Law Society of Singapore
The Law Society of Singapore is the organisation that represents all lawyers in Singapore. It publishes the Law Gazette and operates a scheme for needy people to benefit from legal services free-of-charge; the Society sets out rules for how lawyers should advertise. The Law Society is analogous to; the society motto is "An Advocate for the Profession, An Advocate for the Community." Law society Law Society of Singapore website
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at law, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, civil law notary, counselor, counselor at law, chartered legal executive, or public servant preparing and applying law, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary. Working as a lawyer involves the practical application of abstract legal theories and knowledge to solve specific individualized problems, or to advance the interests of those who hire lawyers to perform legal services; the role of the lawyer varies across legal jurisdictions, so it can be treated here in only the most general terms. In practice, legal jurisdictions exercise their right to determine, recognized as being a lawyer; as a result, the meaning of the term "lawyer" may vary from place to place. Some jurisdictions have two types of lawyers and solicitors, whilst others fuse the two. A barrister is a lawyer. A solicitor is a lawyer, trained to prepare cases and give advice on legal subjects and can represent people in lower courts.
Both barristers and solicitors have gone through law school, completed the requisite practical training. However, in jurisdictions where there is a split-profession, only barristers are admitted as members of their respective bar association. In Australia, the word "lawyer" can be used to refer to both barristers and solicitors, whoever is admitted as a lawyer of the Supreme Court of a state or territory. In Canada, the word "lawyer" only refers to individuals who have been called to the bar or, in Quebec, have qualified as civil law notaries. Common law lawyers in Canada are formally and properly called "barristers and solicitors", but should not be referred to as "attorneys", since that term has a different meaning in Canadian usage, being a person appointed under a power of attorney. However, in Quebec, civil law advocates call themselves "attorney" and sometimes "barrister and solicitor" in English, all lawyers in Quebec, or lawyers in the rest of Canada when practising in French, are addressed with the honorific title, "Me." or "Maître".
In England and Wales, "lawyer" is used to refer to persons who provide reserved and unreserved legal activities and includes practitioners such as barristers, solicitors, registered foreign lawyers, patent attorneys, trade mark attorneys, licensed conveyancers, public notaries, commissioners for oaths, immigration advisers and claims management services. The Legal Services Act 2007 defines the "legal activities" that may only be performed by a person, entitled to do so pursuant to the Act.'Lawyer' is not a protected title. In Pakistan, the term "Advocate" is used instead of lawyer in The Legal Practitioners and Bar Councils Act, 1973. In India, the term "lawyer" is colloquially used, but the official term is "advocate" as prescribed under the Advocates Act, 1961. In Scotland, the word "lawyer" refers to a more specific group of trained people, it includes advocates and solicitors. In a generic sense, it may include judges and law-trained support staff. In the United States, the term refers to attorneys who may practice law.
It is never used to refer to patent paralegals. In fact, there are statutory and regulatory restrictions on non-lawyers like paralegals practicing law. Other nations tend to have comparable terms for the analogous concept. In most countries civil law countries, there has been a tradition of giving many legal tasks to a variety of civil law notaries and scriveners; these countries do not have "lawyers" in the American sense, insofar as that term refers to a single type of general-purpose legal services provider. It is difficult to formulate accurate generalizations that cover all the countries with multiple legal professions, because each country has traditionally had its own peculiar method of dividing up legal work among all its different types of legal professionals. Notably, the mother of the common law jurisdictions, emerged from the Dark Ages with similar complexity in its legal professions, but evolved by the 19th century to a single dichotomy between barristers and solicitors. An equivalent dichotomy developed between procurators in some civil law countries.
Several countries that had two or more legal professions have since fused or united their professions into a single type of lawyer. Most countries in this category are common law countries, though France, a civil law country, merged its jurists in 1990 and 1991 in response to Anglo-American competition. In countries with fused professions, a lawyer is permitted to carry out all or nearly all the responsibilities listed below. Arguing a client's case before a judge or jury in a court of law is the traditional province of the barrister in England, of advocates in some civil law jurisdictions. However, the boundary between barristers and solicitors has evolved. In England today, the barrister monopoly covers only appellate courts, barristers must compete directly with solicitors in many trial courts. In countries like the United States, that have fused legal professions, there are trial lawyers who specialize in trying cases in court, but trial lawyers do not have a de jure monopoly like barristers.
