Clare College, Cambridge
Clare College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England. The college was founded in 1326 as University Hall, making it the second-oldest surviving college of the University after Peterhouse, it was refounded in 1338 as Clare Hall by an endowment from Elizabeth de Clare. Clare is famous for its chapel choir and for its gardens on "The Backs"; the current Master is barrister Baron Grabiner. Clare is one of the most popular Cambridge colleges amongst prospective applicants; the college was founded in 1326 by the university's Chancellor, Richard Badew, was named University Hall. Providing maintenance for only two fellows, it soon hit financial hardship. In 1338, the college was refounded as Clare Hall by an endowment from Elizabeth de Clare, a granddaughter of Edward I, which provided for twenty fellows and ten students; the college was known as Clare Hall until 1856, when it changed its name to "Clare College". Clare's Old Court, a Grade I listed building, frames King's College Chapel as the left border of one of the most celebrated architectural vistas in England.
It was built with a long interruption for the English Civil War. The period spans the arrival of true classicism into the mainstream of British architecture, such that its progress can be traced in the marked differences between the oldest wing to the north, which still has vaulting and other features in the unbroken tradition of English Gothic, the final southern block, which shows a articulated classic style; the college's chapel was built in 1763 and designed by Sir James Burrough, the Master of neighbouring Caius College. Its altarpiece is Annunciation by Cipriani. Clare has a much-photographed bridge over the River Cam and is the oldest of Cambridge's current bridges, it was built of stone in 1640 by Thomas Grumbold and restored in 1969, is a Grade I listed building. Fourteen stone balls decorate it. A number of apocryphal stories circulate concerning this – the one most cited by members of college is that the original builder of the bridge was not paid the full amount for his work and so removed the segment to balance the difference in payment.
A more explanation is that a wedge of stone cemented into the ball as part of a repair job became loose and fell out. Clare's bridge connects Old Court to Memorial Court, designed by Giles Gilbert Scott and dedicated in 1926. Memorial Court was extended in the 1950s by the construction of Thirkill Court, was divided into two parts when the College's Forbes Mellon Library was constructed in the centre of Memorial Court. A new court, Lerner Court, designed by architects van Heyningen and Haward, was opened in January 2008, it occupies the last piece of undeveloped land in the central area of the College next to Memorial Court and houses a lecture theatre, fellows offices, residential accommodation and a student laundry. Clare is known as a progressive college. In 1972 it became one of the three male Cambridge colleges that led the way in admitting female undergraduates. Clare has won praise for the transparency of its admissions process. Clare is known as one of the most musical colleges in Cambridge.
Its choir has performed all over the world. Many Clare students play instruments, the Clare College Music Society, is well known the orchestra. Like most Cambridge colleges, Clare allows students to have a piano in their college rooms; as well as popular jazz and comedy nights, Clare is renowned for Clare Ents, a student night held every Friday in term time. The night is popular with students across the university and in the past it has hosted such acts as Tinie Tempah, Bombay Bicycle Club and Chase and Status. Clare's student newspaper, won "Best University College Paper" in The Cambridge Student in 2005. Published by the Union of Clare Students, it comprises satirical articles mocking Cambridge traditions, reports on silly student antics, college gossip in the "Clareifornication" column. On 3 February 2007 the college cut its funding to the paper following the publication of the guest-edited edition of 2 February, retitled Crucification. In addition to the paper's usual satirical attacks on Christianity, this edition featured several articles which mocked Islam, a reproduction of the cartoon illustrations of the prophet Mohammed which provoked international protest when they first appeared in Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten in September 2005.
