Phrenology is a pseudoscience which involves the measurement of bumps on the skull to predict mental traits. It is based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind, that certain brain areas have localized, specific functions or modules. Although both of those ideas have a basis in reality, phrenology extrapolated beyond empirical knowledge in a way that departed from science; the central phrenological notion that measuring the contour of the skull can predict personality traits is discredited by empirical research. Developed by German physician Franz Joseph Gall in 1796, the discipline was influential in the 19th century from about 1810 until 1840; the principal British centre for phrenology was Edinburgh, where the Edinburgh Phrenological Society was established in 1820. Phrenology is today recognized as pseudoscience; the methodological rigor of phrenology was doubtful for the standards of its time, since many authors regarded phrenology as pseudoscience in the 19th century. Phrenological thinking was influential in the psychology of the 19th century.
Gall's assumption that character and emotions are located in specific parts of the brain is considered an important historical advance toward neuropsychology. Phrenologists believe that the human mind has a set of various mental faculties, each one represented in a different area of the brain. For example, the faculty of "philoprogenitiveness", from the Greek for "love of offspring", was located centrally at the back of the head; these areas were said to be proportional to a person's propensities. The importance of an organ was derived from relative size compared to other organs, it was believed that the cranial skull—like a glove on the hand—accommodates to the different sizes of these areas of the brain, so that a person's capacity for a given personality trait could be determined by measuring the area of the skull that overlies the corresponding area of the brain. Phrenology, which focuses on personality and character, is distinct from craniometry, the study of skull size and shape, physiognomy, the study of facial features.
Phrenology is a process that involves observing and/or feeling the skull to determine an individual's psychological attributes. Franz Joseph Gall believed that the brain was made up of 27 individual organs that determined personality, the first 19 of these'organs' he believed to exist in other animal species. Phrenologists would run their fingertips and palms over the skulls of their patients to feel for enlargements or indentations; the phrenologist would take measurements with a tape measure of the overall head size and more employ a craniometer, a special version of a caliper. In general, instruments to measure sizes of cranium continued to be used after the mainstream phrenology had ended; the phrenologists put emphasis on using drawings of individuals with particular traits, to determine the character of the person and thus many phrenology books show pictures of subjects. From absolute and relative sizes of the skull the phrenologist would assess the character and temperament of the patient.
Gall's list of the "brain organs" was specific. An enlarged organ meant; the number – and more detailed meanings – of organs were added by other phrenologists. The 27 areas varied in function, from sense of color, to religiosity, to being combative or destructive; each of the 27 "brain organs" was located under a specific area of the skull. As a phrenologist felt the skull, he would use his knowledge of the shapes of heads and organ positions to determine the overall natural strengths and weaknesses of an individual. Phrenologists believed the head revealed natural tendencies but not absolute limitations or strengths of character; the first phrenological chart gave the names of the organs described by Gall. Charts were more expansive. Among the first to identify the brain as the major controlling center for the body were Hippocrates and his followers, inaugurating a major change in thinking from Egyptian and early Greek views, which based bodily primacy of control on the heart; this belief was supported by the Greek physician Galen, who concluded that mental activity occurred in the brain rather than the heart, contending that the brain, a cold, moist organ formed of sperm, was the seat of the animal soul—one of three "souls" found in the body, each associated with a principal organ.
The Swiss pastor Johann Kaspar Lavater introduced the idea that physiognomy related to the specific character traits of individuals, rather than general types, in his Physiognomische Fragmente, published between 1775 and 1778. His work was translated into English and published in 1832 as The Pocket Lavater, or, The Science of Physiognomy, he believed that thoughts of the mind and passions of the soul were connected with an individual's external frame. Of the forehead, When the forehead is perpendicular, from the hair to the eyebrows, it denotes an utter deficiency of understanding. In 1796 the German physician Franz Joseph Gall began lecturing on organology: the isolation of mental faculties and cranioscopy which involved reading the skull's shape as it pertained to the individual, it was Gall's collaborator Johann Gaspar Spurzheim who would popularize the term "phrenology". In 1809 Gall began writing his principal work, The Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous System in General, of the Brain in Particular, with Observations upon the possibility of ascertaining the several Intellectual and Moral Dispositions
Earl of Erroll
Earl of Erroll is a title in the Peerage of Scotland. It was created in 1453 for Sir William Hay; the subsidiary titles held by the Earl of Erroll are Lord Hay and Lord Slains, both in the Peerage of Scotland. The Earls of Erroll hold the hereditary office of Lord High Constable of Scotland; the office was once associated with great power. The Earls of Erroll hold the hereditary title of Chief of Clan Hay; the Earl of Erroll is one of four peers entitled to appoint a private pursuivant, with the title "Slains Pursuivant of Arms". Earl of Erroll is the name of a Scottish highland dance, danced today at Highland games around the world; the family seat is Woodbury House, near Bedfordshire. The Hay clan descends from Scoto-Norman knight Guillaume de la Haye, who first appears on the records circa 1160. Gilbert de la Hay, ancestor of the Earls of Erroll, was the older brother of William de la Hay, ancestor of the Earls of Kinnoull. In 1251, William received a charter of two carucates of land from his brother, confirmed by King Alexander III.
