Princess of Asturias Awards
The Princess of Asturias Awards the Prince of Asturias Awards from 1981 to 2014, are a series of annual prizes awarded in Spain by the Princess of Asturias Foundation to individuals, entities or organizations from around the world who make notable achievements in the sciences and public affairs. The prize was established on 24 September 1980 by Felipe, Prince of Asturias heir to the throne of Spain, "to consolidate links between the Principality and the Prince of Asturias, to contribute to, encourage and promote scientific and humanistic values that form part of mankind's universal heritage." The awards are presented at the Campoamor Theatre in Oviedo, the capital of the Principality of Asturias. A sculpture, expressly created for the prize by Spanish sculptor Joan Miró, is presented yearly to the recipients of the prize. Following the accession of the prince as King of Spain on 19 June 2014, it was announced that from 2015, the foundation and the awards are to be renamed the Princess of Asturias Awards to reflect the new heiress presumptive to the Spanish throne, Princess of Asturias.
King Felipe will continue to preside over the awards ceremony until the Princess of Asturias reaches majority age on 31 October 2023. Every year, a town or community organization in the Principality of Asturias is chosen to receive this award, a royal visit, a prize of €25,000. List of prizes and awards Graciano García García, co-founder of the Prince of Asturias Foundation. Princess of Asturias Foundation Princess of Asturias Awards
Association for Computing Machinery
The Association for Computing Machinery is an international learned society for computing. It was founded in 1947, is the world's largest scientific and educational computing society; the ACM is a non-profit professional membership group, with nearly 100,000 members as of 2019. Its headquarters are in New York City; the ACM is an umbrella organization for scholarly interests in computer science. Its motto is "Advancing Computing as a Science & Profession"; the ACM was founded in 1947 under the name Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, changed the following year to the Association for Computing Machinery. ACM is organized into over 171 local chapters and 37 Special Interest Groups, through which it conducts most of its activities. Additionally, there are over 500 university chapters; the first student chapter was founded in 1961 at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. Many of the SIGs, such as SIGGRAPH, SIGPLAN, SIGCSE and SIGCOMM, sponsor regular conferences, which have become famous as the dominant venue for presenting innovations in certain fields.
The groups publish a large number of specialized journals and newsletters. ACM sponsors other computer science related events such as the worldwide ACM International Collegiate Programming Contest, has sponsored some other events such as the chess match between Garry Kasparov and the IBM Deep Blue computer. ACM publishes over 50 journals including the prestigious Journal of the ACM, two general magazines for computer professionals, Communications of the ACM and Queue. Other publications of the ACM include: ACM XRDS "Crossroads", was redesigned in 2010 and is the most popular student computing magazine in the US. ACM Interactions, an interdisciplinary HCI publication focused on the connections between experiences and technology, the third largest ACM publication. ACM Computing Surveys ACM Computers in Entertainment ACM Special Interest Group: Computers and Society A number of journals, specific to subfields of computer science, titled ACM Transactions; some of the more notable transactions include: ACM Transactions on Computer Systems IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics ACM Transactions on Computational Logic ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction ACM Transactions on Database Systems ACM Transactions on Graphics ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing and Applications IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems Although Communications no longer publishes primary research, is not considered a prestigious venue, many of the great debates and results in computing history have been published in its pages.
ACM has made all of its publications available to paid subscribers online at its Digital Library and has a Guide to Computing Literature. Individual members additionally have access to Safari Books Online and Books24x7. ACM offers insurance, online courses, other services to its members. In 1997, ACM Press published Wizards and Their Wonders: Portraits in Computing, written by Christopher Morgan, with new photographs by Louis Fabian Bachrach; the book is a collection of historic and current portrait photographs of figures from the computer industry. The ACM Portal is an online service of the ACM, its core are two main sections: the ACM Guide to Computing Literature. The ACM Digital Library is the full-text collection of all articles published by the ACM in its articles and conference proceedings; the Guide is a bibliography in computing with over one million entries. The ACM Digital Library contains a comprehensive archive starting in the 1950s of the organization's journals, magazines and conference proceedings.