Clare holds. It is one of the largest is well known for securing popular headliners. Clare Boat Club is the rowing club for current members of Clare College. There is De Burgh Boat Club, for alumni. In 2012, Clare Boat Club had the highest membership relative to the size of its student body of any college-affiliated boat club in Cambridge, fielding six men's VIIIs in the May Bumps competition; the club's Head Coach and Boathouse Manager, Anton Wright, appeared on Channel 4's year-long reality TV show, Eden. The undergraduates of Clare College have performed well based on the results published in the Tompkins Table, placing Clare within the top ten colleges from 2000 to 2005. However, their performance in the following years was poorer, leaving them in 12th in 2006 and 18th in 2009, their 2010 performance however showed an increase of 10 places over the
Technical University of Munich
The Technical University of Munich is a research university with campuses in Munich and Freising-Weihenstephan. It is a member of TU9, an incorporated society of the largest and most notable German institutes of technology. TUM is ranked 4th overall in Reuters 2017 European Most Innovative University ranking. TUM's alumni include 18 Leibniz Prize winners and 22 IEEE Fellow Members. Timeline1868 - the University was founded by King Ludwig II. 1877 - Awarded the designation Königlich Bayerische Technische Hochschule München. 1901 Granted the right to award doctorates. 1902 Approval of the election of the Principal by the teaching staff. 1930 Integration of the College of Agriculture and Brewing in Weihenstephan. 1949–1954: Reconstruction of the main building of the Technische Universität by Robert Vorhoelzer after WWII. Construction of a new administrational building and library. 1957 Given the status of a ‘public legal body’. 1958 Research Reactor Munich, Garching assigned to the TH München. 1967 Establishment of a faculty of medicine 1970 Renamed to ‘Technische Universität München’.
1993 Establishment of a faculty of informatics 2000 Establishment of Weihenstephan Science Centre for Life & Food Sciences, Land Use and Environment belonging to the TUM. 2002 - The German Institute of Science and Technology was founded in Singapore. 2004 - the official opening of Forschungsreaktor München II, a leading neutron source, on March 2. 2005 - TUM Institute for Advanced Study founded 2006 - TUM one of three successful universities in Germany's excellence initiative 2009 - TUM School of Education established 2012 - TUM again one of now 11 successful universities in Germany's excellence initiative In its capacity as an academic stronghold of technology and science, the Technical University of Munich has played a vital role in Bavaria's transition from an agricultural state to an industrial state and Hi-Tech centre. To the present day, it is still the only state university dedicated to technology. Numerous excellent TUM professors have secured their place in the history of technology, many important scientists, architects and entrepreneurs studied there.
Such names as Karl Max von Bauernfeind, Rudolf Diesel, Claude Dornier, Walther von Dyck, Hans Fischer, Ernst Otto Fischer, August Föppl, Robert Huber, Carl von Linde, Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, Walther Meissner, Rudolf Mössbauer, Willy Messerschmitt, Wilhelm Nusselt, Hans Piloty, Friedrich von Thiersch, Franz von Soxhlet are connected with the TUM. The prerequisites for an academic training in engineering were created at the start of the 19th century when the advancement of technology on the basis of exact sciences commenced. There were calls for a'university for all technical studies' in Bavaria. The'polytechnic schools' set up in Augsburg and Nuremberg, which bridged the gap between middle schools and higher education colleges in their capacity as'lyceums', were the first approach. For further qualification purposes, a'technical college' was set up in 1833 as part of the Faculty of State Finance of the Ludwig Maximilian University, transferred from Landshut to Munich seven years previously; the experiment failed.
Instead, an advanced'engineering course' was established at the Polytechnic School Munich in 1840, the forerunner of what was to become the'Technische Hochschule München'. In 1868, King Ludwig II founded the newly structured Polytechnische Schule München, which had the status of a university, in Munich, it was allowed to call itself Königlich Bayerische Technische Hochschule München as from the academic year 1877–78. The first Principal was the former Head of Karl Max von Bauernfeind. In the year of its foundation, the college took up residence in the new building in Arcisstrasse, designed by Gottfried v. Neureuther. In those days, more than 350 students were taught by 21 lecturers; the college was divided into five sections: I. General Department, II. Engineering Department, III. Department of Architecture, IV. Mechanical/Technical Department, V. Chemical/Technical Department. Department VI. was added in 1872. Two of the university's long-standing requests were met by the state after the beginning of the 20th century: it was granted the right to award doctorates in 1901, in 1902 the election of the principal by the teaching staff was approved.