A regrant was one of the peculiarities in the Scottish law of peerage, that a party might, by a resignation to the Crown, a charter following upon such resignation, obtain power to nominate the heirs to succeed him in his honours and dignities. Some of the highest of the Scottish peerages are held under such nominations. Gilbert Hay, 11th Earl of Erroll, on 13 November 1666, obtained a regrant of his honours; this regrant had special power to nominate his heirs. This nomination was made in 1674 with Gilbert appointing his cousin Sir John Hay of Keillour and his heir male, failing which, appointing Sir John Hay of Keillour's heir female, failing which, appointing certain Hays of Tweeddale; the 11th Earl of Erroll having died in 1674 without issue, Sir John Hay of Keillour became 12th Earl of Erroll. On his death in 1704, his son, Charles became the 13th Earl of Erroll. Charles died unmarried in 1717, when the title devolved on Mary. Mary Hay, 14th Countess of Erroll died in 1758 without issue. Mary's sister Margaret had died at Rome in 1723, however she had married James Livingston, 5th Earl of Linlithgow, 4th Earl of Callendar, had issue, it is from her that the present Earl of Erroll is descended.
This regrant was questioned in the House of Lords in 1797. The Earl of Lauderdale had questioned George, the 16th Earl of Erroll's right to vote at an election of the peers of Scotland. One of the objections made to the title was that the title of Earl of Erroll was claimed through a nomination, it was decided in 1748 in the case of the earldom of Stair that this power of nomination could not be validly exercised after the Union. The House of Lords, after a full inquiry, decided in favour of the 16th Earl of Erroll's right to the title; that the Earl of Erroll holds the honours of his house undoubtedly and without dispute, is clear from the decision of the House of Lords. William Hay, 1st Earl of Erroll Nicholas Hay, 2nd Earl of Erroll William Hay, 3rd Earl of Erroll William Hay, 4th Earl of Erroll William Hay, 5th Earl of Erroll William Hay, 6th Earl of Erroll George Hay, 7th Earl of Erroll Andrew Hay, 8th Earl of Erroll Francis Hay, 9th Earl of Erroll William Hay, 10th Earl of Erroll Gilbert Hay, 11th Earl of Erroll John Hay, 12th Earl of Erroll Charles Hay, 13th Earl of Erroll Mary Hay, 14th Countess of Erroll James Hay, 15th Earl of Erroll George Hay, 16th Earl of Erroll William Hay, 17th Earl of Erroll William George Hay, 18th Earl of Erroll William Harry Hay, 19th Earl of Erroll Charles Gore Hay, 20th Earl of Erroll Victor Alexander Sereld Hay, 21st Earl of Erroll Josslyn Victor Hay, 22nd Earl of Erroll Diana Denyse Hay, 23rd Countess of Erroll Merlin Sereld Victor Gilbert Hay, 24th Earl of Erroll The heir apparent is the present holder's son Harry Thomas William Hay, Lord Hay.
Clan Hay Baron Kilmarnock Earl of Kinnoull Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by William Harry Hay, 19th Earl of Erroll
Royal Scottish Academy
For Scotland's national academy, see Royal Society of Edinburgh. The Royal Scottish Academy is the country’s national academy of art, it promotes contemporary Scottish art. Founded in 1819 as the Royal Institution for the Encouragement of the Fine Arts in Scotland, in 1826 it was named the Scottish Academy, it became the Royal Scottish Academy on being granted a royal charter in 1838; the RSA maintains a unique position in the country as an independently funded institution led by eminent artists and architects to promote and support the creation and enjoyment of visual arts through exhibitions and related educational events. In addition to a continuous programme of exhibitions, the RSA administers scholarships and residencies for artists who live and work in Scotland; the RSA's historic collection of important artworks and an extensive archive of related material chronicling art and architecture in Scotland over the last 180 years are housed in the National Museums Collection Centre at Granton, are available to researchers by appointment.
