Beloit College is a private liberal arts college in Beloit, Wisconsin. Founded in 1846, while the state of Wisconsin was still a territory, it is the oldest continuously operated college in the state, it is a member of the Associated Colleges of the Midwest and has an enrollment of 1,402 undergraduate students. Beloit College was founded by the group Friends for Education, started by seven pioneers from New England who, soon after their arrival in the Wisconsin Territory, agreed that a college needed to be established; the group raised funds for a college in their new town and convinced the territorial legislature to enact the charter for Beloit College on February 2, 1846. The first building was built in 1847, it remains in operation today. Classes began in the fall of 1847, with the first degrees awarded in 1851; the first president of Beloit was a Yale University graduate, Aaron Lucius Chapin, who served as president from December 1849 until 1886. The college become coeducational in fall 1895.
Although independent today, Beloit College was though unofficially, associated with the Congregationalist tradition. The college remained small for its entire first century with enrollment topping 1,000 students only with the influx of World War II veterans in 1945–1946; the "Beloit Plan" was a year-round curriculum introduced in 1964 that comprised three full terms and a "field term" of off-campus study. The trustees decided to return to the two-semester program in 1978. Beloit's campus is located within the Near East Side Historic District; the campus is host to "20 conical and animal effigy mounds built between about AD 400 and 1200", created by Native Americans identified by archaeologists as Late Woodland people. One of the mounds, in the shape of a turtle, inspired Beloit's symbol and unofficial mascot; the mounds on Beloit's campus are "catalogued" burial sites, therefore may not be disturbed without an official permit from the Wisconsin Historical Society. Several of the Beloit College sites have been excavated and restored, material found within them—including pottery and tool fragments—is now held in the college's Logan Museum of Anthropology.
Beloit College completed a 120,000 sq ft Center for the Sciences in the fall of 2008, named the Marjorie and James Sanger Center for the Sciences in 2017. The building was awarded LEED green building certification, it won a Design Excellence Honor Award in Interior Architecture from the Chicago chapter of the American Institute of Architects on October 30, 2009. In the fall of 2010, Beloit College opened the Hendricks Center for the Arts, a 58,000-square-foot structure that holds dance and theater facilities; the building held the Beloit Post Office and the Beloit Public Library. The renovation and expansion of the facility is the largest single gift in the college's history; the building is named after Diane Hendricks, chair of ABC Supply of Beloit, her late husband and former college trustee Ken Hendricks. Two Beloit campus museums open to the public are run by college staff and students; the Logan Museum of Anthropology and the Wright Museum of Art were both founded in the late 19th century.
The Logan Museum, accredited by the American Alliance of Museums, curates over 300,000 ethnographic and archaeological objects from 125 countries and over 600 cultural groups. The Wright Museum's holdings of over 8,000 objects include a large collection of original prints and Asian art. Both museums feature temporary special exhibitions year round; the Beloit College campus houses two sculptures by artist Siah Armajani, his Gazebo for One Anarchist: Emma Goldman 1991 and The Beloit College Poetry Garden. Beloit College's curriculum retains many aspects of the Beloit Plan from the 1960s, emphasizing experiential learning, learner agency, reflective connection-making between out-of-classroom and in-classroom learning experiences, or "the liberal arts in practice." Academic strengths include field-oriented disciplines such as geology. More Beloit graduates have earned Ph. D.s in anthropology than graduates of any other undergraduate liberal arts college not affiliated with a university, the school ranks among the top 20 American liberal arts colleges whose graduates go on to earn a Ph.
D. in general. The geology department continues a tradition that began with T. C. Chamberlin more than a century ago. Today the department combines a course load with research; the department is a member of the Keck Geology Consortium, a research collaboration of several similar colleges across the United States, including Amherst College, Pomona College, Washington and Lee University. The Consortium sends undergraduate students worldwide to publish their findings; the college created a center for entrepreneurship known as CELEB, founded by Professor of Economics Emeritus Jerry Gustafson. Beloit hosts seven annual academic residencies that bring leaders in their respective fields to campus to work with students and serve as the center of other themed activities; the oldest is the Lois and Willard Mackey Chair in Creative Writing, established in the late 1980s, which has brought Denise Levertov, Scott Russell Sanders, Ursula Le Guin, many noted writers to Beloit. As part of the Weissberg Program in Human Rights, Beloit hosts the Weissberg Distinguished Professor in Human Rights and Social Justice, held by an individual with significant international human rights experience.