With an average of about 2,600 to 2,800 students, the TH München ranked ahead of the TH Berlin as the largest German technical college for a while. The first female undergraduate matriculated in architecture in 1905, after the Bavarian government allowed women to study at a technical college in the German Reich. However, the proportion of female students remained negligible. During the Weimar Republic, the TH München was obliged to make do with low funds and was drawn into radical political struggles in 1918–19 and again between 1928 and 1933. In the winter term of 1930–31, the National Socialist German Student Union became the strongest group within the AStA general student organisation of the THM for the first time; the TH München was able to broaden its spectrum of subjects by taking over several smaller colleges that were no longer viable. In 1922, the former commercial college'Handelshochschule München' became the VII Department of Economics; the forme
Kurt Friedrich Gödel was an Austrian, American, logician and philosopher. Considered along with Aristotle, Alfred Tarski and Gottlob Frege to be one of the most significant logicians in history, Gödel made an immense impact upon scientific and philosophical thinking in the 20th century, a time when others such as Bertrand Russell, Alfred North Whitehead, David Hilbert were analyzing the use of logic and set theory to understand the foundations of mathematics pioneered by Georg Cantor. Gödel published his two incompleteness theorems in 1931 when he was 25 years old, one year after finishing his doctorate at the University of Vienna; the first incompleteness theorem states that for any self-consistent recursive axiomatic system powerful enough to describe the arithmetic of the natural numbers, there are true propositions about the naturals that cannot be proved from the axioms. To prove this theorem, Gödel developed a technique now known as Gödel numbering, which codes formal expressions as natural numbers.
He showed that neither the axiom of choice nor the continuum hypothesis can be disproved from the accepted axioms of set theory, assuming these axioms are consistent. The former result opened the door for mathematicians to assume the axiom of choice in their proofs, he made important contributions to proof theory by clarifying the connections between classical logic, intuitionistic logic, modal logic. Gödel was born April 28, 1906, in Brünn, Austria-Hungary into the German family of Rudolf Gödel, the manager of a textile factory, Marianne Gödel. Throughout his life, Gödel would remain close to his mother. At the time of his birth the city had a German-speaking majority, his father was Catholic and his mother was Protestant and the children were raised Protestant. The ancestors of Kurt Gödel were active in Brünn's cultural life. For example, his grandfather Joseph Gödel was a famous singer of that time and for some years a member of the Brünner Männergesangverein. Gödel automatically became a Czechoslovak citizen at age 12 when the Austro-Hungarian Empire broke up at the end of World War I.
In his family, young Kurt was known as Herr Warum because of his insatiable curiosity. According to his brother Rudolf, at the age of six or seven Kurt suffered from rheumatic fever. Beginning at age four, Gödel suffered from "frequent episodes of poor health," which would continue for his entire life. Gödel attended the Evangelische Volksschule, a Lutheran school in Brünn from 1912 to 1916, was enrolled in the Deutsches Staats-Realgymnasium from 1916 to 1924, excelling with honors in all his subjects in mathematics and religion. Although Kurt had first excelled in languages, he became more interested in history and mathematics, his interest in mathematics increased when in 1920 his older brother Rudolf left for Vienna to go to medical school at the University of Vienna. During his teens, Kurt studied Gabelsberger shorthand, Goethe's Theory of Colours and criticisms of Isaac Newton, the writings of Immanuel Kant. At the age of 18, Gödel entered the University of Vienna. By that time, he had mastered university-level mathematics.