Displays of the historic collections are mounted. Its home since 1911 has been the Royal Scottish Academy Building on The Mound, Princes Street, adjacent to the National Gallery of Scotland; the building is managed by the National Galleries of Scotland but the 1910 Order grants the RSA permanent administration offices in the building. Exhibition space is shared throughout the year with other organisations; the building designed by William Henry Playfair, was refurbished as part of the Playfair Project, is used by the National Galleries of Scotland. The RSA is led by a body of eminent artist and architect members who encompass a broad cross-section of contemporary Scottish art. Members are known as Academicians, are entitled to use the post-nominal letters RSA; the president uses the postnominal letters PRSA while in office, PPRSA thereafter. Academicians are elected to the Academy by their peers. There are Honorary Academicians, including the RSA's patron, the Duke of Edinburgh. After amendments to the Supplementary Charter in 2005, once Associates have submitted a Diploma work into the Permanent Collection of the RSA, they are entitled to full membership of the Academy.
The membership includes 104 Academicians. From 2010–12, the RSA President was Professor Bill Scott, Secretary Arthur Watson and Treasurer Professor Ian Howard. Royal West of England Academy Esme Gordon The Royal Scottish Academy of Painting, Sculpture & Architecture 1826-1976. Edinburgh; the Royal Scottish Academy
Sidney Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Lea
Sidney Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Lea, PC was a British statesman and a close ally and confidant of Florence Nightingale. He was the younger son of George Herbert, 11th Earl of Pembroke, his mother being the Russian noblewoman Countess Catherine Woronzow, daughter of the Russian ambassador to St James's, Semyon Romanovich Vorontsov; the Woronzow Road in St John's Wood, London, is named after the family. Educated at Harrow and Oriel College, Oxford, he made a reputation at the Oxford Union as a speaker. Herbert entered the House of Commons as Conservative member of Parliament for a division of Wiltshire in 1832. Under Peel he held minor offices, in 1845 was included in the cabinet as Secretary at War, again held this office from 1852 to 1855, being responsible for the War Office during the Crimean War, again in 1859. Herbert was a member of the Canterbury Association from 20 March 1848. Herbert ran the Pembroke family estates, centered at Wilton House, for most of his adult life, his elder half-brother, Robert Herbert, 12th Earl of Pembroke, had chosen to live in exile in Paris after a disastrous marriage in 1814 to a Sicilian princess, Ottavia Spinelli, widow of Prince Ercole Branciforte di Butera, daughter of the Duke of Laurino, a subsequent liaison with Alexina Gallot, which resulted in four illegitimate children.
It was Sidney Herbert who sent Florence Nightingale out to Scutari, with Nightingale led the movement for Army Health and War Office reform after the war. The hard work entailed caused a breakdown in his health, so that in July 1861, having been created a baron in the peerage of the United Kingdom, he had to resign office, he died from Bright's disease on 2 August 1861. His statue by Foley was placed in front of the War Office in Pall Mall and after that building's demolition placed next to A. G. Walker's statue of Florence Nightingale in Waterloo Place, adjacent to the Crimean Monument. In the early 1840s, Herbert is thought to have had an affair with the noted society beauty and author Caroline Norton, unable to get a divorce from an abusive husband, so that the relationship ended in 1846. In 1846 Sidney Herbert married Elizabeth, only daughter of Lt.-Gen. Charles Ash is niece of William à Court, 1st Baron Heytesbury, she was a philanthropist and translator, a friend of Benjamin Disraeli, Cardinal Manning and Cardinal Vaughan.
After her husband's death, Lady Herbert became an "ardent ultramontane" Roman Catholic, along with their eldest daughter, Mary. Sidney and Elizabeth Herbert lived at 49 Belgrave Square and had seven children: Mary Catherine, who m. 1873 the great modernist theologian, Baron Friedrich von Hügel. George Robert Charles Herbert, who succeeded in the title and became the 13th Earl of Pembroke, the barony is now merged in that earldom. Elizabeth Maud, who m. 1872 the composer, Sir Charles Hubert Parry, 1st Baronet, of Highnam Court, near Gloucester. Sidney Herbert a Member of Parliament, who succeeded his brother as the 14th Earl of Pembroke. William Reginald Herbert, lost at sea aboard HMS Captain, aged 16. Michael Henry Herbert, after whom the town of Herbert in Saskatchewan, Canada, is named, was a diplomat who ended his career as British Ambassador to the US in Washington DC in succession to Lord Pauncefote, he m. 1888 Lelia "Belle", daughter of Richard Thornton Wilson, a New York banker and cotton broker, had Sir Sidney Herbert, 1st Baronet.
