted to a coast guard service are: search and rescue, enforcement of maritime law, safety of vessels, maintenance of seamarks, border control. During wartime, some national Coast Guard organisations might have a role as a naval reserve force with responsibilities in harbor defenses, port security, naval counter-intelligence and coastal patrols; the Coast Guard may, varying by jurisdiction, be a branch of a country's military, a law enforcement agency, or a search and rescue body.
For example, the United States Coast Guard is a specialized military branch with law enforcement authority, whereas the United Kingdom's Her Majesty's Coastguard is a civilian organisation whose primary role is search and rescue. Most coast guards operate ships and aircraft including helicopters and seaplanes that are either owned or leased by the agency in order to fulfil their respective roles; some coast guards, such as the Irish Coast Guard, have only a limited law enforcement role in enforcing maritime safety law, such as by inspecting ships docked in their jurisdiction. In cases where the Coast Guard is concerned with coordinating rather than executing rescue operations, lifeboats are provided by civilian voluntary organisations, such as the Royal National Lifeboat Institution in the United Kingdom, whilst aircraft may be provided by the countries' armed forces, such as the search and rescue Sea Kings operated by the Royal Air Force and Royal Navy, in addition to any of the HMCG's own helicopters.
The following lists a select number of Coast Guards around the world, illustrating the varied roles they play in the respective governments and the countries they operate in: The Argentine Naval Prefecture, in Spanish Prefectura Naval Argentina or PNA, is a service of the Argentine Republic's Security Ministry charged with protecting the country's rivers and maritime territory. It therefore fulfills the functions of other countries' coast guards, furthermore acts as a gendarmerie force policing navigable rivers and lakes, they belonged to the Ministry of Defence until the 1980s, the corps' highest official was a Navy rear-admiral. They have since been transferred to the Ministry of Interior and, more to the newly created Ministry of Security. However, in the case of armed conflict, they can be put under the Navy's command. Responsibilities for traditional coast guard duties in Australia are distributed across various federal and community volunteer agencies; the Maritime Border Command is the de facto coast guard of Australia.
The Maritime Border Command is a joint unit of the Australian Defence Force and the Australian Border Force. It is responsible for border protection in the exclusive economic zone of Australia and its 19,650 kilometres of coastline and
The Grupo Albatros is a special operations service of the Prefectura Naval Argentina. Located in the province of Buenos Aires, it conducts river and maritime operations in the lakes and rivers and anything close to the coast line. In addition to Counter-Terrorist missions, they handle criminal responses; the Albatros group uses specialized weapons and gear such as the Beretta 92 pistol, SIG SG550, FN FAL assault rifles, Heckler & Koch MP5 submachine gun, Franchi SPAS-15 combat shotgun and the SIG Sauer SSG 3000 sniper rifle. Scorpion Group Hawk Special Operations Brigade Federal Special Operations Group Special Operations Troops Company Argentine Federal Police
Argentine Naval Prefecture
The Argentine Naval Prefecture is a service of the Argentine Security Ministry charged with protecting the country's rivers and maritime territory. It therefore fulfills the functions of other countries' coast guards, furthermore acts as a gendarmerie force policing navigable rivers. According to the Argentine Constitution, the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic cannot intervene in internal civil conflicts, so the Prefecture is defined as a civilian "security force of a military nature", it maintains a functional relationship with the Ministry of Defense, as part of both the National Defense System and the Interior Security System. It therefore maintains capabilities arising from the demands required by joint military planning with the armed forces; the PNA is a large organization for a coastguard. With a strength of 28,900 sworn members, the PNA is a larger organization than most national navies, is in fact larger than the Argentine Navy - the organization upon which it had been attached for a long time until the 1980s, when it was transferred to direct control of the Ministry of Defense.