Although intending to study theoretical physics, he attended courses on mathematics and philosophy. During this time, he adopted ideas of mathematical realism, he read Kant's Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft, participated in the Vienna Circle with Moritz Schlick, Hans Hahn, Rudolf Carnap. Gödel studied number theory, but when he took part in a seminar run by Moritz Schlick which studied Bertrand Russell's book Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy, he became interested in mathematical logic. According to Gödel, mathematical logic was "a science prior to all others, which contains the ideas and principles underlying all sciences."Attending a lecture by David Hilbert in Bologna on completeness and consistency of mathematical systems may have set Gödel's life course. In 1928, Hilbert and Wilhelm Ackermann published Grundzüge der theoretischen Logik, an introduction to first-order logic in which the problem of completeness was posed: Are the axioms of a formal system sufficient to derive every statement, true in all models of the system?
This problem became the topic. In 1929, at the age of 23, he completed his doctoral dissertation under Hans Hahn's supervision. In it, he established his eponymous completeness theorem regarding the first-order predicate calculus, he was awarded his doctorate in 1930, his thesis was published by the Vienna Academy of Science. Kurt Gödel's achievement in modern logic is singular and monumental—indeed it is more than a monument, it is a landmark which will remain visible far in space and time.... The subject of logic has completely changed its nature and possibilities with Gödel's achievement. In 1931 and while still in Vienna, Gödel published
Department of Computer Science and Technology, University of Cambridge
The Department of Computer Science and Technology the Computer Laboratory, is the computer science department of the University of Cambridge. As of 2007 it employed 35 academic staff, 25 support staff, 35 affiliated research staff, about 155 research students; the current head of department is Professor Ann Copestake. The Department was founded as the Mathematical Laboratory under the leadership of John Lennard-Jones on 14 May 1937, though it did not get properly established until after World War II; the new laboratory was housed in the North Wing of the former Anatomy School, on the New Museums Site. Upon its foundation, it was intended to provide a computing service for general use, to be a centre for the development of computational techniques in the University; the Cambridge Diploma in Computer Science was the world's first postgraduate taught course in computing, starting in 1953. In October 1946, work began under Maurice Wilkes on EDSAC, which subsequently became the world's first operational and practical stored program computer when it ran its first program on 6 May 1949.
It inspired the world's first business computer, LEO. It was replaced by EDSAC 2, the first microcoded and bitsliced computer, in 1958. In 1961, David Hartley developed Autocode, one of the first high-level programming languages, for EDSAC 2. In that year, proposals for Titan, based on the Ferranti Atlas machine, were developed. Titan became operational in 1964 and EDSAC 2 was retired the following year. In 1967, a full multi-user time-shared service for up to 64 users was inaugurated on Titan. In 1953, the Mathematical Laboratory offered the world's first postgraduate taught course in computer science. In 1970, the Mathematical Laboratory was renamed the Computer Laboratory, with separate departments for Teaching and Research and the Computing Service, providing computing services to the university and its colleges; the two did not separate until 2001, when the Computer Laboratory moved out to the new William Gates building in West Cambridge, off Madingley Road, leaving behind an independent Computing Service.
In 2002, the Computer Laboratory launched the Cambridge Computer Lab Ring, a graduate society named after the Cambridge Ring network. On 30 June 2017, the Cambridge University Reporter announced that the Computer Laboratory would change its name to the Department of Computer Science and Technology from 1 October 2017, to reflect the broadened scope of its purpose and activities; the Department offers a 3-year undergraduate course and a 1-year masters course. Recent research has focused on virtualisation, usability, formal verification, formal semantics of programming languages, computer architecture, natural language processing, wireless networking, biometric identification, positioning systems and sustainability. Members have been involved in the creation of many successful UK IT companies such as Acorn, ARM, nCipher and XenSource; as of 2016 the lab employed 19 Professors: Notable ones are Other staff include Robert Watson and Markus Kuhn Former staff include: The lab has been led by: 1949 Maurice Wilkes 1980 Roger Needham 1996 Robin Milner 1999 Ian Leslie 2004 Andy Hopper Members have made impact in computers, Turing machines, subroutines, computer networks, mobile protocols, programming languages, kernels, OS, virtualisation, location badge systems, etc.
