In logic, the law of non-contradiction states that contradictory propositions cannot both be true in the same sense at the same time, e. g. the two propositions "A is B" and "A is not B" are mutually exclusive. Formally this is expressed as the tautology ¬. One reason to have this law is the principle of explosion, which states that anything follows from a contradiction; the law is employed in a reductio ad absurdum proof. To express the fact that the law is tenseless and to avoid equivocation, sometimes the law is amended to say "contradictory propositions cannot both be true'at the same time and in the same sense'", it is one of the so called three laws of thought, along with its complement, the law of excluded middle, the law of identity. The law of noncontradiction is logically equivalent to the law of excluded middle by De Morgan's laws. However, no system of logic is built on just these laws, none of these laws provide inference rules, such as modus ponens or De Morgan's laws; the law of non contradiction and the law of excluded middle create a dichotomy in "logical space", wherein the two parts are "mutually exclusive" and "jointly exhaustive".
The law of non-contradiction is an expression of the mutually exclusive aspect of that dichotomy, the law of excluded middle, an expression of its jointly exhaustive aspect. One difficulty in applying the law of non-contradiction is ambiguity in the propositions. For instance, if is not explicitly specified as part of the propositions A and B A may be B at one time, not at another. A and B may in some cases be made to sound mutually exclusive linguistically though A may be B and not B at the same time. However, it is impossible to predicate of the same thing, at the same time, in the same sense, the absence and the presence of the same fixed quality. According to both Plato and Aristotle, Heraclitus was said to have denied the law of non-contradiction; this is quite if, as Plato pointed out, the law of non-contradiction does not hold for changing things in the world. If a philosophy of Becoming is not possible without change what is to become must exist in the present object. In "We do not step into the same rivers.
So little remains of Heraclitus' aphorisms that not much about his philosophy can be said with certainty. He seems to have held that strife of opposites is universal both within and without, therefore both opposite existents or qualities must exist, although in some instances in different respects. "The road up and down are one and the same" implies either the road leads both ways, or there can be no road at all. This is the logical complement of the law of non-contradiction. According to Heraclitus and the constant conflict of opposites is the universal logos of nature. Personal subjective perceptions or judgments can only be said to be true at the same time in the same respect, in which case, the law of non-contradiction must be applicable to personal judgments; the most famous saying of Protagoras is: "Man is the measure of all things: of things which are, that they are, of things which are not, that they are not". However, Protagoras was referring in some way related to humans; this makes a great difference in the meaning of his aphorism.
Properties, social entities, feelings, etc. originate in the human mind. However, Protagoras has never suggested that man must be the measure of stars or the motion of the stars. Parmenides employed an ontological version of the law of non-contradiction to prove that being is and to deny the void and motion, he similarly disproved contrary propositions. In his poem On Nature, he said, the only routes of inquiry there are for thinking:the one, that cannot not be is the path of Persuasion the other, not and that it is right that not be, this I point out to you is a path wholly inscrutable for you could not know what is not nor could you point it out… For the same thing is for thinking and for being The nature of the ‘is’ or what-is in Parmenides is a contentious subject; some have taken it to be whatever exists, some to be whatever is or can be the object of scientific inquiry. In Plato's early dialogues, Socrates uses the elenctic method to investigate the nature or definition of ethical concepts such as justice or virtue.