Weissberg Chairs have included Palestinian activist and scholar Hanan Ashrawi and U. S. Marine Corps General Anthony Zinni; the Upton Scholar presides over Beloi
New York University
New York University is a private research university founded in New York City but now with campuses and locations throughout the world. Founded in 1831, NYU's historical campus is in New York City; as a global university, students can graduate from its degree-granting campuses in NYU Abu Dhabi and NYU Shanghai, as well as study at its 12 academic centers in Accra, Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Washington, D. C. For the class that matriculated in the fall of 2019, NYU received nearly 85,000 applications for its undergraduate programs. In 2018, NYU was ranked amongst the top 40 universities worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Times Higher Education World University Rankings, U. S. News & World Report. Alumni include heads of state, eminent scientists and entrepreneurs, media figures, founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, astronauts; as of March 2019, 37 Nobel Laureates, 8 Turing Award winners, 5 Fields Medalists, over 30 Academy Award winners, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, hundreds of members of the National Academies of Sciences and United States Congress have been affiliated as faculty or alumni.
Globally, NYU is ranked 7th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for producing alumni who are millionaires, 4th by Wealth-X for producing ultra high net-worth and billionaire alumni. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish "in this immense and fast-growing city... a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all". A three-day-long "literary and scientific convention" held in City Hall in 1830 and attended by over 100 delegates debated the terms of a plan for a new university; these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18, 1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the city's merchants and traders. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institution's first president. On April 21, 1831, the new institution received its charter and was incorporated as the University of the City of New York by the New York State Legislature.
The university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, situated near City Hall. In 1835, the School of Law, NYU's first professional school, was established. Although the impetus to found a new school was a reaction by evangelical Presbyterians to what they perceived as the Episcopalianism of Columbia College, NYU was created non-denominational, unlike many American colleges at the time. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU, it became one of the nation's largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding; the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus. NYU had a desire to follow New York City's development further uptown. NYU's move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken.
The University Heights campus was far more spacious. As a result, most of the university's operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYU's administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the graduate schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the downtown undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the "Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead, Long Island"; this extension would become a independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, a nonprofit organization of leading public and private research universities. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the city's institutions, including NYU. Feeling the pressures of imminent bankruptcy, NYU President James McNaughton Hester negotiated the sale of the University Heights campus to the City University of New York, which occurred in 1973.
In 1973, the New York University School of Engineering and Science merged into Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, which merged back into NYU in 2014 forming the present Tandon School of Engineering. After the sale of the Bronx campus, University College merged with Washington Square College. In the 1980s, under the leadership of President John Brademas, NYU launched a billion-dollar campaign, spent entirely on updating facilities; the campaign was set to complete in 15 years, but ended up being completed in 10. In 1991, L. Jay Oliva was inaugurated the 14th president of the university. Following his inauguration, he moved to form the League of World Universities, an international organization consisting of rectors and presidents from urban universities across six continents; the league and its 47 representatives gather every two years to discuss global issues in education. In 2003 President John Sexton launched a $2.5 billion campaign for funds to be spent on faculty and financial aid resources.
Under Sextons leadership, NYU began its radical transformation into a global university. In 2009, the university responded to a series of New York Times interviews that showed a pattern of labor abuses in its fledgling Abu Dhabi location, creating a statement of
Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law
The Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law is located on the campus of Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis in Indianapolis, the urban campus of Indiana University. In the summer of 2001, the school moved to Lawrence W. Inlow Hall. IU McKinney is one of two law schools operated by Indiana University, the other being the Indiana University Maurer School of Law in Bloomington. Although both law schools are part of Indiana University, each law school is wholly independent of the other. According to IU McKinney's 2016 ABA-required disclosures, 82.5% of the Class of 2015 obtained full-time, long-term, J. D. required or J. D. advantage employment within nine months after graduation–the highest of any Indiana law school. Several of IU McKinney's programs have drawn national attention and honors. U. S. News & World Report ranks the school 11th in the nation for its health care law program, 23rd for legal writing, 23rd for the part-time law program. Additionally, IU McKinney counts among its alumni many distinguished leaders in politics, public service, the judiciary, including two United States Vice Presidents and numerous senators, representatives and ambassadors.