Below is a list. A number of companies have been founded by staff and graduates, their names were featured in the new entrance in 2012. Some cited examples of successful companies are ARM, Aveva, CSR and Domino. One common factor they share is that key staff or founder members are "drenched in university training and research"; the Cambridge Computer Lab Ring was praised for its "tireless work" by Andy Hopper in 2012, at its tenth anniversary dinner
Association for Computing Machinery
The Association for Computing Machinery is an international learned society for computing. It was founded in 1947, is the world's largest scientific and educational computing society; the ACM is a non-profit professional membership group, with nearly 100,000 members as of 2019. Its headquarters are in New York City; the ACM is an umbrella organization for scholarly interests in computer science. Its motto is "Advancing Computing as a Science & Profession"; the ACM was founded in 1947 under the name Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, changed the following year to the Association for Computing Machinery. ACM is organized into over 171 local chapters and 37 Special Interest Groups, through which it conducts most of its activities. Additionally, there are over 500 university chapters; the first student chapter was founded in 1961 at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. Many of the SIGs, such as SIGGRAPH, SIGPLAN, SIGCSE and SIGCOMM, sponsor regular conferences, which have become famous as the dominant venue for presenting innovations in certain fields.
The groups publish a large number of specialized journals and newsletters. ACM sponsors other computer science related events such as the worldwide ACM International Collegiate Programming Contest, has sponsored some other events such as the chess match between Garry Kasparov and the IBM Deep Blue computer. ACM publishes over 50 journals including the prestigious Journal of the ACM, two general magazines for computer professionals, Communications of the ACM and Queue. Other publications of the ACM include: ACM XRDS "Crossroads", was redesigned in 2010 and is the most popular student computing magazine in the US. ACM Interactions, an interdisciplinary HCI publication focused on the connections between experiences and technology, the third largest ACM publication. ACM Computing Surveys ACM Computers in Entertainment ACM Special Interest Group: Computers and Society A number of journals, specific to subfields of computer science, titled ACM Transactions; some of the more notable transactions include: ACM Transactions on Computer Systems IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics ACM Transactions on Computational Logic ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction ACM Transactions on Database Systems ACM Transactions on Graphics ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing and Applications IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems Although Communications no longer publishes primary research, is not considered a prestigious venue, many of the great debates and results in computing history have been published in its pages.
ACM has made all of its publications available to paid subscribers online at its Digital Library and has a Guide to Computing Literature. Individual members additionally have access to Safari Books Online and Books24x7. ACM offers insurance, online courses, other services to its members. In 1997, ACM Press published Wizards and Their Wonders: Portraits in Computing, written by Christopher Morgan, with new photographs by Louis Fabian Bachrach; the book is a collection of historic and current portrait photographs of figures from the computer industry. The ACM Portal is an online service of the ACM, its core are two main sections: the ACM Guide to Computing Literature. The ACM Digital Library is the full-text collection of all articles published by the ACM in its articles and conference proceedings; the Guide is a bibliography in computing with over one million entries. The ACM Digital Library contains a comprehensive archive starting in the 1950s of the organization's journals, magazines and conference proceedings.
Online services include a forum called Tech News digest. There is an extensive underlying bibliographic database containing key works of all genres from all major publishers of computing literature; this secondary database is a rich discovery service known as The ACM Guide to Computing Literature. ACM adopted a hybrid Open Access publishing model in 2013. Authors who do not choose to pay the OA fee must grant ACM publishing rights by either a copyright transfer agreement or a publishing license agreement. ACM was a "green" publisher. Authors may post documents on their own websites and in their institutional repositories with a link back to the ACM Digital Library's permanently maintained Version of Record. All metadata in the Digital Library is open to the world, including abstracts, linked references and citing works and usage statistics, as well as all functionality and services. Other than the free articles, the full-texts are accessed by subscription. There is a mounting challenge to the ACM's publication practices coming from the open access movement.