In some countries, litigants have the option of arguing pro
Law Society of Ireland
The Law Society of Ireland is the educational and regulatory body of the solicitors' profession in the Republic of Ireland. As of 2011, the Law Society had over twelve thousand members, all solicitors, a staff of 207 and an annual turnover of €30m. Law Society of Ireland was established on 24 June 1830 with premises at Dublin. In November 1830, the committee of the Society submitted a memorial to the benchers as to the ‘necessity and propriety’ of erecting chambers for the use of solicitors with the funds that solicitors had been levied to pay to King's Inns over the years; the committee requested that the hall and chambers for the use of solicitors should be erected away from the King's Inns, apartments in the Four Courts were allotted by the King's Inns to solicitors in May 1841. However, the adequacy of that accommodation at the Four Courts was to be a bone of contention between the Society and the benchers for 30 years; the first president, Josiah Dunn, was elected in 1842. In accordance with the Supreme Court of Judicature Act 1877, anyone admitted as solicitors or attorneys were, from on, to be referred to as solicitors of the Court of Judicature.
The Law Society was incorporated by royal charter obtained from Queen Victoria on 5 April 1852 under the name of "the Incorporated Society of Attorneys and Solicitors of Ireland". The charter referred to founding "an institution for facilitating the acquisition of legal knowledge", for the better and more convenient discharging of professional duties of attorneys and solicitors; the principal events with which the Law Society was concerned on behalf of solicitors in the second half of the 19th century were: · The inauguration of a scheme for the education of apprentices, · The independence of the solicitors’ profession from the King's Inns, · The achievement of an increasing degree of self-government and recognition of its position as the representative and regulatory body for solicitors in Ireland, culminating in the Solicitors Act 1898. At the end of the 19th century, the legal functions of the Law Society were increased by the Solicitors Act 1898, which repealed the act of 1866 and transferred control of education and important disciplinary functions from the direct supervision of the judges to that of the Society.
In 1888, the constitution of the Council of the Society was changed by supplemental charter, which provided that the Northern Law Society and Southern Law Association would each be entitled to appoint members to the Council. This was further changed in 1960, when provision was made for the appointment to the Council of three members of the Dublin Solicitors’ Bar Association Council; the professions of attorney and solicitor were fused under the Supreme Court of Judicature Act, 1877. As a consequence, the Law Society was granted a supplemental charter, again by Queen Victoria on 14 December 1888 under which the Law Society was styled the "Incorporated Law Society of Ireland"; the current statutory basis for the Law Society is set out in the Solicitors Acts 1954 – 2002. In 1994, the Law Society's name was changed once more, this time the word "Incorporated" being omitted from its title. By the middle of the 1960s, the solicitors’ buildings at the Four Courts were proving inadequate for the expanding activities of the Society and outside premises were used for lectures for students.
A special committee recommended the purchase of the King's Hospital, Blackhall Place, described by renowned architectural historian, Maurice Craig, as "one of the most beautiful and, in its way, original" of Dublin's major buildings. Council member of the Law Society, Peter Prentice, proposed a motion at a special meeting of the Council on 3 July 1968 that the Society purchase the King's Hospital for the sum of IR£105,000; the motion was carried unanimously and a contract was subsequently executed. The Taoiseach Jack Lynch performed the official opening ceremony of the new headquarters on Wednesday 14 June 1978; the Society pressed for many years for a change in the law so as to permit the appointment of solicitors in the Circuit Court and the High Court. The Courts and Court Officers Act 1995 allowed for the appointment of solicitors as judges to the Circuit Court. In July 1996, the government announced the appointment of solicitors John F Buckley, Frank O’Donnell and Michael White as judges of the Circuit Court – the first such appointments in the history of the State.
The Courts and Court Officers Act 2002 provided that a person shall be qualified for appointment as a judge of the Supreme Court and the High Court if he or she is, for the time being, a practising barrister or practising solicitor of not less than 12 years’ standing. Shortly after its enactment, Michael Peart became the first practising solicitor to be appointed a judge of the High Court. Mr. Justice Peart is now a judge of the Court of Appeal. Current High Court judges include Donald Binchy and Robert Eagar. A new Law School, built on premises adjoining the existing Blackhall Place headquarters, was opened by President Mary McAleese on 2 October 2000; the new library at Blackhall Place was opened by President McAleese on the same day. The governing body of the Law Society is its Council, it comprises both nominated members, all of whom are solicitors. Over the years the Council has established a range of committees to which it delegates certain of its statutory functions; the Council may comprise not more than 48 persons.