In a listing of "The 50 Most Impressive Law School Buildings in the World," IU McKinney's building, Lawrence W. Inlow Hall, ranked 13th; the Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law traces its origins to the late nineteenth century when the first of its private predecessor schools, the Indiana Law School, began operating in 1894. A full-time day school, the Indiana Law School was part of a newly formed University of Indianapolis that included Butler University, the Medical College of Indiana and the Indiana Dental School. All three professional schools became part of Indiana University. Among the first trustees of the school were former United States President, Benjamin Harrison, Indiana industrialist, Eli Lilly. In 1898, a second predecessor school, the Indianapolis College of Law, was founded, offering a two-year evening program; this school, located in the Pythian Building in downtown Indianapolis, was advertised in 1906 as "known everywhere for its successful graduates," and boasted a tuition of $10 per term.
A few years another evening school, the American Central Law School, was established. In 1914, the Indianapolis College of Law and American Central Law School merged to become the Benjamin Harrison Law School, an evening school. In 1936 the Benjamin Harrison Law School and the Indiana Law School merged, taking the name of the latter, offering both day and evening programs. In 1944, the Indiana Law School affiliated with Indiana University, becoming the Indianapolis Division of the Indiana University School of Law. Beginning the following year, the school was housed in the Maennerchor Building, an architectural landmark in Indianapolis; the school gained autonomy in 1968, becoming the Indiana University School of Law – Indianapolis, the largest law school in the state of Indiana and the only law school in the state to offer both full- and part-time programs. The school moved into a new building at 735 West New York Street in 1970 where it remained until moving to Lawrence W. Inlow Hall, located at 530 West New York Street, in May 2001.
The school's name was changed in December 2011 in recognition of a $24 million gift from Robert H. McKinney, who served as chairman and CEO of First Indiana Corporation and is among the founders of Bose McKinney & Evans LLP, one of the largest law firms in Indianapolis; the gift was the largest in school history and was part of an arrangement to match funds with an IUPUI fundraising campaign, for a total value of $31.5 million. The school was renamed after McKinney. According to IU McKinney's 2016 ABA-required disclosures, 82.5% of the Class of 2015 obtained full-time, long-term, J. D. required or J. D. advantage employment within nine months after graduation–the highest of any Indiana law school. The total cost of attendance at IU - McKinney for the 2013-2014 academic year for an Indiana resident is $43,936, for a non-Indiana resident it is $63,648; the Law School Transparency estimated debt-financed cost of attendance for three years is $178,019 for an Indiana resident and $247,171 for a non-Indiana resident.
Of the 203 American Bar Association -accredited law schools evaluated for its 2019 edition, U. S. News & World Report ranked the school in the top 100 best law schools, 8th in legal writing, 10th in healthcare law and 18th in part-time legal programs. In 2010, based on the number of graduates selected for inclusion in Super Lawyers magazine in 2009, that publication ranked the school 44th out of 180 law schools considered; the school has sat atop the Top 10 Law Schools in Indiana Super Lawyers list since the list's inception in 2010. The school found itself listed in the top 10 by US News in 2014 for highest yield – i.e. percentage of accepted applicants who enroll. The Indiana Law Review is a legal periodical managed by students of the law school; each year, the Law Review publishes one volume. The first three issues contain two to four lead articles and three to five student Notes; the fourth issue is the longest issue of each year. The Survey of Recent Developments in Indiana Law contains fifteen to twenty articles written by professors and Indiana practitioners summarizing the significant changes and developments in Indiana law during the prior year.
The Indiana International & Comparative Law Review is published annually and has been published continuously since 1991. Although the II&CLR has typica
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Tax law or revenue law is an area of legal study which deals with the constitutional, common-law, tax treaty, regulatory rules that constitute the law applicable to taxation. Primary taxation issues facing the governments world over include. Taxation of capital gains versus labor income. Ecotax refers to taxes intended to promote environmentally friendly activities via economic incentives. Tax evasion and avoidance leading to reduced government revenue. Due to an Inefficient tax system in many underdeveloped countries, the majority of small businesses are not taxed. In law schools, "tax law" is a area of specialist study. U. S. law schools require 30 semester credit hours of required courses, 60 hours or more of electives and a combined total of at least 90 credit hours completed. Law students must choose available courses on which to focus before graduation with the J. D. degree in the United States. This freedom allows law students to take many tax courses such as federal taxation and gift tax, estates and successions before completing the Juris Doctor and taking the bar exam in a particular U.