Constance Gwladys, who m. 1st 1878 St George Henry Lowther, 4th Earl of Lonsdale and m. 2ndly 1885 Frederick Oliver Robinson, the Earl de Grey 2nd and last Marquess of Ripon. Sidney Herbert is buried in the churchyard at Wilton, rebuilt by his father in neo-Romanesque style, with inside the church a marble monumental effigy of him beside Elizabeth, his wife. Herbert Sound in the Antarctic and Pembroke, Ontario in Canada are named after Sidney Herbert. Mount Herbert, the highest peak on Banks Peninsula, was named by the chief surveyor of the Canterbury Association, Joseph Thomas, in 1849. Crimean War Memorial Mount Merrion Royal Herbert Hospital Sir Tresham Lever, The Herberts of Wilton Burke's Peerage, 107th edition Mark Bostridge, Florence Nightingale; the Woman and Her Legend Works by or about Sidney Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Lea at Internet Archive Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Lord Herbert of Lea
James Gillespie Graham
James Gillespie Graham was a Scottish architect, prominent in the early 19th century. Graham was born in the son of Malcolm Gillespie, a solicitor, he was christened as James Gillespie. He is most notable for his work in the Scottish baronial style, as at Ayton Castle, he worked in the Gothic Revival style, in which he was influenced by the work of Augustus Pugin. However, he worked in the neoclassical style as exemplified in his design of Blythswood House at Renfrew seven miles down the River Clyde from Glasgow. Graham designed principally country churches, he is well known for his interior design, his most noted work in this respect being that at Taymouth Castle and Hopetoun House. Some of his principal churches include St Andrew's Cathedral in Glasgow, St Mary's Roman Catholic Cathedral and the Highland Tolbooth Church in Edinburgh, his houses include Cambusnethan House in Lanarkshire. He was responsible for laying out the Moray Estate of Edinburgh's New Town, for the design of Hamilton Square and adjoining streets in the New Town of Birkenhead, for William Laird, brother-in-law of William Harley, major developer of the New Town upon Blythswood Hill in Glasgow.
According to the writer Frank Arneil Walker he may have been responsible for the remodelling of Johnstone Castle, Renfrewshire. He designed and built a house at 34 Albany Street in Edinburgh's New Town for himself and his wife and lived there from 1817 to 1833, he died in Edinburgh on 11 March 1855 after a four-year illness. He is buried in the sealed south-west section of Greyfriars Kirkyard called the Covenanter's Prison together with his wife and other family members. In 1815 he married Margaret Ann Graham, daughter of a wealthy landowner, William Graham of Orchill in Perthshire. Together they had two daughters. In 1825, on the death of his wife's father, the couple inherited his large country estate, James thereafter became known as James Gillespie Graham, his wife died in 1826, he married again, to Elizabeth Campbell, daughter of Major John Campbell of the 76th Regiment of Foot. See Snizort Parish Church and manse Achnacarry House, Inverness-shire Alterations in the Gothic style, Lanrick Castle New Kilpatrick Parish Church, Bearsden A grand crescent of townhouses, Warriston Crescent, Edinburgh Arisaig Church Cupar County Buildings Drumtochty Castle Falkirk Parish Church Culdees Castle, Muthill Sleat Manse, Skye Fife County Prison, Cupar Crawford Priory Steeple of Monimail Church Enlargement of Cameron House, Loch Lomond Candleford House Completion of Eredine House Monument to Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville, Comrie Auchtertool Parish Church Bowland House, Stow of Wedale Clackmannan Parish Church Gray's Hospital, Elgin Liberton Parish Church Edmonstone Castle near Biggar Enlargement of Glenbarr Abbey Torrisdale Castle Cambusnethan Priory Inverary Courthouse Dunoon Parish Church Keith Parish Church The Market House, Duns Channelkirk Church Remodelling of Dunblane Cathedral St Mungo's Parish Church, Alloa Blythswood House, demolished, for the owners of the Lands of Blythswood, Glasgow Restoration of the Church of the Holy Rude, Stirling Dunbar Parish Church Remodelling of Duns Castle Logie