Of its membership, between 21 and 31 must be elected from among the Law Societ
A bar association is a professional association of lawyers. Some bar associations are responsible for the regulation of the legal profession in their jurisdiction. In many Commonwealth jurisdictions, the bar association comprises lawyers who are qualified as barristers or advocates in particular, versus solicitors. Membership in bar associations may be mandatory or optional for practicing attorneys, depending on jurisdiction; the use of the term bar to mean "the whole body of lawyers, the legal profession" comes from English custom. In the early 16th century, a railing divided the hall in the Inns of Court, with students occupying the body of the hall and readers or benchers on the other side. Students who became lawyers crossed the symbolic physical barrier and were "admitted to the bar"; this was popularly assumed to mean the wooden railing marking off the area around the judge's seat in a courtroom, where prisoners stood for arraignment and where a barrister stood to plead. In modern courtrooms, a railing may still be in place to enclose the space, occupied by legal counsel as well as the criminal defendants and civil litigants who have business pending before the court.
In many Commonwealth jurisdictions, including in England and Wales, the "bar association" comprises lawyers who are qualified as barristers or advocates, while the "law society" comprises solicitors. These bodies are sometimes mutually exclusive, while in other jurisdictions, the "bar" may refer to the entire community of persons engaged in the practice of law. In Canada, one is called to the bar after undertaking a post-law-school training in a provincial law society program, undergoing an apprenticeship or taking articles. Legal communities are called provincial law societies, except for Nova Scotia, where it is called the Nova Scotia Barristers' Society, Quebec, where it is called the Barreau du Quebec; the Canadian Bar Association is a professional association of barristers and avocats that serves the roles of advocates for the profession, provides continuing legal education and member benefits. It does not play a part in the regulation of the profession, however. In India under the legal framework set established under the Advocates Act, 1961, a law graduate is required to be enrolled with the Bar Council of India.
The process of enrollment is delegated by the Bar Council of India to the state Bar Councils wherein each state has a Bar Council of its own. Once enrolled with a State Bar Council, the law graduate is recognized as an Advocate provisionally for a period of two years, within which they must clear the All India Bar Examination conducted by the Bar Council of India. Once the advocate clears the AIBE test, they are entitled to appear and practice before any court of law in India. There is no formal requirement for further membership of any Bar Association. However, Advocates do become members of various local or national bar associations for reasons of recognition and facilities which these associations offer; some well-known Bar Associations in India include the Supreme Court Bar Association, Delhi High Court Bar Association, Bombay Bar Association, Delhi Bar Association, National Bar Association of India, All India Bar Association, etc. In Pakistan, a person becomes a licensee of a Provincial Bar Council after fulfilling certain requirements.
He must have a valid law degree LL. B from a recognized university by the Pakistan Bar council, must offer certain undertakings, pay the Provincial Bar Council fees. Furthermore, he shall join any bar association as a member. Tehsil bar associations work under the umbrella of District Bar Association, District Bar Association under Provincial Bar councils, such as the Punjab Bar Council and Sindh Bar Council. To become an advocate, one must first complete six months pupillage with a practising advocate of High Court, whom they must assist on at least ten cases during a six-month pupillage. Membership in the bar is a privilege burdened with conditions. —Benjamin N. Cardozo, In re Rouss, 221 N. Y. 81, 84 In the United States, admission to the bar is permission granted by a particular court system to a lawyer to practice law in that system. This is to be distinguished from membership in a bar association. In the United States, some states require membership in the state bar association for all attorneys, while others do not.
Although bar associations existed as unincorporated voluntary associations, nearly all bar associations have since been organized as corporations. Furthermore, membership in some of them is no longer voluntary, why some of them have omitted the word "association" and call themselves the "state bar" to indicate that they are the incorporated body that constitutes the entire admitted legal profession of a state; some states require membership in the state's bar association to practice law there. Such an organization is called a mandatory, integrated, or unified bar, is a type of government-granted monopoly, they exist at present in a slight majority of U. S. states: Alabama, Arizona, Florida, Hawaii, Kentucky, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Utah, Washington State, West Virginia and Wyoming. The District of Columbia, the U. S. Virgin Islands and the Northern Mariana Islands have unified bars; the mandatory status of the Puerto Rico Bar Associati
Cambridge University Law Society
The Cambridge University Law Society is the educational and representative body of undergraduate law students at the University of Cambridge. Founded in 1901, with an estimated 2,000 active members, it is the largest United Kingdom student-led law society and among the largest student-run law societies in the world, it founded the Cambridge Law Journal as a student publication in 1921, today the longest-running university law journal in the United Kingdom and the principal publication of the Faculty of Law, Cambridge. It is known for its Speakers events featuring prominent lawyers and legal celebrities, it publishes the Cambridge Law Review and organises the annual University of Cambridge Law Ball, one of the University's most prominent events outside May Week. It is one of the wealthiest societies at the University of Cambridge. CULS was established in January 1901 by the Faculty of Law, Cambridge as an educational body of law students, it had a small membership in its earlier years, was dormant during World War I.