Online services include a forum called Tech News digest. There is an extensive underlying bibliographic database containing key works of all genres from all major publishers of computing literature; this secondary database is a rich discovery service known as The ACM Guide to Computing Literature. ACM adopted a hybrid Open Access publishing model in 2013. Authors who do not choose to pay the OA fee must grant ACM publishing rights by either a copyright transfer agreement or a publishing license agreement. ACM was a "green" publisher. Authors may post documents on their own websites and in their institutional repositories with a link back to the ACM Digital Library's permanently maintained Version of Record. All metadata in the Digital Library is open to the world, including abstracts, linked references and citing works and usage statistics, as well as all functionality and services. Other than the free articles, the full-texts are accessed by subscription. There is a mounting challenge to the ACM's publication practices coming from the open access movement.
Some authors see a centralized peer–review process as less relevant and publish on their home pages or on unreviewed sites like arXiv. Other organizations have sprung up which do their peer review free and online, such as Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, Journal of Machine Learning Research and the Journal of Research and Practice in Information Technology. In addition to student and regular members, ACM has several advanced membership grades to recognize those with multiple years of membership and "demonstrated performance that sets them apart from their peers"; the number of Fellows, Distinguished Members, Senior Members cannot exceed 1%, 10%, 25% of the total number of professional members, respect
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with elements and compounds composed of atoms and ions: their composition, properties and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances. In the scope of its subject, chemistry occupies an intermediate position between physics and biology, it is sometimes called the central science because it provides a foundation for understanding both basic and applied scientific disciplines at a fundamental level. For example, chemistry explains aspects of plant chemistry, the formation of igneous rocks, how atmospheric ozone is formed and how environmental pollutants are degraded, the properties of the soil on the moon, how medications work, how to collect DNA evidence at a crime scene. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. There are four types of chemical bonds: covalent bonds, in which compounds share one or more electron; the word chemistry comes from alchemy, which referred to an earlier set of practices that encompassed elements of chemistry, philosophy, astronomy and medicine.
It is seen as linked to the quest to turn lead or another common starting material into gold, though in ancient times the study encompassed many of the questions of modern chemistry being defined as the study of the composition of waters, growth, disembodying, drawing the spirits from bodies and bonding the spirits within bodies by the early 4th century Greek-Egyptian alchemist Zosimos. An alchemist was called a'chemist' in popular speech, the suffix "-ry" was added to this to describe the art of the chemist as "chemistry"; the modern word alchemy in turn is derived from the Arabic word al-kīmīā. In origin, the term is borrowed from the Greek χημία or χημεία; this may have Egyptian origins since al-kīmīā is derived from the Greek χημία, in turn derived from the word Kemet, the ancient name of Egypt in the Egyptian language. Alternately, al-kīmīā may derive from χημεία, meaning "cast together"; the current model of atomic structure is the quantum mechanical model. Traditional chemistry starts with the study of elementary particles, molecules, metals and other aggregates of matter.
This matter can be studied in isolation or in combination. The interactions and transformations that are studied in chemistry are the result of interactions between atoms, leading to rearrangements of the chemical bonds which hold atoms together; such behaviors are studied in a chemistry laboratory. The chemistry laboratory stereotypically uses various forms of laboratory glassware; however glassware is not central to chemistry, a great deal of experimental chemistry is done without it. A chemical reaction is a transformation of some substances into one or more different substances; the basis of such a chemical transformation is the rearrangement of electrons in the chemical bonds between atoms. It can be symbolically depicted through a chemical equation, which involves atoms as subjects; the number of atoms on the left and the right in the equation for a chemical transformation is equal. The type of chemical reactions a substance may undergo and the energy changes that may accompany it are constrained by certain basic rules, known as chemical laws.
Energy and entropy considerations are invariably important in all chemical studies. Chemical substances are classified in terms of their structure, phase, as well as their chemical compositions, they can be analyzed using the tools of e.g. spectroscopy and chromatography. Scientists engaged in chemical research are known as chemists. Most chemists specialize in one or more sub-disciplines. Several concepts are essential for the study of chemistry; the particles that make up matter have rest mass as well – not all particles have rest mass, such as the photon. Matter can be a mixture of substances; the atom is the basic unit of chemistry. It consists of a dense core called the atomic nucleus surrounded by a space occupied by an electron cloud; the nucleus is made up of positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons, while the electron cloud consists of negatively charged electrons which orbit the nucleus. In a neutral atom, the negatively charged electrons balance out the positive charge of the protons.
