National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
UC San Diego School of Global Policy and Strategy
The School of Global Policy and Strategy at the University of California San Diego the Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies, is devoted to the study of international affairs and policy education. Until 2015, it stood as the only professional school of international affairs, focused on Asia and the Americas. GPS provides a unique resource for training leaders, creating ideas, building networks for the Pacific Century; the curriculum blends a mix of three professional school traditions-schools of international relations, public policy, management. Interdisciplinary yet integrated curricula prepare students to perform with distinction in senior policy positions in the public and non-profit sectors, as well as in the top management of multinational firms and financial institutions. In May 2015, UC San Diego announced that IR/PS would expand its focus and become the School of Global Policy and Strategy, that its Center on Emerging and Pacific Economies would become the Center for Global Transformation.
GPS is a full member of the Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs. Foreign Policy magazine's 2015 rankings of the top international affairs schools placed UCSD at 7th, 13th and 13th worldwide for its PhD, master's and bachelor's programs, respectively. Peter Gourevitch - Political Scientist and Professor Emeritus List of Guggenheim Fellowships awarded in 2005 Stephan Haggard - Lawrence and Sallye Krause Professor of Korea-Pacific Studies. Krause - International Economist and Professor Emeritus Barry Naughton - Professor of Chinese Economy.
Lawrence M. Krauss
Lawrence Maxwell Krauss is an American-Canadian theoretical physicist and cosmologist, a professor in the School of Earth and Space Exploration at Arizona State University and a former professor at Yale University and Case Western Reserve University. He founded ASU's Origins Project to investigate fundamental questions about the universe and served as its director until July 2018. In response to allegations about sexual misconduct by Krauss, ASU conducted an investigation. Having determined that Krauss had violated university policy, they removed him from his position as director. Krauss continued on as a Professor at ASU, will retire from that position in May of 2019. In January 2019 it was announced that he had become President of the Origins Project Foundation, a non-profit organization that will run public events on science and society as well as other educational opportunities, he will host a new Origins Podcast. He is an advocate of the public understanding of science, of public policy based on sound empirical data, of scientific skepticism and of science education.
Krauss, an atheist, works to reduce the influence of what he regards as superstition and religious dogma in popular culture. Krauss is the author of several bestselling books, including The Physics of Star Trek and A Universe from Nothing, chaired the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists Board of Sponsors. Krauss was born on May 27, 1954, in New York City, but spent his childhood in Toronto, Canada, he was raised in a Jewish household. Krauss received undergraduate degrees in mathematics and physics with first-class honours at Carleton University in 1977, was awarded a PhD in physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1982. After some time in the Harvard Society of Fellows, Krauss became an assistant professor at Yale University in 1985 and associate professor in 1988, he was named the Ambrose Swasey Professor of Physics, professor of astronomy, was chairman of the physics department at Case Western Reserve University from 1993 to 2005. In 2006, Krauss led the initiative for the no-confidence vote against Case Western Reserve University's president Edward M. Hundert and provost John L. Anderson by the College of Arts and Sciences faculty.
On March 2, 2006, both no-confidence votes were carried: 131–44 against Hundert and 97–68 against Anderson. In August 2008, Krauss joined the faculty at Arizona State University as a Foundation Professor in the School of Earth and Space Exploration at the Department of Physics in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, he became the Director of the Origins Project, a university initiative "created to explore humankind's most fundamental questions about our origins". In 2009, he helped inaugurate this initiative at the Origins Symposium, in which eighty scientists participated and three thousand people attended. In January 2019 Krauss became President of the Origins Project Foundation, a non-profit organization that will run public events on science and society as well as other educational opportunities, he will host a new Origins Podcast. Krauss appears in the media both at home and abroad to facilitate public outreach in science, he has written editorials for The New York Times. As a result of his appearance in 2002 before the state school board of Ohio, his opposition to intelligent design has gained national prominence.
