International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal to obey certain laws and commands of a government, or of an occupying international power. Civil disobedience is a symbolic or ritualistic violation of the law, Civil disobedience is sometimes, though not always, defined as being nonviolent resistance. One of its earliest massive implementations was brought about by Egyptians against the British occupation in the 1919 Revolution, Civil disobedience is one of the many ways people have rebelled against what they deem to be unfair laws. She gives a speech in which she tells him that she must obey her conscience rather than human law. She is not at all afraid of the death he threatens her with and it is perhaps the first modern statement of the principle of nonviolent protest. A version was taken up by the author Henry David Thoreau in his essay Civil Disobedience, gandhis Satyagraha was partially influenced and inspired by Shelleys nonviolence in protest and political action. In particular, it is known that Gandhi would often quote Shelleys Masque of Anarchy to vast audiences during the campaign for a free India, Thoreaus 1848 essay Civil Disobedience, originally titled Resistance to Civil Government, has had a wide influence on many practitioners of civil disobedience.
The driving idea behind the essay is that citizens are morally responsible for their support of aggressors, in the essay, Thoreau explained his reasons for having refused to pay taxes as an act of protest against slavery and against the Mexican–American War. He writes, If I devote myself to other pursuits and contemplations, I must first see, at least, I must get off him first, that he may pursue his contemplations too. See what gross inconsistency is tolerated and typically peaceful resistance to public power would remain an integral tactic in modern American minority-rights politics. Henry David Thoreaus 1849 essay Resistance to Civil Government was eventually renamed Essay on Civil Disobedience, after his landmark lectures were published in 1866, the term began to appear in numerous sermons and lectures relating to slavery and the war in Mexico. Thus, by the time Thoreaus lectures were first published under the title Civil Disobedience, in 1866, four years after his death and it has been argued that the term civil disobedience has always suffered from ambiguity and in modern times, become utterly debased.
Marshall Cohen notes, It has been used to everything from bringing a test-case in the federal courts to taking aim at a federal official. LeGrande writes that the formulation of a single all-encompassing definition of the term is extremely difficult, in reviewing the voluminous literature on the subject, the student of civil disobedience rapidly finds himself surrounded by a maze of semantical problems and grammatical niceties. Like Alice in Wonderland, he finds that specific terminology has no more meaning than the individual orator intends it to have. He encourages a distinction between lawful protest demonstration, nonviolent civil disobedience, and violent civil disobedience, the resistance to authority in South Africa was well advanced before I got the essay. When I saw the title of Thoreaus great essay, I began to use his phrase to explain our struggle to the English readers, but I found that even Civil Disobedience failed to convey the full meaning of the struggle. I therefore adopted the phrase Civil Resistance, often there is an expectation to be attacked or even beaten by the authorities
FiveThirtyEight, sometimes referred to as 538, is a website that focuses on opinion poll analysis, politics and sports blogging. In August 2010, the became a licensed feature of The New York Times online. It was renamed FiveThirtyEight, Nate Silvers Political Calculus, in July 2013, ESPN announced that it would become the owner of the FiveThirtyEight brand and site, and Silver was appointed as editor-in-chief. The ESPN-owned FiveThirtyEight began publication on March 17,2014, in the ESPN era, the FiveThirtyEight blog has covered a broad spectrum of subjects including politics, science and popular culture. Silver weighted each poll based on the pollsters historical track record, sample size, since the 2008 election, the site has published articles – typically creating or analyzing statistical information – on a wide variety of topics in current politics and political news. These included an update on the prospects for turnover in the U. S. The site and its founder are best known for election forecasts and it miscalled the following election, although not so badly as most other forecasters.
During its first five and a half years FiveThirtyEight won numerous awards - both when it was an independent blog and when it was published by The New York Times. These included Bloggie Awards for Best Political Coverage in 2008 and Best Weblog about Politics in 2009, in 2016, while under the ownership of ESPN, FiveThirtyEight won the Data Journalism Website of the Year award. The websites logo depicts a fox, in reference to a phrase attributed to Archilochus, The fox knows many things, writing as Poblano on Daily Kos, he had gained a following, especially for his primary election forecast on Super Tuesday, February 5,2008. FiveThirtyEight. com gained further attention for beating out most pollsters projections in the North Carolina and Indiana Democratic party primaries on May 6,2008. As Mark Blumenthal wrote in National Journal, Over the last week and he posted predictions for the upcoming primaries based not on polling data, but on a statistical model driven mostly by demographic and past vote data.