S. state. Master of Laws programs are offered in Canada, United States, United Kingdom, Netherlands and an increasing number of countries. Many of these programs focus on international taxation. In the United States, most LL. M. Programs require that the candidate be a graduate of an American Bar Association-accredited law school. In other countries a graduate law degree is sufficient for admission to LL. M. in Taxation law programs. The Master of Laws program is an advanced legal study. General Requirements J. D. or First degree in law. An English proficiency test score for students with a native language besides English; the Juris Doctor program is offered by only a number of countries. These include, United States, Canada, Hong Kong, Philippines and the United Kingdom; the courses vary in duration of years and whether or not further training is required, depending on which country the program is in. General Requirements A bachelor's degree. Law School Admission Test - Required for law school admission in United States, Canada and a growing number of countries.
Credit requirements. A list of tax faculty ranked by publication downloads is maintained by Paul Caron at TaxProf Blog. AfricaTaxation in South Africa Taxation in TanzaniaAmericasTaxation in Argentina Taxation in Canada Taxation in Colombia Taxation in the British Virgin Islands Taxation in Peru Taxation in the United StatesAsiaTaxation in China Taxation in India Taxation in Iran Taxation in the Palestinian territories Taxation in the People's Republic of ChinaEuropeTaxation in the European Union Taxation in Azerbaijan Taxation in Bulgaria Taxation in France Taxation in Germany Taxation in the Republic of Ireland Taxation in the Netherlands Taxation in Poland Taxation in Portugal Taxation in Russia Taxes in Spain Taxation in the United KingdomOceaniaTaxation in Australia Taxation in New Zealand Corporate law Corporate tax
The Juris Doctor degree known as the Doctor of Jurisprudence degree, is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees. The Juris Doctor is earned by completing law school in Australia, the United States, some other common law countries, it has the academic standing of a professional doctorate in the United States, a master's degree in Australia, a second-entry, baccalaureate degree in Canada. The degree was first awarded in the United States in the early 20th century and was created as a modern version of the old European doctor of law degree. Originating from the 19th-century Harvard movement for the scientific study of law, it is a degree that in most common law jurisdictions is the primary professional preparation for lawyers, it involves a three-year program in most jurisdictions. To be authorized to practice law in the courts of a given state in the United States, the majority of individuals holding a J. D. degree must pass a bar examination. The state of Wisconsin, permits the graduates of its two law schools to practice law in that state, in its state courts, without having to take its bar exam—a practice called "diploma privilege"—provided they complete the courses needed to satisfy the diploma privilege requirements.
In the United States, passing an additional bar exam is not required of lawyers authorized to practice in at least one state to practice in the national courts of the United States, courts known as "federal courts". Lawyers must, however, be admitted to the bar of the federal court before they are authorized to practice in that court. Admission to the bar of a federal district court includes admission to the bar of the related bankruptcy court. In the United States, the professional doctorate in law may be conferred in Latin or in English as Juris Doctor and at some law schools Doctor of Law, or Doctor of Jurisprudence. "Juris Doctor" means "Teacher of Law", while the Latin for "Doctor of Jurisprudence"—Jurisprudentiae Doctor—literally means "Teacher of Legal Knowledge". The J. D. is not to be confused with Doctor of Legum Doctor. In institutions where the latter can be earned, e.g. Cambridge University and many other British institutions, it is a higher research doctorate representing a substantial contribution to the field over many years, beyond that required for a PhD and well beyond a taught degree such as the J.
D. The LL. D. is invariably an honorary degree in the United States. The first university in Europe, the University of Bologna, was founded as a school of law by four famous legal scholars in the 11th century who were students of the glossator school in that city; this served as the model for other law schools of the Middle Ages, other early universities such as the University of Padua. The first academic degrees may have been doctorates in civil law followed by canon law. While Bologna granted only doctorates, preparatory degrees were introduced in Paris and in the English universities; the nature of the J. D. can be better understood by a review of the context of the history of legal education in England. The teaching of law at Cambridge and Oxford Universities was for philosophical or scholarly purposes and not meant to prepare one to practice law; the universities only taught civil and canon law but not the common law that applied in most jurisdictions. Professional training for practicing common law in England was undertaken at the Inns of Court, but over time the training functions of the Inns lessened and apprenticeships with individual practitioners arose as the prominent medium of preparation.
However, because of the lack of standardisation of study and of objective standards for appraisal of these apprenticeships, the role of universities became subsequently of importance for the education of lawyers in the English speaking world. In England in 1292 when Edward I first requested that lawyers be trained, students sat in the courts and observed, but over time the students would hire professionals to lecture them in their residences, which led to the institution of the Inns of Court system; the original method of education at the Inns of Court was a mix of moot court-like practice and lecture, as well as court proceedings observation. By the fifteenth century, the Inns functioned like a university akin to the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge, though specialized in purpose. With the frequent absence of parties to suits during the Crusades, the importance of the lawyer role grew tremendously, the demand for lawyers grew. Traditionally Oxford and Cambridge did not see common law as worthy of study, included coursework in law only in the context of canon and civil law and for the purpose of the study of philosophy or history only.