Krauss attended and was a speaker at the Beyond Belief symposia in November 2006 and October 2008. He served on the science policy committee for Barack Obama's first presidential campaign and in 2008, was named co-president of the board of sponsors of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. In 2010, he was elected to the board of directors of the Federation of American Scientists, in June 2011, he joined the professoriate of the New College of the Humanities, a private college in London. In 2013, he accepted a part-time professorship at the Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics in the physics department of the Australian National University. Krauss is a critic of string theory. In his 2012 book A Universe from Nothing Krauss says about string theory "we still have no idea if this remarkable theoretical edifice has anything to do with the real world". Another book, released in March 2011, titled Quantum Man: Richard Feynman's Life in Science, while A Universe from Nothing —with an afterword by Richard Dawkins—was released in January 2012 and became a New York Times bestseller within a week.
Its foreword was to have been written by Christopher Hitchens, but Hitchens grew too ill to complete it. The paperback version of the book appeared in January 2013 with a new question-and-answer section and a preface integrating the 2012 discovery of the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider. On March 21, 2017, his newest book,'The Greatest Story Ever Told—So Far: Why Are We Here?' was released in hardcover and audio version. A July 2012 article in Newsweek, written by Krauss, indicates how the Higgs particle is related to our understanding of the Big Bang, he wrote a longer piece in the New York Times explaining the science behind and significance of the particle. In a February 2018 article describing allegations that "range from offensive comments to groping and non-consensual sexual advances", BuzzFeed reported a variety of sexual misconduct claims against Krauss, including two complaints from his years at CWRU. Krauss responded that the article was "slanderous" and "factually incorrect".
In a public statement, he apologized "to anyone he made feel intimidated or uncomfortable", but stated that the BuzzFeed article "ignored counter-evidence, distorted the facts and made absurd claims about me."ASU stated that they had not received comp
C. Fred Bergsten
C. Fred Bergsten is an American economist and political adviser, he has served as assistant for international economic affairs to Henry Kissinger within the National Security Council and as assistant secretary for international affairs at the U. S. Department of the Treasury, he was director of the Peterson Institute for International Economics the Institute for International Economics, from its founding in 1981 through 2012 and is now senior fellow and director emeritus. In addition to his academic work, he makes his opinions known to the policy making community and engages with the public with television appearances, writing for influential periodicals such as Foreign Affairs magazine and by writing numerous books. Bergsten received a BA from Central Methodist University, during which time he was valedictorian of his class and a championship debater, earned MA, MALD, PhD degrees from The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, he was a senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations from 1967 to 1968.
In 1969 he became assistant for international economic affairs to Henry Kissinger at the National Security Council where he coordinated US foreign economic policy until 1971. From 1972 to 1976 he was a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution. From 1977 to 1981 he served at the U. S. Treasury Department as Assistant Secretary for International Affairs during the Carter administration, he functioned as well as Under Secretary for Monetary Affairs, during 1980–81, representing the United States on the G-5 Finance Ministers' deputies and in preparing G-7 summits. Bergsten was a senior fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace during 1981. In that same year he founded a Washington-based think-tank, the Institute for International Economics, he was director of that now renamed organization through 2012 and is now its director emeritus and a senior fellow. He has authored 41 books on a wide variety of global economic topics, most The International Economic Position of the United States and China's Rise: Challenges And Opportunities.
In 1991, he was elected chairman of the Competitiveness Policy Council, created by the Congress, led the council for several years with distinction. During his tenure, the council issued a series of reports on US competitiveness to the President and the Congress. From 1992 through 1995, he was chairman of the Eminent Persons Group of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, whose recommendations for achieving "free and open trade and investment in the region" by 2020 were agreed by the leaders of the member economies and are now being implemented through the TransPacific Partnership. In 2001, he co-founded the Center for Global Development along with Edward W. Scott, Jr. and Nancy Birdsall. He is now a member of the President's Advisory Committee on Trade Policy and Negotiations, a member of the Advisory Committee to the Export-Import Bank of the United States and co-chairman of the Private Sector Advisory Group to the Trade Policy Forum composed of the trade ministers of India and the United States.