Most of the public polls pointed to a race in North Carolina. Silver relied on data and on the history of voting in other states during the 2008 Democratic primary elections. On May 30,2008, Silver revealed his identity for the first time to his FiveThirtyEight. com readers. After that date, he published just four more diaries on Daily Kos, as the primary season was coming to an end, Silver began to build a model for the general election race. This model, relied in part on demographic information, at the same time, FiveThirtyEight. coms daily Todays Polls column began to be mirrored on The Plank, a blog published by The New Republic. By early October 2008, FiveThirtyEight. com approached 2.5 million visitors per week, during October 2008 the site received 3.63 million unique visitors,20.57 million site visits, and 32.18 million page views
Orwellian is an adjective describing a situation, idea, or societal condition that George Orwell identified as being destructive to the welfare of a free and open society. Nineteen Eighty-Four uses themes from life in the Soviet Union and wartime life in Great Britain as sources for many of its motifs, bibliography of George Orwell Mass surveillance National security Doublespeak Award Finding Orwell in Burma
In politics, campaign advertising is the use of an advertising campaign through the media to influence political debate, and ultimately, voters. These ads are designed by consultants and political campaign staff. Many countries restrict the use of broadcast media to broadcast political messaging, in both the United Kingdom and Ireland, paid advertisements are forbidden, though political parties are allowed a small number of party political broadcasts in the run up to election time. The United States has a free market for broadcast political messaging. Canada allows paid-for political broadcasts but requires equitable access to the airwaves, campaigns can include several different media. Political advertising has changed drastically over the last several decades, but that accomplishment was soon to pale in comparison when in 1952, the United States presidential election,1952 saw a major change in how candidates reached their potential audiences. With the advent of television, war hero and presidential candidate Dwight D and he did not have to shake a half a million hands or travel the country extensively.
He won the trust of the American people with his direct approach and his vice president was Richard M. Nixon. On the other side of the fence, Catholic born John F. Kennedy created approximately 200 commercials during his campaign, the second and more memorable was the first Kennedy-Nixon debate. In the first of four televised debates, Kennedy appeared tanned and confident in opposition to Nixon, in the United States presidential election,1964, aggressive advertising paved the way for a landslide victory for Lyndon B. Johnson. One of the first negative and maybe the most controversial commercial, the commercial showed a young girl picking the petals off a daisy. After she finishes counting, a voice off camera begins a countdown to a nuclear explosion, the ad ends with an appeal to vote Johnson, because the stakes are too high for you to stay home. The commercial used fear and guilt, an effective advertising principle, to make people take action to protect the next generation. The ad ran for under a minute and only aired once, but due to the wing, pro-war views of Barry Goldwater.
Over the next decade, the United States saw the rise of the televised political attack ad. Richard M. George McGovern ran a free of political attack ads until the very end of his campaign. Attack ads continued to become the norm in political advertising, Ronald Reagan used them against Jimmy Carter during the United States presidential election,1980. It was the first time that a member was used to attack the opposing candidate
An election is a formal decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy has operated since the 17th century, Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes in the executive and judiciary, and for regional and local government. This process is used in many other private and business organizations. Electoral reform describes the process of introducing fair electoral systems where they are not in place, psephology is the study of results and other statistics relating to elections. To elect means to choose or make a decision, and so other forms of ballot such as referendums are referred to as elections. Elections were used as early in history as ancient Greece and ancient Rome, and throughout the Medieval period to select rulers such as the Holy Roman Emperor, in Vedic period of India, the raja of a gana was apparently elected by the gana. The raja belonged to the noble Kshatriya varna, and was typically a son of the previous raja, the gana members had the final say in his elections.
The Pala king Gopala in early medieval Bengal was elected by a group of feudal chieftains, such elections were quite common in contemporary societies of the region. In Chola Empire, around 920 CE, in Uthiramerur, palm leaves were used for selecting the village committee members, the leaves, with candidate names written on them, were put inside a mud pot. To select the members, a young boy was asked to take out as many leaves as the number of positions available. This was known as the Kudavolai system, ancient Arabs used election to choose their caliph and Ali, in the early medieval Rashidun Caliphate. Questions of suffrage, especially suffrage for minority groups, have dominated the history of elections, the dominate cultural group in North America and Europe, often dominated the electorate and continue to do so in many countries. Early elections in such as the United Kingdom and the United States were dominated by landed or ruling class males. However, by 1920 all Western European and North American democracies had universal male suffrage.