Easter Parish Church George Street Independent Church, Glasgow Nicolson Street Church, Edinburgh interior and roof lost to a fire in 1930s Mar and Kellie mausoleum Alloa Layout of Blythswood Square in Glasgow for William Harley Manse at Kinloss Lee Castle, Carnwath Mountquhanie, Fife Kirkwall School Enlargement of Allanton Castle, Cambusnethan Kilmaron Castle Terrace of large townhouses, 1-11 Albyn Place, Edinburgh Terrace of large townhouses, 1-11 St Colme Street, Edinburgh Huge crescent of terraced houses, 1-36 Moray Place, Edinburgh Crescent of houses and flats, 1-8 Randolph Crescent Kersfield, Berwickshire Kilmadock Parish Church, Doune Mausoleum, Springwood Park, Kelso Dormont near Dalton, Dumfriesshire Dunninald Castle Terraces houses, Alva Street, Edinburgh Hamilton Square, Birkenhead Leith Tolbooth, Tolbooth Wynd, Edinburgh demolished to build Council housing Layout of Blacket Place, Edinburgh Enlargement of Wishaw House Layout of Melville Street and Walker Street, Edinburgh Rafford Parish Church Dunino Parish Church Enlargement of Inverkeithing Parish Church Morham Manse, Haddington Muthill Church Commercial Bank, Inverness Quality Street, Mutton Hole, now called Davidsons Mains, Edinburgh Manse, Lanarkshire Murthly House near Dunkeld 18 to 20 Queensferry Street, Edinburgh Ardhmor House, Dalgety Bay Dalgety Kirk, Dalgety Bay Spire on the Town House, Haddington Errol Parish Church Steeple on Montrose Old Church Chapel at St Margarets Convent, Whitehouse Loan, Edinburgh Bolfracks near Aberfeldy Commercial Bank, Aberdeen Greenside Parish Church, Edinburgh Ardmaddy Castle Chapel interior, George Heriot's School Remodelling of Taymouth Castle Remodelling of Kinglassie Parish Church Tolbooth Church, Edinburgh now known as The Hub Remodelling of Brodick Castle Episcopal Chapel, Gask Ayton Castle Wester Bogie House, Fife
Francis Needham, 2nd Earl of Kilmorey
Francis Jack Needham, 2nd Earl of Kilmorey, known as Viscount Newry from 1822 to 1832, was an Anglo-Irish peer and Member of Parliament. He was the son of 1st Earl of Kilmorey, he was elected to the House of Commons for Newry in 1819, a seat he held until 1826. In 1832 he succeeded his father in the earldom but as this was an Irish peerage it did not entitle him to a seat in the House of Lords, he served as High Sheriff of Down for 1828. He married Jane Gun-Cuninghame in 1814. Lord Kilmorey scandalised Victorian society by eloping with his ward, Priscilla Anne Hoste, when he was in his late fifties and she was 20. Priscilla Hoste was the daughter of his wife Lady Harriet Walpole, her father died when she was a small child and her mother was careless of her relations with Lord Kilmorey. A year after their elopement, in July 1844, they had a child, who Lord Kilmorey acknowledged as his son and to whom he gave his surname, he set up his mistress in an adjoining house with an underground tunnel between the two.
Priscilla died of heart disease on 21 October 1854, she was buried in a mausoleum, specially commissioned by Lord Kilmorey for them both, with the inscription "Priscilla, the beloved of Francis Jack, Earl of Kilmorey". When Kilmorey himself died in June 1880, aged 92, he was buried beside her in the mausoleum underneath a bas-relief showing the dying Priscilla on a couch surrounded by her lover and ten-year-old son; the Kilmorey Mausoleum, in an ancient Egyptian design, is now a Grade II* listed monument. It was moved several times between Lord Kilmorey's homes, it is now located in Twickenham and maintained jointly by Richmond upon Thames Council and English Heritage. Kilmorey was succeeded in his titles by his grandson Francis, his eldest son Francis Needham, Viscount Newry, having predeceased him. Charles Needham, despite being illegitimate, was said to be his father's favourite – the "apple of his eye", he was two years younger than the eventual 3rd Earl of Kilmorey. On 25 February 1874 he married in London a Dutch heiress called Henriette Amélie Charlotte Vincentia barones van Tuyll van Serooskerken, the third daughter of Vincent Gildemeester baron van Tuyll van Serooskerken, who had made a fortune out of the tin concessions on the island of Billiton in the Dutch East Indies.