The nucleus is dense. The atom is the smallest entity that can be envisaged to retain the chemical properties of the element, such as electronegativity, ionization potential, preferred oxidation state, coordination number, preferred types of bonds to form. A chemical element is a pure substance, composed of a single type of atom, characterized by its particular number of protons in the nuclei of its atoms, known as the atomic number and represented by the symbol Z; the mass number is the sum of the number of neutrons in a nucleus. Although all the nuclei of all atoms belonging to one element will have the same
A computer network is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources. In computer networks, computing devices exchange data with each other using connections between nodes; these data links are established over cable media such as wires or optic cables, or wireless media such as Wi-Fi. Network computer devices that originate and terminate the data are called network nodes. Nodes are identified by network addresses, can include hosts such as personal computers and servers, as well as networking hardware such as routers and switches. Two such devices can be said to be networked together when one device is able to exchange information with the other device, whether or not they have a direct connection to each other. In most cases, application-specific communications protocols are layered over other more general communications protocols; this formidable collection of information technology requires skilled network management to keep it all running reliably. Computer networks support an enormous number of applications and services such as access to the World Wide Web, digital video, digital audio, shared use of application and storage servers and fax machines, use of email and instant messaging applications as well as many others.
Computer networks differ in the transmission medium used to carry their signals, communications protocols to organize network traffic, the network's size, traffic control mechanism and organizational intent. The best-known computer network is the Internet; the chronology of significant computer-network developments includes: In the late 1950s, early networks of computers included the U. S. military radar system Semi-Automatic Ground Environment. In 1959, Anatolii Ivanovich Kitov proposed to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union a detailed plan for the re-organisation of the control of the Soviet armed forces and of the Soviet economy on the basis of a network of computing centres, the OGAS. In 1960, the commercial airline reservation system semi-automatic business research environment went online with two connected mainframes. In 1963, J. C. R. Licklider sent a memorandum to office colleagues discussing the concept of the "Intergalactic Computer Network", a computer network intended to allow general communications among computer users.
In 1964, researchers at Dartmouth College developed the Dartmouth Time Sharing System for distributed users of large computer systems. The same year, at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a research group supported by General Electric and Bell Labs used a computer to route and manage telephone connections. Throughout the 1960s, Paul Baran and Donald Davies independently developed the concept of packet switching to transfer information between computers over a network. Davies pioneered the implementation of the concept with the NPL network, a local area network at the National Physical Laboratory using a line speed of 768 kbit/s. In 1965, Western Electric introduced the first used telephone switch that implemented true computer control. In 1966, Thomas Marill and Lawrence G. Roberts published a paper on an experimental wide area network for computer time sharing. In 1969, the first four nodes of the ARPANET were connected using 50 kbit/s circuits between the University of California at Los Angeles, the Stanford Research Institute, the University of California at Santa Barbara, the University of Utah.
Leonard Kleinrock carried out theoretical work to model the performance of packet-switched networks, which underpinned the development of the ARPANET. His theoretical work on hierarchical routing in the late 1970s with student Farouk Kamoun remains critical to the operation of the Internet today. In 1972, commercial services using X.25 were deployed, used as an underlying infrastructure for expanding TCP/IP networks. In 1973, the French CYCLADES network was the first to make the hosts responsible for the reliable delivery of data, rather than this being a centralized service of the network itself. In 1973, Robert Metcalfe wrote a formal memo at Xerox PARC describing Ethernet, a networking system, based on the Aloha network, developed in the 1960s by Norman Abramson and colleagues at the University of Hawaii. In July 1976, Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs published their paper "Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks" and collaborated on several patents received in 1977 and 1978.
In 1979, Robert Metcalfe pursued making Ethernet an open standard. In 1976, John Murphy of Datapoint Corporation created ARCNET, a token-passing network first used to share storage devices. In 1995, the transmission speed capacity for Ethernet increased from 10 Mbit/s to 100 Mbit/s. By 1998, Ethernet supported transmission speeds of a Gigabit. Subsequently, higher speeds of up to 400 Gbit/s were added; the ability of Ethernet to scale is a contributing factor to its continued use. Computer networking may be considered a branch of electrical engineering, electronics engineering, telecommunications, computer science, information technology or computer engineering, since it relies upon the theoretical and practical application of the related disciplines. A computer network facilitates interpersonal communications allowing users to communicate efficiently and via various means: email, instant messaging, online chat, video telephone calls, video conferencing. A network allows sharing of computing resources.