Elenctic refutation depends on a dichotomous thesis, one that may be divided into two mutually exclusive parts, only one of which may be true. Socrates goes on to demonstrate the contrary of the accepted part using the law of non-contradiction. According to Gregory Vlastos, the method has the following steps: Socrates' interlocutor asserts a thesis, for example, "Courage is endurance of the soul", which Socrates considers false and targets for refutation. Socrates secures his interlocutor's agreement to further premises, for example, "Courage is a fine thing" and "Ignorant endurance is not a fine thing". Socrates argues, the interlocutor agrees, that these further premises imply the contrary of the original thesis, in this case, it leads to: "courage is not endurance of the soul". Socrates claims that he has shown that his interlocutor's thesis is false and that its negation is true. Plato's version of the law of non-contradiction states that "The same thing cannot act or be acted upon in the same part or in relation
Charles John "Larry" Gilmour was a Canadian professional ice hockey player in the early 1900s. He was a member of the 1908 Stanley Cup champion Montreal Wanderers. Born in Almonte, Gilmour played for the Renfrew, Ontario Hockey Club in the Ottawa Valley Hockey League from 1898 until 1902 when he joined the Renfrew Riversides in the Upper Ottawa Valley Hockey League. In 1907, he joined the Renfrew Creamery Kings, playing for the club until 1911. In 1908, Gilmour played for the Brockville, Ontario Hockey Club when the Kings were hired to play for Brockville in the Federal Amateur Hockey League and he played for the Montreal Wanderers. In 1911, after the dissolution of the Creamery Kings, Gilmour chose not to join the Montreal Canadiens to which he'd been assigned, he chose to become a coach in the Renfrew area. He died of pneumonia in 1922
Gordon Richard "Gordy" Hoffman is an American screenwriter and director. He is the older brother of the late critically acclaimed actor Philip Seymour Hoffman. Hoffman is the older brother of the late American actor Philip Seymour Hoffman, his mother, Marilyn O'Connor, a native of Waterloo, New York, is lawyer. His father, Gordon Stowell Hoffman, is a former Xerox executive, he has two sisters and Emily, in addition to his late brother Philip. His parents divorced in 1976. In 2002, he wrote the screenplay for the film Love Liza, about a man dealing with his wife's suicide; the Guardian's Peter Bradshaw described it as a "very melancholy evening in the cinema... an intelligent and harrowing movie," while Ed Gonzalez from Slant Magazine disparagingly wrote: "Love Liza will have a difficult time distinguishing itself from Alexander Payne's About Schmidt, another widower-in-chaos comedy starring Bates in an undervalued role. Love Liza is nowhere near as condescending but its shrill pitch makes it just as difficult to take."
The film received the Waldo Salt Screenwriting Award at the 2002 Sundance Film Festival. Hoffman is the founder of the BlueCat Screenplay Competition – for finding and fostering undiscovered writing talent; the winning screenplay from the 2005 competition, Balls Out: Gary the Tennis Coach was purchased by Greenestreet Films, was released in 2009. He taught graduate screenwriting at the USC School of Cinematic Arts. Gordy Hoffman on IMDb
The Battle of Obytichnyi Spit was a naval battle fought in the Sea of Azov during the Russian Civil War. On 13 September 1920 the White Fleet ships departed to shell Berdiansk the following day, but found no enemy vessels and moved to protect a convoy of ships carrying grain; the detachment included two gunboats two armed icebreaker, one patrol boat, one unarmed minesweeper and received the support from torpedo boat Zorkyi. After receiving news of the naval bombardment against Berdiansk, the Reds dispatched from Mariupol the following ships: gunboats Budyonny, Krasnaya Zvezda and Znamya Sotsializma, supported by three patrol boats; the two forces were equal in number of ships with Whites having an advantage in artillery fire and speed. At dawn of 15 September, the two flotilla engaged: Reds fired first, opening fire from 60 cables of distance; the shelling brought Reds suffered difficulties. During the first phase of battle, only Ural and Salgyr opened fire against the Reds; the ships exchanged sporadic fire, until around midday the battle reached a peak.
With 40 cables of distance, White gunboat Gaydamak scored one hit on the Red gunboat Znamya Sotsializma: the boiler's power pipes suffered damage and ship lost course being wrapped in its own steam. Krasnaya Zvezda took in tow the damaged unit and returned fire scoring two hits on gunboat Salgyr on the waterline causing her quick sinking: Salgyr was lost with 2 crewmembers. Gunboat Ural took damage while saving the sailors of Salgyr; the battle lasted. Reds gunboats kept on firing against the retreating White units until 13:30. Receiving news about the battle, Whites dispatched destroyer Bespokoynny and gunboat Strazh as reinforcement, but they did not reached the battle in time and Bespokoynny suffered damage after blowing up a mine; the White flotilla lost one ship while a second one was damaged and was forced to retreat, pursued by the enemy. Both sides claimed victory. According to the Whites although the fight was indecisive, they claimed an "unquestionable" victory having protected transports loaded with grain.