Charles and Amy had two daughters and Violet. Violet Needham was the author of 19 books for children published between 1939 and 1957. Although she came to writing late — she was 63 when her first book, The Black Riders, was published — her books achieved immediate and lasting popularity with young readers. Cross Deep House Kilmorey Mausoleum Radnor House Kidd, Charles. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs Lundy, Darryl. "FAQ". The Peerage. Kilmorey Mausoleum home page St Margarets Community Website
Apsley House is the London townhouse of the Dukes of Wellington. It stands alone at Hyde Park Corner, on the south-east corner of Hyde Park, facing south towards the busy traffic roundabout in the centre of which stands the Wellington Arch, it is a Grade I listed building. It is sometimes referred to as the Wellington Museum, its official designation under a 1947 Act of Parliament; the house is now run by English Heritage and is open to the public as a museum and art gallery, exhibiting the Wellington Collection, a large collection of paintings, other artworks and memorabilia of the career of the 1st Duke. The 9th Duke of Wellington retains the use of part of the buildings, it is the only preserved example of an English aristocratic town house from its period. The practice has been to maintain the rooms as far as possible in decor. Apsley House stands at the site of an old lodge. During the Interregnum newer buildings were erected between what is now Old Regent Street and Hyde Park Corner. In the 1600s after the Restoration they were leased by James Hamilton and renewed by Elizabeth his widow in 1692 on a 99-year lease.
Before Apsley House was built the site was occupied by a tavern called the Hercules Pillars. The house was built in red brick by Robert Adam between 1771 and 1778 for Lord Apsley, the Lord Chancellor, who gave the house its name; some Adam interiors survive: the Piccadilly Drawing Room with its apsidal end and Adam fireplace, the Portico Room, behind the giant Corinthian portico added by Wellington. The house was given the popular nickname of Number One, since it was the first house passed by visitors who travelled from the countryside after the toll gates at Knightsbridge, it was part of a contiguous line of great houses on Piccadilly, demolished to widen Park Lane: its official address remains 149 Piccadilly, W1J 7NT. In 1807 the house was purchased by Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley, the elder brother of Sir Arthur Wellesley, but in 1817 financial difficulties forced him to sell it to his famous brother, by the Duke of Wellington, who needed a London base from which to pursue his new career in politics.
Wellington employed the architect Benjamin Dean Wyatt to carry out renovations in two phases: in the first, begun in 1819, he added a three-storey extension to the north east, housing a State Dining Room and dressing rooms. The second phase, started after Wellington had become Prime Minister in 1828, included a new staircase and the "Waterloo Gallery" on the west side of the house; the red-brick exterior was clad in Bath stone, a pedimented portico added. Wyatt's original estimate for the work was £23,000, but the need to repair structural defects discovered during the work led to costs escalating to more than £61,000. Wyatt introduced his own version of French style to the interior, notably in the Waterloo Gallery and the florid wrought iron stair-rail, described by Pevsner as "just turning from Empire to a neo-Rococo"; the Waterloo Gallery is named after the Duke's famous victory over Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo. The Waterloo Banquet was held annually to commemorate the famous victory of 18 June 1815.
The first banquets were held in the Dining Room but in 1828 when Wyatt completed the Waterloo Gallery the banquet was moved there and became a much larger event, seating 74 as opposed to 36 in the dining room. The Duke's equestrian statue can be seen across the busy road and watchful, the plinth guarded at each corner by an infantryman; this statue was cast from guns captured at the battle. Gerald Wellesley, 7th Duke of Wellington, gave the house and its most important contents to the nation in 1947, but by the Wellington Museum Act 1947 the right of the family to occupy just over half the house was preserved "so long as there is a Duke of Wellington"; the family apartments are now on the north side of the house, concentrated on the second floor. Stratfield Saye House – the country house of the Dukes of Wellington Jervis and Tomlin, Maurice Apsley House Wellington Museum published by the Trustees of the Victoria and Albert Museum, London ISBN 1-85177-161-1 Nikolaus Pevsner, The Buildings of England: London vol.
I, p 463. ISBN 0-300-09653-4 Stourton, James. Great Houses of London. London: Frances Lincoln. ISBN 978-0-7112-3366-9. Wellington Collection Apsley House on English Heritage's website Historical Images of Apsley House Apsley House and Park Lane and New London: Volume 4, pp. 359–375