Users may access and use resources provided by devices on the network, such as printing a document on a shared network printer or use of a shared storage device. A network allows sharing of files, and
Defense Meritorious Service Medal
The Defense Meritorious Service Medal is an award bestowed upon members of the United States military by the United States Department of Defense. In the order of precedence of the United States Armed Forces, it is worn between the Purple Heart and the Meritorious Service Medal; the medal is awarded in the name of the Secretary of Defense to members of the Armed Forces who, while serving in a joint activity, distinguish themselves by non-combat outstanding achievement or meritorious service, but not of a degree to warrant award of the Defense Superior Service Medal. The medal is not the same as the Meritorious Service Medal, a separate federal military decoration. Both have identical award criteria, but the DMSM is awarded to service members assigned to joint, multi-service organizations, while the MSM is awarded to service members in traditional military units within their respective individual services; the medal was first created on 3 November 1977 by President Jimmy Carter under Executive Order 12019 to recognize non-combat meritorious achievement or service while serving in a joint assignment.
The recognized service is for a period of time greater than 12 months, encompassing a recipients entire joint assignment, including extensions. The required achievement or service, is of a lesser degree than that required for award of the Defense Superior Service Medal, but must have been accomplished with distinction. A joint assignment "connotes activities, operations, or organizations in which elements of more than one Armed Forces of the United States, as reflected in joint manpower documents or the Joint Duty Assignment List, perform joint missions under the auspices of the Office of the Secretary of Defense. Service members assigned to or attached to a Joint Task Force as individuals, not members of a specific military service's unit, can be eligible for the DMSM. Members of service specific units are eligible for awards of personal decorations from their parent service. Personnel serving with jointly manned staffs within Allied Command Europe, Allied Command Atlantic, the NATO Military Committee, military agencies associated with functions of the military or other joint activities as may be designated are included.
In 2014, President Barack Obama with Executive Order 13666 extended eligibility of the DMSM to include any member of the armed forces of a friendly foreign nation, thus authorizing recognition of those NATO, Allied and Coalition officers and senior enlisted personnel assigned to/embedded in the Joint Staff, the Unified Combatant Commands and associated Joint Task Forces. The Defense Meritorious Service Medal is 1 1⁄2 inches in diameter; the obverse design consists of a circular wreath of laurel leaves tied with a ribbon at base. In the center is a pentagon shape which overlaps the wreath. Superimposed over the pentagon is an eagle with wings upraised standing at the base of the pentagon; the eagle is symbolic of the United States while the pentagon shape alludes to the Department of Defense, the laurel wreath represents achievement. The reverse of the medal bears the inscription, Defense Meritorious Service in three horizontal lines while around the bottom are the words, United States of America.
In between the inscriptions is space for engraving the name of the recipient. The ribbon for the medal is 1 3⁄8 inches in width composed of the following vertical stripes: White 1⁄16 inch, Crimson 1⁄4 inch, White 7⁄32 inch, Bluebird 1⁄16 inch, White 1⁄16 inch, Bluebird 1⁄16 inch, White 1⁄16 inch, Bluebird 1⁄16 inch, White 7⁄32 inch, Crimson 1⁄4 inch, White 1⁄16 inch; the colors and white, are duplicates of the colors of the Legion of Merit ribbon. The stripes of blue is the color associated with the Department of Defense. Additional awards of the Defense Meritorious Service Medal are denoted by bronze oak leaf clusters, with a silver oak leaf cluster representing six awards; as a joint award, oak leaf clusters traditionally associated with Army and Air Force awards are used for multiple awards of the DMSM to Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard personnel. These oak leaf clusters are attached to the service ribbons. Awards and decorations of the United States military
The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network was an early packet-switching network and the first network to implement the TCP/IP protocol suite. Both technologies became the technical foundation of the Internet; the ARPANET was founded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the United States Department of Defense. The packet-switching methodology employed in the ARPANET was based on concepts and designs by Leonard Kleinrock, Paul Baran, Donald Davies, Lawrence Roberts; the TCP/IP communications protocols were developed for the ARPANET by computer scientists Robert Kahn and Vint Cerf, incorporated concepts from the French CYCLADES project directed by Louis Pouzin. As the project progressed, protocols for internetworking were developed by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981, when the National Science Foundation funded the Computer Science Network. In 1982, the Internet protocol suite was introduced as the standard networking protocol on the ARPANET.