In addition, they claimed. Soviets historiography claimed the opposite, stating that White ships no longer dared to enter the Sea of Azov and gave Reds naval superiority with ships providing direct support from the sea during the offensive begun on 12 September; the battle was the last one when a battle squadron sailed under the St. Andrew's flag before the fall of the Soviet Union
A Tundra Buggy invented & built by Leonard D. Smith in 1979, is an all-terrain vehicle used to view and study polar bears, in the Cape Churchill Wildlife Management Area, of Manitoba, Canada. Smith took his first trip on his Tundra Buggy to Cape Churchill in 1979 with a group of explorers and a'National Geographic' film crew which created the movie "Polar Bear Alert". Smith created a company he named "Tundra Buggy Tours" and went on to build 14 Tundra Buggies and The Tundra Buggy Lodge; the lodge consists of a diner, two bunkhouses, muktuk saloon and utilities unit. It is towed from Churchill, behind the Tundra Buggy vehicles for several miles and connected together like units of a train, on the west shore of Hudson Bay. Polar bears congregate every year along the shores of the bay, waiting for the freeze up and to feed on ringed seals. Leonard D. Smith received the Manitoba Tourism Innovation Award in 1989, the Order of Manitoba in 2004, celebrating 25 years of the operation of Tundra Buggy Tours.
In the year 2000 Smith sold Tundra Buggy Tours to Frontiers North Adventures, Manitoba, Canada. Frontiers North Adventures now operates Tundra Buggies as a wildlife viewing vehicle for photographing and observing polar bears and other sub-Arctic wildlife outside of Churchill, Manitoba in the Churchill Wildlife Management Area and Wapusk National Park in northern Canada. Churchill is known as the "Polar Bear Capital of the World". To date, 17 vehicles are used by researchers and tourists; the term "Tundra Buggy" is a registered trademark of Frontiers North Adventures. Tundra Buggies are built high off the ground to ensure guest safety. Before the autumn freeze, these vehicles only use an existing set of trails on the tundra that were built by the Canadian and American Armed Forces in the 1950s and 1960s; the high ground clearance of the Buggies help navigate through difficult areas of the trail. The Tundra Buggy fleet is now custom built and manufactured by Frontiers North Adventures in Churchill, Manitoba.
The average male polar bear is 8 to 10 feet tall. The tires on each Tundra Buggy vehicle are 5.5 feet high and 3.6 feet wide, sit on 25-inch rims. A wide-bodied enclosure sits on top of the wheels and provides more height, security and ability for guests to move around to view and photograph wildlife; the engine in Tundra Buggies is an International DT 466 found in highway semi-trailers. It is geared through the Allison Transmission, geared through the differentials and planetaries on the hubs; the buggies are full-time four-wheel drive and have the capability to lock the differentials if needed. The top speed of a Tundra Buggy is 45 km/h on a smooth trail, but travels much slower; the Buggies are self-sufficient with onboard air compressors, tool kits, extra fluids and oils and propane heaters which are independent of the engine. As well Tundra Buggies include windows that open and a large observation deck. Tundra Buggies can tow additional modules containing bunks and dining facility for overnight stays on the tundra in a configuration the company calls a "Tundra Buggy Lodge"
The Carlos Palanca Memorial Awards for Literature winners in the year 1979. Short story First Prize: “Arbol de Fuego” by Francisco Sionil Jose. MarananEssay First Prize: “This City is in the Heart” by Enrique Jose Crisostomo Second Prize: “A Scenario for Filipino Renaissance” by Francisco Sionil Jose Third Prize: “The Military As a Revolutionary Force” by Reynaldo SilvestreOne-Act Play First Prize: “Earthworms” by Dong Delos Reyes Second Prize: “Demigod” by Bobby Flores Villasis Third Prize: “Wedding Night” by Isagani R. CruzFull-length Play First Prize: No winner Second Prize: No winner Third Prize: No winner Special mention: “The Fort Santiago Contract, December 1896” by Felix A. Clemente Short story First Prize: “Lagaslas ng Hanging Makamandag” by Melecio Antonio Adviento. Tiburcio Third Prize: “Dalawampu't Isang Tula” by Ruth Elynia S. MabangloEssay First Prize: “Mga Talinhaga sa Panahon ng Krisis” by Virgilio S. Almario Second Prize: “Ang Kaisipang Pilipino Batay sa Sining Biswal” by Alice Guillermo Third Prize: “Sa Ibabaw ng Kapirasong Lupa” by Anselmo RoqueOne-Act Play First Prize: “Bahay Kalapati” by Mateo Trijo Doctor Second Prize: “Isneg” by Manuel Galvez Third Prize: “Ang Bangkay” by Nonilon QueanoFull-length Play First Prize: “Langit Ma'y Magdilim” by Bonifacio Ilagan Second Prize: “Juan Tamban” by Malou Leviste Jacob Third Prize: “Ang Katutubo” by Nonilon Queano "The Don Carlos Palanca Memorial Awards for Literature | Winners 1979".
Archived from the original on 2009-10-24