His career is described and analyzed in C. Fred Bergsten and The World Economy, a book of essays on his contributions to a wide range of global economic issues published by the Peterson Institute for International Economics in 2007 and edited by former Senior Fellow Michael Mussa. National Foreign Trade Council World Trade Award, 2013, they have one son, now a doctor. Appearances on C-SPAN
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps referred to as the United States Marines or U. S. Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary and amphibious operations with the United States Navy as well as the Army and Air Force; the U. S. Marine Corps is one of the four armed service branches in the U. S. Department of Defense and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States; the Marine Corps has been a component of the U. S. Department of the Navy since 30 June 1834, working with naval forces; the USMC operates installations on land and aboard sea-going amphibious warfare ships around the world. Additionally, several of the Marines' tactical aviation squadrons Marine Fighter Attack squadrons, are embedded in Navy carrier air wings and operate from the aircraft carriers; the history of the Marine Corps began when two battalions of Continental Marines were formed on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting both at sea and on shore.
In the Pacific theater of World War II the Corps took the lead in a massive campaign of amphibious warfare, advancing from island to island. As of 2017, the USMC has around some 38,500 personnel in reserve, it is the smallest U. S. military service within the DoD. As outlined in 10 U. S. C. § 5063 and as introduced under the National Security Act of 1947, three primary areas of responsibility for the Marine Corps are: Seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and other land operations to support naval campaigns. This last clause derives from similar language in the Congressional acts "For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps" of 1834, "Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps" of 1798. In 1951, the House of Representatives' Armed Services Committee called the clause "one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps", it noted that the Corps has more than not performed actions of a non-naval nature, including its famous actions in Tripoli, the War of 1812, numerous counter-insurgency and occupational duties, World War I, the Korean War.
While these actions are not described as support of naval campaigns nor as amphibious warfare, their common thread is that they are of an expeditionary nature, using the mobility of the Navy to provide timely intervention in foreign affairs on behalf of American interests. The Marine Band, dubbed the "President's Own" by Thomas Jefferson, provides music for state functions at the White House. Marines from Ceremonial Companies A & B, quartered in Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. guard presidential retreats, including Camp David, the Marines of the Executive Flight Detachment of HMX-1 provide helicopter transport to the President and Vice President, with the radio call signs "Marine One" and "Marine Two", respectively. The Executive Flight Detachment provides helicopter transport to Cabinet members and other VIPs. By authority of the 1946 Foreign Service Act, the Marine Security Guards of the Marine Embassy Security Command provide security for American embassies and consulates at more than 140 posts worldwide.
The relationship between the Department of State and the U. S. Marine Corps is nearly as old as the corps itself. For over 200 years, Marines have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War II, an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies and legations throughout the world. In 1947, a proposal was made that the Department of Defense furnish Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946. A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on 15 December 1948, 83 Marines were deployed to overseas missions. During the first year of the MSG program, 36 detachments were deployed worldwide; the Marine Corps was founded to serve as an infantry unit aboard naval vessels and was responsible for the security of the ship and its crew by conducting offensive and defensive combat during boarding actions and defending the ship's officers from mutiny.
Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at ashore. America's first amphibious assault landing occurred early in the Revolutionary War on 3 March 1776 as the Marines gained control of Fort Montague and Fort Nassau, a British ammunition depot and naval port in New Providence, the Bahamas; the role of the Marine Corps has expanded since then. The Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers and aircraft carriers. Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ship's landing force, manning the ship's weapons and providing shipboard security. Marine detachments were augmented by members of the ship's company for landing parties, such as in the First Sumatran Expedition of 1832, continuing in the Caribbean and Mexican campaigns of the early 20th centuries.