In the early 1980s the NSF funded the establishment of national supercomputing centers at several universities and provided interconnectivity in 1986 with the NSFNET project, which created network access to the supercomputer sites in the United States from research and education organizations. The ARPANET was decommissioned in 1989. Voice and data communications were based on methods of circuit switching, as exemplified in the traditional telephone network, wherein each telephone call is allocated a dedicated, end to end, electronic connection between the two communicating stations; such stations might be computers. The temporarily dedicated line comprises many intermediary lines which are assembled into a chain that reaches from the originating station to the destination station. With packet switching, a network could share a single communication link for communication between multiple pairs of receivers and transmitters; the earliest ideas for a computer network intended to allow general communications among computer users were formulated by computer scientist J. C. R. Licklider of Bolt and Newman, in April 1963, in memoranda discussing the concept of the "Intergalactic Computer Network".
Those ideas encompassed many of the features of the contemporary Internet. In October 1963, Licklider was appointed head of the Behavioral Sciences and Command and Control programs at the Defense Department's Advanced Research Projects Agency, he convinced Ivan Sutherland and Bob Taylor that this network concept was important and merited development, although Licklider left ARPA before any contracts were assigned for development. Sutherland and Taylor continued their interest in creating the network, in part, to allow ARPA-sponsored researchers at various corporate and academic locales to utilize computers provided by ARPA, and, in part, to distribute new software and other computer science results. Taylor had three computer terminals in his office, each connected to separate computers, which ARPA was funding: one for the System Development Corporation Q-32 in Santa Monica, one for Project Genie at the University of California and another for Multics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Taylor recalls the circumstance: "For each of these three terminals, I had three different sets of user commands. So, if I was talking online with someone at S. D. C. and I wanted to talk to someone I knew at Berkeley, or M. I. T. about this, I had to get up from the S. D. C. Terminal, log into the other terminal and get in touch with them. I said, "Oh Man!", it's obvious what to do: If you have these three terminals, there ought to be one terminal that goes anywhere you want to go. That idea is the ARPANET". Meanwhile, since the early 1960s, Paul Baran at the RAND Corporation had been researching systems that could survive nuclear war and developed the idea of distributed adaptive message block switching. Donald Davies at the United Kingdom's National Physical Laboratory independently invented the same concept in 1965, his work, presented by a colleague caught the attention of ARPANET developers at a conference in Gatlinburg, Tennessee, in October 1967. He gave the first public demonstration, having coined the term packet switching, on 5 August 1968 and incorporated it into the NPL network in England.
Elizabeth Feinler created the first Resource Handbook for ARPANET in 1969 which led to the development of the ARPANET directory. The directory, built by Feinler and a team made it possible to navigate the ARPANET. Larry Roberts at ARPA applied Davies' concepts of packet switching for the ARPANET; the NPL network followed by the ARPANET were the first two networks in the world to use packet switching, were themselves connected together in 1973. Bob Taylor convinced ARPA's Director Charles M. Herzfeld to fund a network project in February 1966, Herzfeld transferred a million dollars from a ballistic missile defense program to Taylor's budget. Taylor hired Larry Roberts as a program manager in the ARPA Information Processing Techniques Office in January 1967 to work on the ARPANET. In April 1967, Roberts held a design session on technical standards; the initial standards for identification and authentication of users, transmission of characters, error checking and retransmission procedures were discussed.
At the meeting, Wesley Clark proposed minicomputers called Interface Message Processors should be used to interface to the network rather than the large mainframes that would be the nodes of the ARPANET. Roberts modified the ARPANET plan to incorporate Clark's suggestion; the plan was presented at the ACM Symposium in Gatlinburg, Tennessee, in October 1967. Donald Davies' work on packet switc