The Prefecture's predecessor is the ports service founded by the first autonomous Argentine government in June 1810, six years before Argentina declared independence. In Argentina this is considered the official founding date of the PNA; the first commander of the force was Colonel Martín Jacobo Thompson, a Porteño of English descent who had served against the British in the invasions of 1806–7. Thompson was given the title of "Captain of Ports". Although the PNA traces itself back to its predecessor of 1806, the modern Prefecture was in fact founded in the late nineteenth century as the "National Maritime Prefecture" on the initiative of Manuel Florencio Mantilla, a well-known Argentine senator, a respected academic and intellectual; the law pertaining to it was enacted in October 1896. The Prefecture had a minor role in the Falklands War; as with other Argentine military services, participation in this conflict is given considerable weight in the institutional memory of the service. Two PNA patrol vessels, Islas Malvinas and Rio Iguazu, were sent to provide an Argentine coastguard service to the islands.
According to Argentine sources, Rio Iguazu came into contact with a British Sea Harrier aircraft on 21 May and one member of the vessel's crew was killed while firing a 12.7 mm machine gun at the British jet. The ship ran aground; the crew of the patrol boat claimed the shooting down of the aircraft, but this was proved to be unfounded. The sortie was carried out by two Sea Harriers of 800 Naval Air Squadron, Nº XZ460 and XZ499, which strafed the vessel with 30 mm cannon fire; the patrol vessel Islas Malvinas was operated by the Royal Navy, as HMS Tiger Bay. The Prefecture is battling illegal fishing vessels in the Argentine exclusive economic zone from eastern countries; the Argentine Naval Aviation collaborates in detection of such ships with their CASA 212 S68 and Beechcraft 350ER' maritime surveillance aircraft. The sinking of Chian-der 3 was an incident which occurred on 28 May 1986 when the Taiwanese flag naval trawler Chian-der 3 was detected, shot, set on fire and sunk by the PNA; the sinking was carried out by PNA vessel Prefecto Derbes.
Two Taiwanese fishermen were killed. The Taiwanese fishermen's union called the incident a "barbaric act" and the British government condemned it as "unjustifiable and excessive"; the PNA is subordinate to the Ministry of Interior. The organization is headed by the National Naval Prefect Prefect-General Carlos Edgardo Fernandez, assisted by the Deputy National Naval Prefect Prefect-General Ricardo Rodriguez; the Prefecture's main facility is located in the Edificio Guardacostas at 235 E. Madero Avenue, Buenos Aires; the PNA headquarters is divided into three main departments, each headed by a Director-General with the rank of Prefecto General. These are each divided into a number of directorates, each headed by a Director with the rank of Prefect-General; the Intelligence Service is directly responsible to the National Naval Prefect and is headed by a Prefect-General. Dirección General de Seguridad Dirección de Operaciones Dirección de Policía de Seguridad de la Navegación Dirección de Policía Judicial, Protección Marítima y Puertos Dirección de Protección Ambiental Dirección General de Logística Dirección de Personal Dirección de Material Dirección de Educación Dirección de Administración Financiera Dirección de Bienestar Dirección General de Planeamiento y Desarrollo Dirección de Planeamiento Secretaría General The PNA is divided into ten zones: Alto Paraná Alto Uruguay Paraná Superior and Paraguay (prefectures of Corrientes, Barranqueras, Reconquista and Paso de la Patria
Córdoba Provincial Police
The Policía de la Provincia de Córdoba is an Argentine police agency, responsible for policing the Córdoba province.85 Argentine Federal Police Buenos Aires Police Santa Fe Province Police Buenos Aires Urban Guard Interior Security System Official website
World Economic Forum
The World Economic Forum, based in Cologny-Geneva, was founded in 1971 as a not-for-profit organization. It gained formal status in January 2015 under the Swiss Host-State Act, confirming the role of the Forum as an International Institution for Public-Private Cooperation; the Forum's mission is cited as "committed to improving the state of the world by engaging business, political and other leaders of society to shape global and industry agendas". The WEF hosts a annual meeting at the end of January in Davos, a mountain resort in Graubünden, in the eastern Alps region of Switzerland; the meeting brings together some 2,500 business leaders, international political leaders, economists and journalists for up to four days to discuss the most pressing issues facing the world. The organization convenes some six to eight regional meetings each year in locations across Africa, East Asia and Latin America, holds two further annual meetings in China and the United Arab Emirates. Beside meetings, the organization provides a platform for leaders from all stakeholder groups from around the world – business and civil society – to come together.