The apprenticeship program for solicitors thus emerged and governed by the same rules as the apprenti
Indiana University is a multi-campus public university system in the state of Indiana, United States. Indiana University has a combined student body of more than 110,000 students, which includes 46,000 students enrolled at the Indiana University Bloomington campus. Indiana University has a total of nine different campuses; each one of the campuses is an four-year degree-granting institution. The flagship campus of Indiana University is located in Bloomington. Indiana University Bloomington is the location of Indiana University; the Bloomington campus is home to numerous premier Indiana University schools, including the College of Arts and Sciences, the Jacobs School of Music, an extension of the Indiana University School of Medicine the School of Informatics and Engineering, which includes the former School of Library and Information Science, School of Optometry, the O'Neil School of Public and Environmental Affairs, the Maurer School of Law, the School of Education, the Kelley School of Business.
In addition to its flagship campus, Indiana University comprises seven lesser extensions throughout Indiana: Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis is an urban expansion, co-locating degree programs of Indiana University alongside those of Purdue University and extending public higher education to the capitol. Located just west of downtown Indianapolis, it is the central location of several Indiana University schools, including the School of Medicine, the IU School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, the School of Dentistry, the School of Nursing, the School of Social Work, the Indiana University administrated Herron School of Art and Design, the Robert H. McKinney School of Law. Indiana University East is located in Richmond. Indiana University Fort Wayne, the system's newest campus, is located in Fort Wayne, it was established in 2018 after the dissolution of the former entity Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne, an extension similar to that of IUPUI under the administration of Purdue University.
IU Fort Wayne took over IPFW's academic programs in health sciences, with all other IPFW academic programs taken over by the new entity, Purdue University Fort Wayne. Indiana University Kokomo is located in Kokomo. Indiana University Northwest is located in Gary. Indiana University South Bend is located in South Bend. Indiana University Southeast is located in New Albany. Indiana University – Purdue University Columbus is located in Columbus. According to the National Association of College and University Business Officers, the value of the endowment of the Indiana University and affiliated foundations in 2016 is over $1.986 billion. The annual budget across all campuses totals over $3 Billion; the Indiana University Research and Technology Corporation is a not-for-profit agency that assists IU faculty and researchers in realizing the commercial potential of their discoveries. Since 1997, university clients have been responsible for more than 1,800 inventions, nearly 500 patents, 38 start-up companies.
In the 2016 Fiscal Year alone, the IURTC was issued 53 U. S. patents and 112 global patents. Richard G. Johnson - Acting Science Adviser to Ronald Reagan, physics professor at University of Bern, manager of the Space Sciences Laboratory of University of California - Berkeley. Trigger Alpert - Jazz bassist for the Glenn Miller Orchestra Joshua Bell - Grammy award-winning violinist and conductor Hoagy Carmichael - Composer, singer and bandleader John T. Chambers - Chairman and former CEO of Cisco Systems Nicole Chevalier - Operatic soprano Alton Dorian Clark - Hip-hop recording artist and record producer Pamela Coburn, soprano Suzanne Collins - Author of The Underland Chronicles and The Hunger Games trilogy Mark Cuban - Owner of the NBA's Dallas Mavericks John Cynn - Professional Poker Player. 2018 World Series of Poker Champion. Mary Czerwinski - Computer scientist at Microsoft Research and Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery Thomas P. Dooley - author and research scientist Judith Lynn Ferguson, author of 65 cookery related books, cookery editor of Woman's Realm women's magazine, Head of Diploma Course at Le Cordon Bleu- London Matt Fields - Fashion Designer - Founder of street wear brand Dope Couture George Goehl - Community organizer and executive director of People's Action Michael D. Higgins - 9th President of Ireland Lissa Hunter - Artist Jamie Hyneman - Host of the television series MythBusters Narendra Jadhav - Economist and writer Jason Jordan - Professional wrestler Nina Kasniunas - Political scientist and professor E.
W. Kelley - Businessman. News Jay Schottenstein - CEO of Schottenstein Stores Kyle Schwarber - Professional baseball player Tavis Smiley - Host of The Tavis Smiley Show. S. Ambassador to Saudi Arabia Brad Stephens - former Austra