Some authors see a centralized peer–review process as less relevant and publish on their home pages or on unreviewed sites like arXiv. Other organizations have sprung up which do their peer review free and online, such as Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, Journal of Machine Learning Research and the Journal of Research and Practice in Information Technology. In addition to student and regular members, ACM has several advanced membership grades to recognize those with multiple years of membership and "demonstrated performance that sets them apart from their peers"; the number of Fellows, Distinguished Members, Senior Members cannot exceed 1%, 10%, 25% of the total number of professional members, respect
The President and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge known as the Royal Society, is a learned society. Founded on 28 November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by King Charles II as "The Royal Society", it is the oldest national scientific institution in the world. The society is the United Kingdom's and Commonwealth of Nations' Academy of Sciences and fulfils a number of roles: promoting science and its benefits, recognising excellence in science, supporting outstanding science, providing scientific advice for policy, fostering international and global co-operation and public engagement; the society is governed by its Council, chaired by the Society's President, according to a set of statutes and standing orders. The members of Council and the President are elected from and by its Fellows, the basic members of the society, who are themselves elected by existing Fellows; as of 2016, there are about 1,600 fellows, allowed to use the postnominal title FRS, with up to 52 new fellows appointed each year.
There are royal fellows, honorary fellows and foreign members, the last of which are allowed to use the postnominal title ForMemRS. The Royal Society President is Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, who took up the post on 30 November 2015. Since 1967, the society has been based at 6–9 Carlton House Terrace, a Grade I listed building in central London, used by the Embassy of Germany, London; the Invisible College has been described as a precursor group to the Royal Society of London, consisting of a number of natural philosophers around Robert Boyle. The concept of "invisible college" is mentioned in German Rosicrucian pamphlets in the early 17th century. Ben Jonson in England referenced the idea, related in meaning to Francis Bacon's House of Solomon, in a masque The Fortunate Isles and Their Union from 1624/5; the term accrued currency for the exchanges of correspondence within the Republic of Letters. In letters in 1646 and 1647, Boyle refers to "our invisible college" or "our philosophical college".
The society's common theme was to acquire knowledge through experimental investigation. Three dated letters are the basic documentary evidence: Boyle sent them to Isaac Marcombes, Francis Tallents who at that point was a fellow of Magdalene College and London-based Samuel Hartlib; the Royal Society started from groups of physicians and natural philosophers, meeting at a variety of locations, including Gresham College in London. They were influenced by the "new science", as promoted by Francis Bacon in his New Atlantis, from 1645 onwards. A group known as "The Philosophical Society of Oxford" was run under a set of rules still retained by the Bodleian Library. After the English Restoration, there were regular meetings at Gresham College, it is held that these groups were the inspiration for the foundation of the Royal Society. Another view of the founding, held at the time, was that it was due to the influence of French scientists and the Montmor Academy in 1657, reports of which were sent back to England by English scientists attending.
This view was held by Jean-Baptiste du Hamel, Giovanni Domenico Cassini, Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle and Melchisédech Thévenot at the time and has some grounding in that Henry Oldenburg, the society's first secretary, had attended the Montmor Academy meeting. Robert Hooke, disputed this, writing that: makes Mr Oldenburg to have been the instrument, who inspired the English with a desire to imitate the French, in having Philosophical Clubs, or Meetings. I will not say, that Mr Oldenburg did rather inspire the French to follow the English, or, at least, did help them, hinder us. But'tis well known who were the principal men that began and promoted that design, both in this city and in Oxford, and not only these Philosophic Meetings were. On 28 November 1660, the 1660 committee of 12 announced the formation of a "College for the Promoting of Physico-Mathematical Experimental Learning", which would meet weekly to discuss science and run experiments. At the second meeting, Sir Robert Moray announced that the King approved of the gatherings, a royal charter was signed on 15 July 1662 which created the "Royal Society of London", with Lord Brouncker serving as the first president.