It produces a series of research reports and engages its members in sector-specific initiatives. There have been many other international conferences nicknamed with "Davos". However, the World Economic Forum objected the use of "Davos" in such contexts for any event not organised by them; this particular statement was issued on 22 October 2018, a day before the opening of 2018 Future Investment Initiative organised by the Public Investment Fund of Saudi Arabia. The WEF was founded in 1971 by Klaus Schwab, a business professor at the University of Geneva. First named the "European Management Forum", it changed its name to the World Economic Forum in 1987 and sought to broaden its vision to include providing a platform for resolving international conflicts. In the summer of 1971, Schwab invited 444 executives from Western European firms to the first European Management Symposium held in the Davos Congress Centre under the patronage of the European Commission and European industrial associations, where Schwab sought to introduce European firms to American management practices.
He founded the WEF as a nonprofit organization based in Geneva and drew European business leaders to Davos for the annual meetings each January. Schwab developed the "stakeholder" management approach, which attributed corporate success to managers taking account of all interests: not shareholders and customers, but employees and the communities within which the firm is situated, including governments. Events in 1973, including the collapse of the Bretton Woods fixed-exchange rate mechanism and the Arab–Israeli War, saw the annual meeting expand its focus from management to economic and social issues, for the first time, political leaders were invited to the annual meeting in January 1974. Political leaders soon began to use the annual meeting as a neutral platform; the Davos Declaration was signed in 1988 by Greece and Turkey, helping them turn back from the brink of war. In 1992, South African President F. W. de Klerk met with Nelson Mandela and Chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi at the annual meeting, their first joint appearance outside South Africa.
At the 1994 annual meeting, Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres and PLO chairman Yasser Arafat reached a draft agreement on Gaza and Jericho. In late 2015, the invitation was extended to include a North Korean delegation for the 2016 forum, "in view of positive signs coming out of the country", the WEF organizers noted. North Korea has not been attending the WEF since 1998; the invitation was accepted but after the January 2016 North Korean nuclear test on 6 January, the invitation was revoked, the country's delegation was made subject to "existing and possible forthcoming sanctions". Despite protests by North Korea calling the decision by the WEF managing board a "sudden and irresponsible" move, the WEF committee maintained the exclusion because "under these circumstances there would be no opportunity for international dialogue". In 2017, the World Economic Forum in Davos attracted considerable attention when for the first time, a head of state from the People's Republic of China was present at the alpine resort.
With the backdrop of Brexit, an incoming protectionist US administration and significant pressures on free trade zones and trade agreements, President Xi Jinping defended the global economic scheme, portrayed China as a responsible nation and a leader for environmental causes. He rebuked the current populist movements that would introduce tariffs and hinder global commerce, warning that such protectionism could foster isolation and reduced economic opportunity. In 2018, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi gave the plenary speech, becoming the first head of state from India to deliver the inaugural keynote for the annual meet at Davos. Modi highlighted climate change and protectionism as the three major global challenges, expressed confidence that they can be tackled with collective effort. In 2019, Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro gave the keynote address at the plenary session of the conference. On his first international trip to Davos, he emphasized liberal economic policies despite his populist agenda, attempted to reassure the world that Brazil is a protector of the rain forest while utilizing its resources for food production and export.
He stated that "his government will seek to better integrate Brazil into the world by mainstreaming international best practices, such as those adopted and promoted by the OECD". Environmental concerns like extreme weather events, the failure of climate-change mitigation and adaptation were among the top-r