Despite legally mandated universal suffrage for males, political barriers were sometimes erected to prevent fair access to elections. The question of who may vote is an issue in elections. In Australia Aboriginal people were not given the right to vote until 1962, suffrage is typically only for citizens of the country, though further limits may be imposed. However, in the European Union, one can vote in municipal elections if one lives in the municipality and is an EU citizen, the nationality of the country of residence is not required
Political campaign staff
Political campaign staff are the people who formulate and implement the strategy needed to win an election. Many people have made out of working full-time for campaigns and groups that support them. These differ from political consultants who do not work for the campaign full-time but still provide assistance in the form of advice and this article provides a generic description of a campaigns staff and organization. Campaigns are usually overseen by a campaign manager, the campaign manager coordinates the campaign making sure that the rest of the staff and the campaigns consultants are focused effectively on winning the election. In small local campaigns, the manager will often be the only paid staff member. In larger campaigns, such as a United States presidential campaign, campaign managers will often have deputies who oversee various aspects of the campaign at a closer level. Directly below the campaign manager on the chart is the deputy campaign manager. These staff members often have deputies as well, below the department level, campaigns vary widely in their structure.
On larger campaigns, there will be various coordinators for certain functions within each department, for example, within the fundraising department, there might be a staff member who focuses only on direct mail fundraising. The foundation of the structure are the interns and volunteers. Their tasks can include addressing envelopes, entering data into databases, the field department focuses on the on-the-ground organizing that is required in order to personally contact voters through canvassing, phone calls, and building local events. Voter contact helps construct and clean the campaigns voter file in order to better target voter persuasion. Field is generally tasked with running local storefront campaign offices as well as organizing phone banks and staging locations for canvasses. In addition to persuasion and voter identification, field staff will often provide information for the campaign headquarters as to what is going on in the communities they work in. Field staffers are the primary liaison between the campaign and local influentials such as interest group leaders and prominent community activists, field departments are often primarily responsible for the local distribution of swag i. e. lawn signs, bumper stickers and other such materials.
The communications department oversees both the press relations and advertising involved in promoting the campaign in the media and they are responsible for the campaigns message and image among the electorate. Press releases, phone scripts, and other forms of communication must be approved by this department before they can be released to the public, the staffers within this office vary widely from campaign to campaign. However they generally include, A press secretary who monitors the media, press secretaries set up interviews between the candidate and reporters, brief the press at press conferences, and perform other tasks involved in press relations
A political campaign is an organized effort which seeks to influence the decision making process within a specific group. In democracies, political campaigns often refer to campaigns, by which representatives are chosen or referendums are decided. In modern politics, the most high-profile political campaigns are focused on elections and candidates for head of state or head of government. The message of the campaign contains the ideas that the wants to share with the voters. It is to get those who agree with their ideas to them when running for a political position. The message often consists of talking points about policy issues. The points summarize the ideas of the campaign and are repeated frequently in order to create a lasting impression with the voters. In many elections, the party will try to get the candidate off message by bringing up policy or personal questions that are not related to the talking points. Most campaigns prefer to keep the message broad in order to attract the most potential voters, a message that is too narrow can alienate voters or slow the candidate down with explaining details.
Barack Obama ran on a consistent, simple message of change throughout his campaign, even if the message is crafted carefully, it does not assure the candidate a victory at the polls. For a winning candidate, the message is refined and becomes his or her in office, in a modern political campaign, the campaign organization will have a coherent structure of personnel in the same manner as any business of similar size. Successful campaigns usually require a campaign manager to coordinate the campaigns operations, apart from a candidate, they are often a campaigns most visible leader. Political consultants advise campaigns on all of their activities, from research to field strategy. Consultants conduct candidate research, voter research, and opposition research for their clients, activists are the foot soldiers loyal to the cause, the true believers who will carry the run by volunteer activists. Such volunteers and interns may take part in such as canvassing door-to-door. Modern political campaigns have set new standards for how successful campaigns are conducted day-to-day.