In 1920, it was given increased attention by Downing Professor of the Laws of England Harold Hazeltine, who delivered its inaugural address. Through the connections of the Faculty, CULS hosted prominent legal figures in the 1920s, including Joseph Henry Beale, Roscoe Pound, Travers Humphreys, William Buckland; these addresses were academic in nature, were reproduced in the Cambridge Law Journal. CULS increased its engagement with other Cambridge University societies, including through debates. By 1977, CULS was the third-largest society by memberships in the University of Cambridge. CULS has since evolved to form career networks and partnerships with leading law firms and barristers' chambers. Membership is open to all members of the University of Cambridge. Elected positions are restricted to members of the Society who are undergraduates at the University of Cambridge; the Society is led by an executive committee, which appoints non-executive committees and sub-committees. The President, Vice-President and Secretary are elected officers of the Society, there are 9 mandatory appointments to the non-Executive Committee.
The Cambridge University Law Society organises the annual Law Ball, one of the University's most prominent balls outside May Week. The location of the ball is traditionally kept secret. Guests are subsequently transported to the venue; these balls are sponsored by law firms, tend to be elaborately themed. The headliner for the 2017 Law Ball was Tinchy Stryder; the Society's official termly magazine, Per Incuriam, features content by students as well as notable academics and professionals. Notable past contributors include John Laws, Simon Deakin, David Feldman. In 1921, the Cambridge University Law Society founded the Cambridge Law Journal as a student publication; as it gained recognition for quality, its management was taken over by the Faculty of Law, University of Cambridge. Today, the Cambridge Law Journal is the longest-running university law journal in the United Kingdom and the principal publication of the Faculty of Law, University of Cambridge, it is edited by Professor John Bell. In 2003, The Cambridge Law Review was founded as a successor student-run academic journal.
Roscoe Pound – former Dean of Harvard Law School Joseph Henry Beale – former Royall Professor of Law at Harvard Law School and inaugural Dean of Chicago Law School Alfred Denning – former Lord of Appeal in Ordinary and Master of the Rolls Cyril Salmon – former Lord of Appeal in Ordinary Brenda Hale – President of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh Elizabeth Butler-Sloss, GBE – first female Lord Justice of Appeal Igor Judge – former Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales Robert Megarry – former Vice-Chancellor of the Supreme Court Enoch Powell, MBE – former British Minister of Health, classical scholar and poet Robert Alexander, QC – British barrister and Conservative politician Travers Humphreys – British barrister and judge Martin Nourse – former Lord Justice of Appeal of England and Wales George Baker – President of the Family Division of the High Court of Justice Anthony Clarke – former Justice of the United Kingdom Supreme Court Conor Gearty – Professor of Human Rights at the London School of Economics Robert Winston – British professor, medical doctor, television presenter and Labour Party politician John Alderson, CBE – former Chief Constable for Devon and Cornwall and expert on police and penal affairs.
William Hughes – Labour Party politician Raymond Blackburn – Labour Party politician Hilel Neuer – Executive Director of UN Watch
Law Society of England and Wales
The Law Society of England and Wales is the professional association that represents and governs solicitors for the jurisdiction of England and Wales. It provides services and support to practising and training solicitors, as well as serving as a sounding board for law reform. Members of the Society are consulted when important issues are being debated in Parliament or by the executive; the Society was formed in 1825. The Hall of The Law Society is in Chancery Lane, but it has offices in Cardiff to deal with the Wales jurisdiction and Assembly, Brussels, to deal with European Union law. A president is elected annually to serve for one year; the current president is Christina Blacklaws. Barristers in England and Wales have a similar professional body, the General Council of the Bar known as the Bar Council; the London Law Institution, the predecessor to the Law Society, was founded in 1823 when many London Solicitors came together to raise the reputation of the profession by setting standards and ensuring good practice.'London' was dropped from the title in 1825 to reflect the fact that the Law Institution had national aspirations.