A second royal charter was signed on 23 April 1663, with the king noted as the founder and with the name of "the Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge". This initial royal favour has continued and, since every monarch has been the patron of the society; the society's early meetings included experiments performed first by Hooke and by Denis Papin, appointed in 1684. These experiments varied in their subject area, were both important in some cases and trivial in others; the society published an English translation of Essays of Natural Experiments Made in the Accademia del Cimento, under the Protection of the Most Serene Prince Leopold of Tuscany in 1684, an Italian book documenting experiments at the Accademia del Cimento. Although meeting at Gresham College, the Society temporarily moved to Arundel House in 1666 after the Great Fire of London, which did not harm Gresham but did lead to its appropriation by the Lord Mayor; the Society r
A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings. In some contexts, the word "thesis" or a cognate is used for part of a bachelor's or master's course, while "dissertation" is applied to a doctorate, while in other contexts, the reverse is true; the term graduate thesis is sometimes used to refer to both master's theses and doctoral dissertations. The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis or dissertation can vary by country, university, or program, the required minimum study period may thus vary in duration; the word "dissertation" can at times be used to describe a treatise without relation to obtaining an academic degree. The term "thesis" is used to refer to the general claim of an essay or similar work; the term "thesis" comes from the Greek θέσις, meaning "something put forth", refers to an intellectual proposition. "Dissertation" comes from the Latin dissertātiō, meaning "discussion".
Aristotle was the first philosopher to define the term thesis. "A'thesis' is a supposition of some eminent philosopher that conflicts with the general opinion...for to take notice when any ordinary person expresses views contrary to men's usual opinions would be silly". For Aristotle, a thesis would therefore be a supposition, stated in contradiction with general opinion or express disagreement with other philosophers. A supposition is a statement or opinion that may or may not be true depending on the evidence and/or proof, offered; the purpose of the dissertation is thus to outline the proofs of why the author disagrees with other philosophers or the general opinion. A thesis may be arranged as a thesis by publication or a monograph, with or without appended papers though many graduate programs allow candidates to submit a curated collection of published papers. An ordinary monograph has a title page, an abstract, a table of contents, comprising the various chapters, a bibliography or a references section.
They differ in their structure in accordance with the many different areas of study and the differences between them. In a thesis by publication, the chapters constitute an introductory and comprehensive review of the appended published and unpublished article documents. Dissertations report on a research project or study, or an extended analysis of a topic; the structure of a thesis or dissertation explains the purpose, the previous research literature impinging on the topic of the study, the methods used, the findings of the project. Most world universities use a multiple chapter format: a) an introduction, which introduces the research topic, the methodology, as well as its scope and significance. Degree-awarding institutions define their own house style that candidates have to follow when preparing a thesis document. In addition to institution-specific house styles, there exist a number of field-specific and international standards and recommendations for the presentation of theses, for instance ISO 7144.
Other applicable international standards include ISO 2145 on section numbers, ISO 690 on bibliographic references, ISO 31 on quantities or units. Some older house styles specify that front matter must use a separate page number sequence from the main text, using Roman numerals; the relevant international standard and many newer style guides recognize that this book design practice can cause confusion where electronic document viewers number all pages of a document continuously from the first page, independent of any printed page numbers. They, avoid the traditional separate number sequence for front matter and require a single sequence of Arabic numerals starting with 1 for the first printed page. Presentation requirements, including pagination, layout and color of paper, use of acid-free paper, paper size, order of components, citation style, will be checked page by page by the accepting officer before the thesis is accepted and a receipt is issued. However, strict standards are not always required.
Most Italian universities, for example, have only general requirements on the character size and the page formatting, leave much freedom for the actual typographic details. A thesis or dissertation committee is a committee. In the US, these committees consist of a primary supervisor or advisor and two or more committee members, who supervise the progress of the dissertation and may act as the examining committee, or jury, at the oral examination of the thesis. At most universities, the committee is chosen by the student in conjunction with his or her primary adviser after completion of the comprehensive examinations or prospectus meeting, may consist of members of the comps committee; the committee members are doctors in their field (whether a PhD or other des