The daily schedule of a campaign is hyperextended, and often has no definite beginning or end, only a series of tasks to be completed by certain benchmark times, or, most often. COB for political campaigns is generally defined as the time at night at which your supervisor is required to report his/her numbers, only a very small fraction of campaign workers do the bulk of their work during traditional business hours
A polling place is where voters cast their ballots in elections. The phrase polling station is used in American English and in British English. A polling place can contain one or more polling stations, the area may be known as a ward, polling district or constituency. The polling place is staffed by officials who monitor the voting procedures, scrutineers are independent or partisan observers who attend the poll to ensure the impartiality of the process. Inside the polling place will be an area where the voter may select the candidate or party of their choice in secret, if a ballot paper is used this will be placed into a ballot box in front of witnesses who cannot see for whom the vote has been cast. Voting machines may be employed instead, some polling places are temporary structures. A portable cabin may be specially sited for an election and removed afterwards, there are five different types of voting technologies that are currently being used in the United States polling locations. These include hand counted paper ballots, mechanical lever machines, punch cards, optically scanned paper ballots, each location is charged with learning the technology and implementing the process to vote in each election.
The word poll means scalp or head, when votes were taken by gathering people together and counting heads, the place where this was done was called the polls. Polling places used to gather and count ballots in elections have changed significantly over the past 250 years, advances in technology have played a major role in changing the polling places because as the type of ballot changed, the venue in which the ballots are counted changed. One of the reasons for advancement was to be able to access the results quicker. First was the word ballot, came the different types of paper ballots, before there were paper ballots, people would simply call out their selection at the polling place. This polling place was typically the county courthouse or town hall, sometimes these polls were taken outside of the venue in a more informal fashion. When the voters came to the hall to announce their choice, they would get in line to see the judge. Once the voter put his or her hand on the Bible and swore to the judge, the judge acted as the only form of voter identification and it was up to them to be able to identify individuals that had already voted and exclude them from voting again.
The use of paper and electronic ballots have been the most widely used form of capturing votes in recent history. When paper or electronic ballots are used, the place must be professionally organized in order to ensure that the ballots are not tampered with and are accounted for accurately. These polls are held inside a building that has set up in stations to assist voters
Canvassing is the systematic initiation of direct contact with individuals, commonly used during political campaigns. Campaigners will knock on doors or make calls to engage in personalized contact with an individual. It is the element of what political campaigns call the ground game or field. It is less common in campaigns of Continental Europe and East Asian democracies, canvassing can refer to a neighborhood canvass performed by law enforcement in the course of an investigation. A neighborhood canvas is an approach to interviewing residents, merchants. A modern election canvass is conducted either by a candidate, the canvassers are given lists known as canvass sheets or in the UK as reading pads. These are a list of households to be contacted, generated from a voter database, some campaigns today have replaced paper sheets with tablet or smartphone apps. The canvasser will attempt to reach each of the households on their list, almost all election canvassing includes asking how a person plans to vote.
Supporters will be asked themselves to volunteer, or to take a lawn sign and those who are wavering or undecided may be given a message of persuasion. If foot canvassing, the canvasser will distribute flyers, upon completing the canvass, the results will be entered into the voter database. This will update the campaigns list of voters, removing those who have moved or are deceased and adding new residents who may have been found. The data on the questions will be used for further contact, the origin of the term is an older spelling of “canvas”, to sift by shaking in a sheet of canvas, hence to discuss thoroughly. An organized canvass can be seen as early as the elections of the Roman Republic, in those campaigns candidates would shake the hands of all eligible voters in the Forum. Whispering into the ear of some candidates would be a nomenclator, modern canvassing traces back to the rise of contested elections in England. For the first centuries of the English Parliament elections were rarely contested, losing an election was considered a dishonor to oneself, and to friends and family.
Campaigning thus involved quiet sounding out of the pool of voters. Only once this process had convinced a candidate that he had enough votes to win would he declare his interest in the seat, beginning in the Elizabethan Era, and expanding during the conflicts under the Stuarts, elections began to be openly contested. In both 1604 and 1626 canvassing for votes was banned and it was seen as a violation to free elections, as votes would be won by persuasion rather than a voter making up his own mind