The Society was founded on 2 June 1825. The Society acquired its first Royal Charter in 1831 as The Society of Attorneys, Solicitors and others not being Barristers, practising in the Courts of Law and Equity of the United Kingdom. A new Charter in 1845 defined the Society as an independent, private body servicing the affairs of the profession like other professional and scientific bodies. By further Royal Charter in 1903 the name of the Society was changed to "The Law Society"; the Society first admitted women members in 1922. In July 2013, the Association of Women Solicitors, a national organisation working with and representing women solicitors in the United Kingdom, merged with the Law Society to form its Women Lawyers Division. Although merged, the AWS will operate separately from the Law Society. In 1834, the Society first initiated proceedings against dishonest practitioners. By 1907, the Society possessed a statutory disciplinary committee, was empowered to investigate solicitors' accounts and to issue annual practising certificates.
In 1983, the Society established the Office for the Supervision of Solicitors to deal with complaints about solicitors. Complaints regarding the conduct of solicitors are now dealt with by the Solicitors Regulation Authority; however complaints regarding poor service are the remit of the Legal Ombudsman. The Solicitors Act 1860 enabled the Society to create a three-tier examination system. In 1903, the Society established its own Law Society School of Law, which merged with tutorial firm Gibson and Weldon to become the independent College of Law. By 1922 The Law Society required a compulsory academic year for all clerks. Following the recommendations of the Clementi Review The Law Society split its representative and regulatory functions. Complaints from the public are handled by the Legal Ombudsman, a single portal for complaints by the public made against all providers of legal services including the Bar, licensed conveyancers etc. but excluding unqualified will-writers. The regulatory body for solicitors is the Solicitors Regulation Authority.
It is a Board of The Law Society although it regulates and enforces regulation independently of the Law Society. The Law Society remains the approved regulator, although following the Legal Services Act 2007 a new body, the Legal Services Board oversees all the approved regulators including the Bar Council, which has divested its regulatory functions into the Bar Standards Board. Law Society Gazette Solicitors Regulation Authority Legal Complaints Service Law Society of Scotland Law Society of Northern Ireland Lexcel Cambridge University Law Society Official website
Law Society of Northern Ireland
The Incorporated Law Society of Northern Ireland known as the Law Society of Northern Ireland, is a professional body established by Royal Charter granted on 10 July 1922 and whose powers and duties are to regulate the solicitors' profession in Northern Ireland with the aim of protecting the public. It is headquartered in Northern Ireland's capital city. Under the Solicitors Order 1976, the Law Society acts as the regulatory authority governing the education, accounts and professional conduct of solicitors in order to maintain the independence, ethical standards, professional competence and quality of services offered to the public; the society operates through an elected council of thirty members, all practising solicitors who serve on a voluntary basis. The society employs qualified solicitors and chartered accountants to carry out the administrative role of the society; the society's role is to provide a service for its members. Regulation of solicitors includes the annual issue of a Practising Certificate to each solicitor.
This certificate entitles the solicitor to hold himself or herself out as a solicitor entitled to practice in Northern Ireland. The society has a dedicated department. Over the years the society has contributed to draft legislation and comments on proposed changes to the law including the impact of the changes on solicitors, their clients and the community. For more information please click here The Law Society's Presidential and Chief Executive Team consists of the President, Senior Vice President, Junior President and Chief Executive; the presidential and chief executive team for 2018/2019 were appointed on Wednesday 28 November 2018. The new presidential team are as follows: President — Suzanne Rice Senior vice president — Eileen Ewing Junior vice president — Rowan White Chief executive and registrar — Alan Hunter The Chief Executive of the Law Society is Mr Alan Hunter, supported by a Senior Management Team. 2005 — Attracta Wilson 2006 — Rory McShane 2007 — James Cooper 2008 — Donald Eakin 2009 — Barry Finlay 2010 — Norville Connolly 2011 — Brian Speers 2012 — Imelda McMillan 2013 — Michael Robinson 2014 — Richard Palmer 2015 — Arleen Elliott 2016 — John Guerin 2017 — Ian Huddleston 2018 — Eileen Ewing 2019 — Suzanne Rice Official website